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Steer by wire.pdf

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Steer by wire.pdf

  1. 1. Simulation and Realization of Steer-by-Wire System Yu Qiu, Xinbo Chen, Xinjian Wang School of Automotive Studies Tongji University Shanghai 201804, China qiucanyu0532@gmail.com Abstract—In this thesis, a kind of Steer-by-wire system based on feedback control and stepper motor has been introduced, simulated and built. Simulation of this system proved that feedback control and stepper motor are available in the Steer- by-wire system. Experiments of this system demonstrated this kind of Steer-by-wire system could fit all demands of steering and it can be used in steering system. Keywords-Steer by wire; Feedback control; stepper motor I. ᓩ㿔 䖥क޴ᑈ ,≑䔺⬉ᄤϡᮁথሩ ,䍞ᴹ䍞໮ⱘ⬉ᄤ䚼ӊ ᑨ⫼Ѣ⦄ҷ≑䔺ЁDŽ㒓᥻䕀৥˄steer-by-wire˅԰Ўϔ ⾡ᮄൟⱘ䕀৥㋏㒳 ,ৃҹ໻ᐙᦤ催≑䔺ⱘᗻ㛑DŽ㒓᥻䕀 ৥㋏㒳⬅䕀৥Ⲭǃ᥻ࠊ఼੠䕀৥ᴎᵘᘏ៤㒘៤ˈ䆹㋏㒳 প⍜њ䕀৥䕂Ϣ䕀৥ⲬⱘᴎẄ䖲᥹ˈ㗠⬅䕀৥⬉ᴎⳈ᥹ 偅ࡼ䕀৥䕂DŽ[1] [2] [3] [4] 㒓᥻䕀৥㋏㒳‫݋‬᳝ҹϟӬ⚍˖䗮䖛ᇍ䕀৥⬉ᴎ䖯㸠 Џࡼ᥻ࠊˈৃҹᅲ⦄Џࡼ䕀৥ˈᦤ催≑䔺ⱘЏࡼᅝܼ ᗻ˗䞛⫼䱣䔺䕚㸠偊⢊ᗕব࣪ⱘৃবӴࡼ↨ˈ೼ᦤ催њ 䔺䕚䕀৥䕏֓ᗻ੠催䗳䏃ᛳⱘৠᯊ˗ৃҹ䅽偒偊ਬҹሑ 䞣ᇣⱘ䕀㾦ᅲ⦄䕀৥᪡԰ˈ‫ޣ‬䕏偒偊䋳ᢙ˗ৃҹḍ᥂䔺 䕚㸠偊⢊‫މ‬੠偒偊ਬ୰ད⣀ゟ᥻ࠊ䕀৥䕂䕀㾦ˈᅲ⦄⧚ ᛇⱘ䕀৥⡍ᗻ˗প⍜њ䕀৥఼Ϣ䕀৥఼П䯈ⱘᴎẄ䖲 ᥹ˈᬍ୘њ⺄ᩲᅝܼᗻDŽ[5] ≑䔺㒓᥻䕀৥ᡔᴃⱘথሩҷ㸼᳾ᴹ≑䔺䕀৥ᡔᴃⱘ থሩᮍ৥ˈᑊᇚ೼≑䔺䕀৥乚ඳЁऴ᥂ЏᇐഄԡDŽᴀ᭛ ೼ℸ㚠᱃ϟ䆒䅵њϔ⾡ҹℹ䖯⬉ᴎЎᠻ㸠఼ᅲ⦄㒓᥻䕀 ৥ⱘ᥻ࠊᮍḜDŽ II. 㒓᥻䕀৥㋏㒳ⱘ㒧ᵘ ᴀ᭛ⷨおⱘ㒓᥻䕀৥㋏㒳㒧ᵘབϟ೒ 1 ᠔⼎DŽ㋏㒳 ҹℹ䖯⬉ᴎ˄M˅԰Ў䕀৥ᠻ㸠఼ˈҹϡৠ㾦ԡ㕂Ӵᛳ ఼԰Ўᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦ԡ㕂Ӵᛳ఼˄Steer_Angle_Sensor˅੠ ⬉ᴎ䕀㾦ԡ㕂Ӵᛳ఼˄Motor_Angle_Sensor˅ˈ⬉ᴎϢ 䔺䕂П䯈ⱘ‫ޣ‬䗳఼˄Reducer˅䞛⫼ⱘᰃ䗳↨Ў 60 ⱘ⍵ 䕂㳫ᴚ‫ޣ‬䗳఼DŽ ㋏㒳Ꮉ԰ᯊˈᮍ৥Ⲭԡ㕂Ӵᛳ఼੠⬉ᴎԡ㕂Ӵᛳ఼ ߚ߿Ẕ⌟ᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦੠⬉ᴎ䕀㾦ˈ⬉ᴎ᥻ࠊ఼ḍ᥂䖭ϸ Ͼֵো߸ᮁߎᔧࠡ䔺䕂䕀㾦੠ᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦ᰃ৺ऍ䜡ˈᑊ 䖯ϔℹ䅵ㅫߎℹ䖯⬉ᴎⱘՓ㛑ˈᮍ৥੠䕀䗳ֵোˈᑊ৥ ⬉ ᴎ 偅 ࡼ ఼ থ 䗕 䖭 ѯ ᥻ ࠊ ֵ ো ˈ ᥻ ࠊ ⬉ ᴎ 偅 ࡼ ఼ ˄Motor Driver˅ᏺࡼ⬉ᴎᠻ㸠Ⳍᑨࡼ԰ˈ㒣⍵䕂㳫ᴚ ‫ޣ‬䗳఼‫ޣ‬䗳ৢᏺࡼ䔺䕂ᠻ㸠Ⳍᑨࡼ԰ˈᅲ⦄㒓᥻䕀৥ࡳ 㛑DŽ ೒ 1 㒓᥻䕀৥㒧ᵘ೒ III. 㒓᥻䕀৥㋏㒳ⱘড作᥻ࠊॳ⧚ ೒ 2 㒓᥻䕀৥᥻ࠊॳ⧚೒ 㒓᥻䕀৥ⱘ᥻ࠊॳ⧚བ೒ 2 ᠔⼎ˈᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦Ў䕧 ܹ䞣ˈ䔺䕂䕀㾦Ў䕧ߎ䞣ˈ⬉ᴎ䕀㾦Ўড作䞣ˈ䗮䖛ড 作䇗㡖ˈֱ䆕䔺䕂䕀㾦ⱘ䕧ߎ䞣Ϣᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦䕧ܹ䞣ⱘ ऍ䜡DŽ⬉ᴎ䕀㾦˄M_A_D˅ৃҹ䗮䖛䕀㾦Ӵᛳ఼ৃҹ Ẕ⌟ࠄˈ㗠ḍ᥂⬉ᴎ䕀㾦˄M_A_D˅ৃҹ䅵ㅫߎⱘ䔺 䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐ˄W_A_Real˅DŽ偒偊ਬᠻ㸠䕀৥᪡԰ ᯊˈᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦˄S_A˅ѻ⫳ব࣪ˈϢᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦ऍ䜡 ⱘ䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐ˄W_A_Set˅гѻ⫳ব࣪ˈՓ݊Ϣ䔺 䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐ˄W_A_Real˅ߎ⦄Ꮒؐ˄W_A_err˅ˈ⬉ ᴎ᥻ࠊ఼˄MC˅ḍ᥂ℸᏂؐ䅵ㅫߎ⬉ᴎᰃ৺Փ㛑ǃᮟ 䕀ᮍ৥੠ᮟ䕀䗳ᑺDŽ⬉ᴎ᥻ࠊ఼˄MC˅ᇚ䖭ѯֵোথ 䗕ࠄ⬉ᴎ偅ࡼ఼ৢˈ⬉ᴎ偅ࡼ఼偅ࡼ⬉ᴎ˄M˅԰ߎⳌ ᑨࡼ԰ˈҢ㗠Փᕫ䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐ˄W_A_Real˅Ϣ䔺 䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐ˄W_A_Set˅ⱘᏂؐ˄W_A_err˅বᇣˈ Ⳉࠄ䕀৥⬉ᴎ‫ذ‬ℶ䕀ࡼˈᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦੠䔺䕂䕀㾦䞡ᮄऍ 䜡DŽ䗮䖛བϞ䖛⿟ˈᅲ⦄䔺䕂Ⳍᇍᮍ৥Ⲭⱘ䱣ࡼড作᥻ ࠊDŽ[6] 6076 978-1-4244-9439-2/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
