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Global Water Challenges - Designing Water Investments for Development Impact

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Presented by IWMI's Claudia Sadoff, Director General, at the Workshop on Development Impact and SDGs: Irrigation, Water Resource Management & WASH at New Development Bank (NDB) Headquarters, in Shanghai, China, on 20 February, 2019.

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Global Water Challenges - Designing Water Investments for Development Impact

  1. 1. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Global Water Challenges Designing Water Investments for Development Impact Dr Claudia Sadoff Director General InternationalWater Management Institute February 20, 2019 Workshop on Development Impact and the SDGs: Irrigation,Water Resource Management & WASH
  2. 2. I. Water Challenges and Development Impacts II. Global Response: SDGs & Water Investment Needs III. SDG Inter-linkages, Leverage and Trade-offs IV. Summary Outline
  3. 3. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Water challenges are as old as history... ‘Water … is the cause of life or death, or increase or privation, nourishes at times and at others does the contrary …’ Leonardo da Vinci, circa 1500
  4. 4. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Framing the Water Challenge Where water is reliably available, economic opportunities are enhanced Where water is unreliable or of inadequate quality, or where water-related hazards are present, there will be a drag on growth Water Challenges and Development Impacts
  5. 5. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Growing Challenges More Scarce More Variable More Polluted Water Challenges and Development Impacts
  6. 6. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Economic & Environmental Impacts US$94 bn/yr loss to food producers & consumers Droughts & water scarcityFloods US$120 bn/yr damage to property US$260 bn/yr losses, including time Inadequate water supply & sanitation Risks difficult to monetize Ecosystem degradation & pollution GWP/OECD Securing Water, Sustaining Growth. Sadoff et al (2015) Water Challenges and Development Impacts
  7. 7. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Human Development Impacts Water Challenges and Development Impacts Water shocks (drought, inadequate WASH) Decreased yields, food insecurity, health impacts In-utero and infancy stress, stunting Impaired growth, reduced human capital Reduced wealth, reduced empowerment, increased fertility Second generation impacted Average country’s GDP per capita is 7% lower than it would have been if none of its current workers had been stunted in childhood Inter-generational impacts on human development
  8. 8. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Political Impacts Water Challenges and Development Impacts Migration Water scarcity linked to migration (southern Iraq) Ethnic Violence Poor access to scarce resources contributes to ethnic violence (Kenya) VICIOUS CYCLE Fragile states have made slower progress in meeting water-related MDGs Riots Water riots in drought stricken regions (Tunisia) THREAT MULTIPLIER In fragile contexts water can act to aggravate existing tensions
  9. 9. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world WorldEconomicForumGlobalRisksReport 2018 2015 2016 2017 2018 Impact of Risk Perceptions Top 5 global risks in terms of impact Water CrisesWater Crises Water Crises Water Crises Water Challenges and Development Impacts
  10. 10. I. Water Challenges and Development Impacts II. Global Response: SDGs & Water Investment Needs III. SDG Inter-linkages, Leverage and Trade-offs IV. Summary Outline
  11. 11. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Global Response: Sustainable Development Goals SDG 6 = 8 Targets + 10 Indicators
  12. 12. Safe & affordable drinking water for all Proportion of Population & Rates of Change for Basic Drinking Water Services (2015) 2.1 billion lack access to safely managed drinking water 68 countries not on track to universal basic water services by 2030 10 declining coverage in % terms SDG 6 Synthesis Report 2018 (UN-Water) A water-secure world www.iwmi.org
  13. 13. Adequate sanitation & hygiene for all Proportion of Population & Rates of Change for Basic Sanitation (2015) 4.5 billion lack access to safely managed sanitation 89 countries not on track to universal basic sanitation by 2030 20 declining coverage in % terms SDG 6 Synthesis Report 2018 (UN-Water) A water-secure world www.iwmi.org
  14. 14. Improve water quality, wastewater treatment & safe reuse WHO – UN-HABITAT, 2018 • Water quality is worsening • >80% of wastewater discharged untreated • Mineral fertilizers grew 10x (1960) • Pesticide sales grew 35x ($ terms since1970) • Livestock 3x (1970) • Chemicals, medicines, hormones, micro-plastics … % of Safely Treated Households Wastewater A water-secure world www.iwmi.org
  15. 15. Increase water use efficiency & ensure freshwater supplies • Water stress: 2bn people & rising worldwide • Irrigation is 70% of global water withdrawals • Advances in agricultural water use efficiency key • Also ‘non-conventional’water, i.e., recycled wastewater, desalination, rainwater Water Stress A water-secure world www.iwmi.org Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2016)
  16. 16. Implementing integrated water resources management SDG 6.5.1: IWRM 38% of countries ≥ medium-high IWRM SDG 6.5.2: Transboundary Cooperation 59% of basins agreements Note: SDG 6.5 target is “as appropriate” Sources: UNEP-DHI, 2018 A water-secure world www.iwmi.org Reported IWRM Implementation
  17. 17. Protect & restore water-related ecosystems 70% of natural wetlands lost over the last century Biodiversity & vital ecosystem services 35% of terrestrial carbon stored in wetlands (2x amount stored in forests) Wetland Extent Trend Index Source: JRC A water-secure world www.iwmi.org
  18. 18. Selecting Water Investments to Achieve Development Impact & the SDGs Urban, peri-urban & rural water supplies Wastewater treatment and safe reuse Irrigation modernization Capacity of rural sanitation providers Restoration of riparian forests Policy reforms to align water uses
  19. 19. I. Water Challenges and Development Impacts II. Global Response: SDGs & Water Investment Needs III. SDG Inter-linkages, Leverage and Trade-offs IV. Summary Outline
  20. 20. SDG 6 is essential for virtually all other SDGs SDG 6 Synthesis Report 2018 (UN-Water) A water-secure world www.iwmi.org
  21. 21. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world o Information o Institutions o Infrastructure Water will be a ‘currency of exchange’ across the SDGs Managing the tradeoffs will require investments in water management: $ SDG Inter-linkages, Leverage & Trade-offs
  22. 22. Water is key to food, health and poverty SDGs A water-secure world www.iwmi.org Clean, reliable drinking water supplies for human health & productivity Agricultural water for food security and rural livelihoods
  23. 23. Water is a key to resilience for cities Source: GFDRR 2018 Fire s Flooding Aging Infrastructure Supply crises Landslides Service Interruptions A water-secure world www.iwmi.org
  24. 24. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Designing & Monitoring Investments to Achieve Development Impact & the SDGs Select Development Challenge IRRIGATION MODERNIZATION To address water scarcity, food security, climate resilience, rural livelihoods Analytics to Strengthen Design & Monitoring TOOLS & ANALYTICS Sustainability & Water Accounting Resilience to Extremes Tradeoffs / Synergies with other water-related projects Policy & Institutional Analysis Identify relevant SDGTargets WATER 6.4 Water Use Efficiency OTHER SDGs 2 Zero Hunger 8 DecentWork “Line of sight” from selection & design to development impacts & SDGs
  25. 25. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world o Water is fundamental to sustainable development and achieving the SDGs o SDGs can help select & prioritize investments o SDGs can provide insight for investment design o SDGs of course help monitor success o Development impacts of water investments flow beyond SDG 6 & across Agenda 2030 Summary
  26. 26. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Thank you

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