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Cardiovascular System

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heart, blood vessels, blood

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Cardiovascular System

  1. 1. Life Science Human Body Systems Cardiovascular System
  2. 2. 1. Name the building blocks (monomers) of proteins, carbs, fats, and nucleic acids. • Proteins: amino acids, Carbs: saccharides, Fats (lipids): fatty acids (& glycerol), and Nucleic acids: nucleotides 1. What protein/hormone produced in the pancreas lowers blood sugar by signaling body cells to take it in out of the bloodstream? • Insulin 1. True or False? The liver and muscles store excess glucose as a long, branched polysaccharide called glycogen. • True (the pancreas produces glucagon to signal the breaking down of glycogen) 1. Why does your body need more carbohydrate than any other nutrient, especially since most of the body is made of water, fat, and protein? • All carbs are broken down into glucose, which provides energy (to make ATP) for all anabolic chemical reactions and cellular processes. 1. What does %DV mean? • Percent Daily Value (what part of the suggested amount of a nutrient one serving provides - per day, for a 2,000 Calorie diet) In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can: Bonus: What is a Calorie? - Heat energy that comes from food that your body can use or store up. Week 20 Review Quiz
  3. 3. The Circulatory System • Heart contracts about once/second – Average adult heart = 65 beats/min. • That's 100,000 times/day – Blood has to reach every cell in the body • If circulation stops, cells die • Brain tissue dies within 5 - 7 min. without oxygen • Pumps 4,000 gallons blood per day – Enough blood to fill a tanker truck! Blood flow animation
  4. 4. The Human Heart • Muscular Pump – Striated cardiac muscle – Size of your fist (child) • About 2 fists for adult • 4 Chambers – Open spaces for blood to gather before being pumped out • 4 One-Way Valves – Prevent back-flow – Allow pressure to build
  5. 5. Experiment Heart Rate
  6. 6. Four Chambers of the Heart • Red = oxygenated • Blue = deoxygenated • Septum: dividing wall  Which chambers have the thinnest muscular walls? Thickest? Why?
  7. 7. The Heart - a double pump • Left & Right Atria Contract – blood forced into ventricles – Pulmonary/Aortic valves close – Pacemaker within right atrium • “sinoatrial node” • Left & Right Ventricles Contract – Mitral/Tricuspid valves close – blood forced out to lungs & body
  8. 8. Four Valves of the Heart • Prevent backflow of blood during contractions • Tricuspid & Mitral valves have fibrous "anchors" – Why?
  9. 9. Heart Sounds • Clean ear buds with alcohol • Listen for valves closing – "lub" is Mitral & Tricuspid – "dub" is Aortic & Pulmonary Simplified Animation Heartbeat Animation
  10. 10. Blood Flow in the Heart Oxygenated blood out to body back from trunk/legs back from head/arms oxygenated blood from lungs to lungs to lungs Blood Flow Animation
  11. 11. Circulation Lungs Lungs Lower Extremities Brain • Pulmonary (lungs) – CO2 dropped off – O2 picked up • Systemic (body) – O2 & nutrients delivered – CO2 & waste picked up • Coronary (heart’s blood supply) – O2 to heart – CO2 taken away
  12. 12. Circulation Game • Find your way around the circulatory system! • The “PLAYER” is a red blood cell. • Pick up O2 and CO2 – drop them off at the right spot • If you mess up, you're OUT of the game!
  13. 13. Blood Vessels - Miles of Tubes • Arteries – carry blood AWAY from heart • Take oxygen-rich blood (red) to extremities • Take oxygen-depleted blood (blue) to the lungs – thick, muscular • withstand higher pressure than veins • control blood flow • Veins – carry blood TO the heart • Brings deoxygenated blood (blue) back from extremities • Brings oxygenated blood (red) back from the lungs – thinner, with valves • valves prevent back-flow • skeletal muscles aid in return blood flow • Capillaries – tiny network or "web" of vessels – very thin - one cell thick! • to allow exchange of molecules – reaching every living cell in the body • around air sacs in lungs • all organ tissues
  14. 14. Blood - What's in it? • Plasma – liquid in which cells are suspended • mostly H2O • Macronutrients & micronutrients • hormones, toxins, bacteria, glucose & other nutrients, etc • Red Blood Cells – no nucleus, donut-shaped – hemoglobin (iron) • carries O2& CO2 • White Blood Cells – help fight infection – B cells produce antibodies – neutrophils, basophils, monocytes, eosinophils, lymphocytes, • Platelets – Clump together to form blood clots that stop bleeding