  2. 2. IV. 㒓᥻䕀৥㋏㒳ⱘӓⳳ ೼㒓᥻䕀৥㋏㒳㒧ᵘ੠ॳ⧚ⱘ෎⸔Ϟˈḍ᥂ᅲ䰙ᮍ ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦Ў 4.5 ೜ᯊᇍᑨⱘ䔺䕂䕀㾦Ў 0.5 ೜ˈᕫ䔺䕂 䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐЎᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦ⱘ 1/9˗ḍ᥂‫ޣ‬䗳఼䗳↨Ў 60ˈᕫ䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐЎ⬉ᴎ䕀㾦ⱘ 1/60DŽ䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒 ᅮؐϢ䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐⱘᏂؐⱘ㒱ᇍؐ໻Ѣ 0.1 ᯊˈ⬉ ᴎՓ㛑ˈ䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐϢ䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐⱘᏂؐЎℷ ᯊ⬉ᴎℷ䕀ˈЎ䋳ᯊ⬉ᴎড䕀ˈ⬉ᴎⱘ䕀䗳䆒ᅮЎᘦᅮ ⱘ 300r/minDŽ ḍ᥂ҹϞ㒓᥻䕀৥㋏㒳㒧ᵘϢ᥻ࠊॳ⧚ҹঞ⹂ᅮⱘ ᥻ࠊখ᭄Ϣ᥻ࠊ䘏䕥ˈ೼ matlab Ё Simulink ⬠䴶ϟᓎゟ ӓⳳ῵ൟབ೒ 3 ᠔⼎DŽ ೒ 3 䕀৥᥻ࠊӓⳳ῵ൟ ϟ೒ 4 ᰃᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦ֵো䕧ܹ⬅ 200 ᑺ㓈ᣕ 1 ⾦ৢ বЎ 0 ᚙ‫މ‬ϟⱘӓⳳ㒧ᵰDŽ߱ྟᯊˈᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦Ў 200 ᑺˈ߭ᇍᑨ䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐЎ 200/9 ᑺ˗⬉ᴎ䕀㾦ؐЎ 0ˈ߭䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐЎ 0ˈ䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐϢϢ䔺䕂䕀 㾦ᅲ䰙ؐⱘᏂؐЎ 200/9ˈ಴ℸ⬉ᴎՓ㛑ℷ䕀ˈᇍᑨ䔺 䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐ䗤⏤๲໻ࠄϢ䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐⳌㄝˈ⬉ᴎ ϡՓ㛑ˈ⬉ᴎ䕀㾦੠䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐ〇ᅮϟᴹDŽ1 ⾦ ৢˈᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦বЎ 0ˈ߭ᇍᑨ䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐгবЎ 0ˈ㗠ℸᯊ䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐЎ 200/9 ᑺˈѠ㗙ᏂؐЎ- 200/9 ᑺˈ⬉ᴎՓ㛑ড䕀ˈᇍᑨ䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐ䗤⏤‫ޣ‬ ᇣࠄϢ䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐⳌㄝˈ⬉ᴎϡՓ㛑ˈ⬉ᴎ䕀㾦੠ 䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐ〇ᅮϟᴹDŽҢӓⳳ㒧ᵰৃҹⳟߎˈ䔺䕂 㛑䖒ࠄ 5r/min ⱘ䕀৥䗳ᑺˈヺড়䕀৥䗳ᑺ㽕∖ˈ䖒ࠄ䔺 䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐৢˈ⬉ᴎゟे‫ذ‬䕀ˈ䔺䕂䕀㾦ϡ‫ݡ‬থ⫳ব ࣪ˈ䇈ᯢ䕧ֵܹোЎ⧚ᛇֵোᯊˈ῵ൟ᥻ࠊㅫ⊩㛑ֱ䆕 ㋏㒳ⱘᖿ䗳ડᑨᗻˈ〇ᅮᗻ੠‫⹂ޚ‬ᗻˈϨ᮴䍙䇗᮴䳛 㤵ˈᅠܼ⒵䎇≑䔺䕀৥ⱘ䳔∖DŽ 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 wheel angle set 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 -10 0 10 20 30 wheel angle real 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 -40 -20 0 20 40 • • (s) err ೒ 4 㒓᥻䕀৥ӓⳳ㒧ᵰ V. 㒓᥻䕀৥᥻ࠊ఼ ḍ᥂㒓᥻䕀৥᥻ࠊॳ⧚੠㒧ᵘᨁᓎᅲ䰙᥻ࠊ㋏㒳DŽ ᴀ᭛㒓᥻䕀৥㋏㒳ҹ㒓᥻䕀৥᥻ࠊ఼ЎḌᖗˈᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀 㾦ֵো੠⬉ᴎ䕀㾦ֵো㒣Ӵᛳ఼䞛䲚ৢ䕧ܹ䕀৥᥻ࠊ ఼ˈ䕀৥᥻ࠊ఼ḍ᥂‫ݙ‬㕂ㅫ⊩䅵ㅫߎ⬉ᴎ䆹ᠻ㸠ⱘࡼ ԰ˈᑊᇚⳌᑨⱘ᥻ࠊੑҸ䕧ߎ㟇⬉ᴎ偅ࡼ఼ˈҹ᥻ࠊ⬉ ᴎ ᠻ 㸠 Ⳍ ᑨ ࡼ ԰ DŽ ᴀ ᥻ ࠊ ఼ ҹ 亲 ᗱ व ᇨ ݀ ৌ ⱘ MC9S08DZ60 ЎЏ㢃⠛ˈҹ໮೜⬉ԡ఼԰Ўᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀㾦 ԡ㕂Ӵᛳ఼ˈҹ⺕ᮟ䕀㓪ⷕ఼԰Ў⬉ᴎ䕀㾦ԡ㕂Ӵᛳ ఼ˈҹϸⳌℹ䖯⬉ᴎЎᠻ㸠఼ᅲ⦄᥻ࠊࡳ㛑DŽᮍ৥Ⲭ䕀 㾦ԡ㕂ֵো䗮䖛 AD ষ䕧ܹЏ㢃⠛ˈ᥻ࠊ఼ᇍℹ䖯⬉ᴎ ⱘՓ㛑੠ᮍ৥ⱘ᥻ࠊᰃЏ㢃⠛䗮䖛 I/O ষᇍ⬉ᴎ偅ࡼ఼ ⱘ DIR ੠ ENABLE ッⱘ᥻ࠊᅲ⦄ⱘˈ㗠ᇍℹ䖯⬉ᴎⱘ 䕀䗳ⱘ᥻ࠊ߭ᰃЏ㢃⠛䗮䖛 PWM ষᇍ⬉ᴎ偅ࡼ఼ⱘ CP ッⱘ᥻ࠊᅲ⦄ⱘDŽℸ໪ˈ⬅Ѣ⺕ᮟ䕀㓪ⷕ఼⌟ᕫⱘ ⬉ ᴎ 䕀 㾦 ԡ 㕂 ᰃ ҹ 㛝 ‫ކ‬ ֵ ো ⱘ ऴ ぎ ↨ 㸼 ᕕ ⱘ ˈ 㗠 MC9S08DZ60 ϡᮍ֓Ⳉ᥹⌟㛝‫ֵކ‬োऴぎ↨ˈ಴ℸ䳔㽕 ‫ܜ‬ᇚ㛝‫ֵކ‬ো䕀বЎ῵ᢳ⬉य़ֵোˈ‫ݡ‬ᇚℸֵো㒣 AD ষ䕧ܹЏ㢃⠛ˈ䕀ᤶ⬉䏃བϟ೒ 5 ᠔⼎DŽ ೒ 5 㛝‫ֵކ‬ো䕀ᤶЎ⬉य़ֵো⬉䏃 㗠䰸њ⬉ᴎ䕀㾦ԡ㕂ֵোП໪ⱘ݊Ҫ䕧ܹ䕧ߎֵো ≵᳝໡ᴖⱘ᥻ࠊ⬉䏃ˈা䳔ᇚЏ㢃⠛Ⳍᑨㅵ㛮Ϣ᥻ࠊ఼ ᇍᑨ᥹ষ䖲᥹ेৃˈॳ⧚೒བϟ೒ 6 ᠔⼎DŽ ೒ 6 ᥻ࠊ఼䖲᥹ॳ⧚ 6077
  3. 3. VI. 㒓᥻䕀৥ⱘᅲ⦄ ᨁᓎད㒓᥻䕀৥᥻ࠊ㋏㒳ৢˈḍ᥂㒓᥻䕀৥᥻ࠊॳ ⧚䖯㸠ᅲ偠ˈ偠䆕ᴀ᭛ᦤߎⱘ㒓᥻䕀৥ᮍḜⱘৃ㸠ᗻᑊ ߚᵤ䕀৥ᗻ㛑DŽᕫࠄᅲ偠㒧ᵰབϟ೒ 7 ᠔⼎DŽ ೒ 7 䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐϢᅲ䰙ؐ↨䕗 ḍ᥂೒ 7 Ёⱘᅲ偠᭄᥂ৃᕫˈᴀ᭛ᨁᓎⱘ㒓᥻䕀৥ ㋏㒳㛑䗮䖛ড作᥻ࠊᅲ⦄䖙䗳ડᑨⱘ䱣ࡼ䕀৥ˈ᳔㒜㛑 ᅲ⦄䔺䕂䕀㾦ⱘ〇ᅮ䕧ߎˈᑊ䆕ᅲ䔺䕂ⱘᅲ䰙䕀㾦੠䆒 ᅮ䕀㾦ⱘ䇃Ꮒᕜᇣˈ䔺䕂䕀㾦೼䖒ࠄ〇ᅮᎹ԰⚍ⱘ䖛⿟ Ё᮴䍙䇗᮴䳛㤵ˈ⒵䎇䕀৥㋏ⱘ䳔∖DŽ VII. 