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Inter-language theory

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Inter-language theory

  1. 1. Inter-language Theory Presented to: Ma’am Mehwish
  2. 2. Group Members Iqra Khan Zaib-un-Nisa Muhammad Umar Anum Fatima
  3. 3. This term was defined by Larry Selinker in 1972
  4. 4. Definition Inter-language is the type of language produced by second- and foreign- language learners who are in the process of learning a language. They developed inter-language by the system of rules 1) properties and rules of L1 2) properties and rules of L2 3) can also not possess features of neither
  5. 5. Inter-language Rules Learners’ inter-language changes with time  Rules are altered  Rules are deleted  Rules are added
  6. 6. The Continuum Of Inter-language Development From native language forms to target language forms includes three stages - Basilang – the earliest form of target language development - Mesolang- the intermediate stage of target language development - Acrolang - the final stage of target language development
  7. 7. Inter-language Development Continuum
  8. 8. Process of Inter-language Inter- language Overgeneralization Transfer Internal sequence
  10. 10. Inter-language Fossilization  Inter-language fossilization is a stage during SLL.  It occurs when certain mistakes seem to be impossible to correct in spite of the ability and motivation, learners cannot rectify and replace it with correct usage
  11. 11. Why does fossilization happens Frequent use Reinforcement of communication process Lack of correction
  12. 12. Selinker’s Five Fossilization Process Steps  Over-generalization  Transfer of training  Language transfer  Strategies of SLL  Strategies of SL communication
  13. 13. 1) Over-generalization  Learner makes their own rules of language  The act or process of over-generalizing  The process of extending the application of a rule  Learners use rules from Second Language Example: I walked to produce forms like *I goed or *I rided.
  14. 14. 2) Transfer of Training The lack of formal instruction in English Fossilization of incorrect language forms Result of initial learning process on the performance of the later activities Fossilization due to certain features found in the instruction via which the learner is taught the SL
  15. 15. 3) Language Transfer  The errors in the use of L2 result mainly from L1,and the difference between L1 and the L2 is the reason for the occurrence of errors Positive transfer Negative transfer
  16. 16. 4) Strategies of SLL  Fossilization due to some approaches to the learning of L2 material adopted by the learner  It involves Incorrect Learning strategies fossilization of some features (phonological, morphological, syntactic, lexical, psycholinguistic, or socio-cultural)
  17. 17. 5) Strategies of SL communication  Concern when the communication is going on  Pays attention to the fluency rather than accuracy in the communication  Learner tries to simplifies the TL rules  Fossilization due to some approaches used the learner when communicating with L2 native speakers
  19. 19. Inter-language is the production of SL and FL learners In language learning, learner’s language is caused by several process like Borrowing Pattern From MT Extending patterns from TL Expressing meanings using the words and grammar which are already known.
  20. 20. Characteristics of Inter-language Production  SL speakers rarely conform the production of native speaker  Inter-language productions are not exact translation of native language utterances  Utterances in second language are not randomly produce  Inter-languages are spoken either by adults or by children, when second language acquisition is not simultaneous with that of the first language.
  22. 22. Good Points  Natural and systematic Theory of language like L1 acquisition  Learner becomes active participant to construct the rules by himself  This study can help to determine what a learner already knows about the rules  The concept of IL has liberated language teaching methods
  23. 23. Good Points  It determines what a leaner has taught and when and how in a particular SL teaching programme.
  24. 24. Bad Points  Limited explanatory power  EA improves errors in IL but too much correction can lead to lack of motivation  The learner needs to be restricted to important errors only  This theory cant determine the exact position of the learner in between L1 or L2 Will be interpreted
  25. 25. Conclusion The theory of IL was the first major attempt to explain the process of SLL, in term of mentalist perspectives. It has been gradually developed by the hands of numerous researches at this time it becomes much refined theory and also contributed a lot in developing many other theories of SLA
  26. 26. ANY QUESTION