An ecosystem is a community of all
the living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic)
things in specific area.
In an ecosystem, each organism
has its own niche or role to play.
The process of energy flows and
nutrient cycles make it possible for both
the biotic and abiotic to work together.
Example of an ecosystem
What is an ecosystem?
A food chain is a linear sequence
of organisms through which nutrients and
energy pass as one organism eats
Food chains include in a food
web because most organisms consume
more than one type of animal or plant.
Example of food chains
The nutritive levels in a food chain are known as Trophic
Levels. The organisms in the trophic levels of the food chain are based
on their pattern.
Quaternary Consumers : consist of
organisms that eat these carnivores.
Tertiary Consumers : feed on secondary
Secondary Consumers : are carnivorous
organisms. They feed on herbivorous.
Primary Consumers : are herbivores like fish
and insects. They feed off of the plants and
consume the energy that is transferred.
Producer: consist of organisms that eat
break down dead
plants and animals.
In any ecosystem there
are many food chains and most
plants and animals are part of
Example of a food web
Geography of Nile Valley Civilization
In the past before Menes the
king of Egypt get Nile area together.
Nile area divide in to two
part was Lower Egypt and Upper
Interesting facts about Nile hippopotamus
• Hippos can't sweat, So staying in water
helps them keep cool.
• A hippo's bellow can be louder than a heavy-
metal band playing 15 feet away.
• Hippopotamus means "river horse" in Greek,
but the animal is more closely related to the
pig than the horse.
Type : Mammals
Lifespan : 12-15 years
Diet : Grass
Habitat : Open plains and grassland
Range : North Africa and the Middle
East through the savannas and
grasslands of sub-Saharan Africa and
south-central Africa down to the
southern Africa tip.
Weight : 75-200 kg
Long : 1.5-2.45 m
High : 1-1.5 m
• Females live in small groups composed of 5 to
12 animals. Mature males live solitary life.
Animals of both sex gather in large groups
during dry periods of year when food and water
• Despite clumsy appearance, hartebeest is
actually one of the fastest antelopes. It can
reach the speed of 43 miles per hour when it
needs to escape from the predators.
• Males are territorial and aggressive during the
mating season. They use dung to mark the
borders of their territory.
Interesting facts about Toro hartebeest
Type : Mammals
Lifespan : 12 years
Diet : Leaves, grasses, herbs
Habitat : Inhabits open steppes with
brush and acacia; steppes with dense
forests in flat, hilly country
Range : East Africa
Male : 55-80 kg
Female : 35-45 kg
Long : 1.4-1.66 m
High : 0.6-0.9 m
• Grant’s gazelle can achieve the speed of 50
miles per hour when they need to escape from
• Grant’s gazelle lives in loose groups, composed
of both males and females. Size of group
depends on the available food. When the food
is abundant, group can consists of up to 100
animals. During the dry season, group usually
has 10 to 15 members.
• Pregnancy in females lasts 6 months and ends
with single baby. Female leaves the herd to
give birth in tall grass. Mother eats afterbirth to
remove all smells that attract predators.
Interesting facts about Grant’s gazelle
Type : Mammals
Lifespan : 20-25 years
Diet : any animal that comes across their
path, such as Thomson's gazelles,
cheetah cubs, baboons, rodents,
monkeys, snakes, large birds, amphibians,
fish, antelopes, warthogs and porcupines.
Male : 30 g
Female : 20 kg
Long : 1.3 m
• The name "leopard" comes from the Greek
word leopardus, which is a combination of
leon (lion) and pardus (panther).
• It is no wonder that leopards are such great
hunters. They can run up to 36 mph (58 kph),
jump forward 20 feet (6 meters) and leap 10
feet (3 m) straight up.
• Leopards' ears can hear five times more
sounds that the human ear.
Interesting facts about Arabian leopard
Type : Reptiles
Lifespan : 45 years
Diet : Carnivores
Habitat : aquatic habitats, including large
freshwater lakes, rivers, freshwater
swamps, coastal estuaries and mangrove
Range : Sub-Saharan Africa and is also
found on Madagascar, Mediterranean coast,
Israel and Jordan
Weight : 226.8 kg
Size : 1.8 m
• Crocodiles have the strongest bite in the animal
• Female crocodiles exhibit impressive maternal
care. They use their massive jaws to transport
newly hatched young to a ‘nursery pool’ where
they guard them from predators.
• Large crocodiles swallow stones, These act as
ballast, helping them to balance their body
Interesting facts about Nile crocodile