㒧䆎Ϣሩᳯ ḍ᥂ᴀ᭛ⱘߚᵤǃӓⳳϢᅲ偠ˈᕫࠄҹϟ㒧䆎DŽ ˄1˅ᴀ᭛⍝ঞⱘ䖭⾡ҹℹ䖯⬉ᴎЎᠻ㸠఼ⱘ㒓᥻ 䕀৥᥻ࠊ㋏㒳㛑ᅲ⦄㒓᥻䕀৥ࡳ㛑DŽ ˄2˅ᴀ᭛䗝⫼ⱘӴᛳ఼੠᥻ࠊ㢃⠛㛑䆒䅵ড়䗖ⱘ ড作᥻ࠊ㋏㒳ᅲ⦄㒓᥻䕀৥ࡳ㛑DŽ ˄3˅ᴀ᭛䆒䅵ⱘ᥻ࠊ㋏㒳㛑ᅲ⦄㒓᥻䕀৥ࡳ㛑ᑊ ⒵䎇䕀৥೼ડᑨ䗳ᑺǃ᥻ࠊ㊒ᑺ੠ડᑨ䖛⿟ㄝᮍ䴶ⱘ㽕 ∖ˈৃᑨ⫼Ѣ≑䔺䕀৥㋏㒳DŽ ೼ᴀ᭛෎⸔Ϟˈৃҹ㒻㓁ⷨおᕜ໮Ϣ㒓᥻䕀৥Ⳍ݇ ⱘ䯂乬ˈབ ˄1˅㗗㰥䕀৥㋏㒳䳔⒵䎇䰓‫ܟ‬᳐䕀㾦݇㋏ⱘ䕀৥ ᥻ࠊㄪ⬹DŽ ˄2˅㗗㰥ࠡ䕂䕀৥ǃৢ䕂䕀৥੠ܼ䕂䕀৥ㄝϡৠ 䕀৥ᔶᓣⱘ䕀৥᥻ࠊㄪ⬹DŽ ˄3˅㗗㰥䞛⫼᳈催㊒ᑺӴᛳ఼ǃ᥻ࠊ㢃⠛ᇍ㒓᥻ 䕀৥䖯㸠ⷨおDŽ ˄4˅㗗㰥催䗳ㄝᙊࡷᎹ‫މ‬ᇍ㒓᥻䕀৥䖯㸠ⷨおDŽ 㟈䇶 ৠ⌢໻ᄺᮄ㛑⑤≑䔺Ꮉ⿟Ёᖗ੠Ϟ⍋➗᭭⬉∴≑䔺 ࡼ࡯㋏㒳᳝䰤݀ৌЎᴀ᭛ᅲ偠ᦤկњ⌟䆩䆒໛੠Ҿ఼DŽ REFERENCES [1] Jin Sun, “Motion simulation and analysis of four-wheel steering vehicle[J],” Auto Mobile Science & Technology,2002,6(6) :8,(In Chinese). [2] Qiuzhen Qu, Yanzhu Liu,” Control strategy of four-wheel steering vehicle[J],” Automobile Technology,1999,2:5-7,(In Chinese). [3] Youqun Zhao, Ligong Wang, Xiaoming He, Konghui Guo.”Analysis of motion stability of four-wheel steering vehicle[J],”China Mechanical Engineering,2003,14(14):1246-1248,(In Chinese). [4] Mingyuan Bian, “Four-wheel steering technique of vehicle and developmental prospects,” World Auto,1999,12:8-11,(In Chinese). [5] Chenwei Tian, Changfu Zong, ”Sensor Fault Diagnosis for Steer-by- Wire Car Based on Dual Adaptive Kalman Filter” China Journal of Highway and Transport,2009,7,(In Chinese). [6] Jianling Zuo, “Research on controlling methods of vehicle electronic steering system[D],”Jilin: Jilin University,2005,(In Chinese). 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 ᯊ䯈(s) 䔺䕂䕀㾦(°) 䔺䕂䕀㾦ᅲ䰙ؐ 䔺䕂䕀㾦䆒ᅮؐ 6078

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