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# Problem Solving: The P in PDSA

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Recorded webinar: http://slidesha.re/1tGIZaH

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Effective problem solving is not an innate skill that most people are born with.

Even for those few few lucky ones who are born with natural problem-solving talent, it is often drummed out of them by parents, teachers, and bosses. And those whose academic preparation would lead you to believe that they're highly skilled in this area (such as engineers and physicians) regularly fall prey to sloppy problem solving.

The good news is that effective problem solving is a skill that can be developed. Everyone can learn to solve problems effectively given the will and ample practice with a skilled coach/teacher.

This webinar focuses on the P (plan) phase of the PDSA/PDCA cycle (plan-do-study-adjust), which is the most difficult phase of scientific problem solving for people to master. Topics include:

• Setting a target condition
• Problem clarification
• Scoping and qualifying the problem
• Root cause analysis

Watch this lively discussion and learn the important first steps for closing the gap between where you are and where you'd like or need to be.

As preparation for the webinar, you may want to read the Discipline chapter in Karen's Shingo Award-winning book, The Outstanding Organization. www.ksmartin.com/TOO

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### Problem Solving: The P in PDSA

1. Problem Solving: The P in PDSA Webinar January 6, 2015
2. Welcome to all from across the globe!
3. VSM Awarded 2015 Shingo Prize! © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 3 Join our week-long celebration February 1-7! www.ksmartin.com/VSM
4.  We help clients in all industries adopt Lean management & achieve business performance improvement.  Teacher at University of California, San Diego  Author & Speaker: Karen Martin, President The Karen Martin Group, Inc. www.ksmartin.com 4 www.ksmartin.com/subscribe 2013 Shingo Prize winner!
5. PDSA – Big and Small © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 5
6. A3 Management 6 Problem Countermeasures / Implementation Plan - 32% of customers dissatisfied with office space cleanlines- 80% of emergency service requests are to wrong contact - Standard work for restroom cleaning - Standard work checklist for non-routine items - Service levels vary by building - Standard process for measuring & mixing chemicals - 10% of daily staffing available is allocated to travel/check in time - Restroom cleaning log - Standard facility service plan (Plan A & Plan B) Current Condition - Modify & standardize process for unplanned absences - 31   Facility areas require custodial services - Modify starting points and schedules to reduce transportation waste - Evaluate fleet availability to reduce waiting waste Effect Confirmation Target Conditions/Measurable Objectives - 80% Daily staffing availability - 50% Improvement - customer satisfaction with restroom cleanliness - Defined standard work (for custodial staff and customers) Follow Up Actions Root Cause & Gap Analysis - Undefined level of service (office parties, special events) - No defined process for unplanned absences (calling in, redistribute work, etc.) - Inconsistent availability of communication tools (vary by building) - No defined process for requesting/responding to emergencies - Variation in cleaning schedules versus facility operating schedules - Unpredictable daily staffing - Travel time + Check in Time = 16.00 hrs/day = 2 FTE - Customer requested personalized service (newspaper delivery, parties, trash) CUSTODIAL SERVICES A3 Plan Do, Check, Act - 22% of customers dissatisfied with restroom cleanliness 8% 20% 8% 14% 17% 33% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Phone Call to Custodian Phone Call to Custodial Supervisor Phone Call to Custodial Manager Phone Call to Public Works Dispatch (x6000) Email Notify Custodial Staff On Site Survey: When you require emergency services, how do you request them? 32% 22% 19% 18% 6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Office Spaces Restrooms Common Areas Overall Conference Rooms Survey: Custodial Services - Areas of Dissatisfaction Travel/ Check In Time 16.00 10% Absent Staff 24.00 15% Vacancies 24.00 15% Special Events 2.00 1% Staff Available 94.00 59% Daily Staffing Availability (Hours) 41% ofdaily staffing is unavailable for custodial tasks Title # Staff Hrs/Wk Hrs/Day Lead Custodian 4 160 32 FT Custodian 8 520 64 FT Custodian (Vacant) 2 80 16 PT/Perm (avg 30 hrs each) 3 90 24 PT/Temp (avg 20 hrs each) 3 60 24 Total 20 910 160 Current Actual Result State (+ 60 days) Customers dissatisfied with restroom cleanliness 22% <10% Avg minutes per restroom cleaning 35 30 Avg hours per day cleaning restrooms (184 restrooms) 107 92 Daily staffing availability 59% 80% Daily travel/check in time (hours/day) 16 8 Travel miles per day 139 <70 Metric Projected Remaining Actions Owner 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Explore options to improve cell phone availability Mark R. Define process for requesting and responding to emergencies Custodial Supvs Equip carts for recycling Mark R. Process mapping for specialized facilities Mark R. Standardize Cart Equipment & Supplies Custodial Supvs Process improvement for other facility types, e.g. offices, common areas, etc. Mark R. Consider alternative staffing models (floaters, modified shifts) Mark R. Actively manage vacancies Mark R. Implementation Schedule (Months) • Report reflects the thinking; serves as conversation tool • Problem owners learn disciplined problem- solving by working with a skilled coach
7. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 7 Purpose of A3 Reports • Communicate progress • Deepen understanding • Build consensus • Spread learning • Reduce resistance to change
8. 8 Detailed Steps 1. Define and break down the problem. 2. Grasp the current condition. 3. Set a target condition. 4. Conduct root cause & gap analysis. 5. Identify potential countermeasures. 6. Develop & test countermeasure(s) 7. Refine and finalize countermeasure(s). 8. Implement countermeasure(s). Study Evaluate Results 9. Measure process performance. 10. Refine, standardize, & stabilize the process. 11. Monitor process performance. 12. Reflect & share learning. Adjust Do Clarifying the PDSA Cycle Plan Develop Hypothesis Conduct Experiment Refine Standardize Stabilize Phase New Problem Adjust Adjust Often 50-80% of the total time Adopt Adapt Abandon
9. 9 Detailed Steps 1. Define and break down the problem. 2. Grasp the current condition. 3. Set a target condition. 4. Conduct root cause & gap analysis. 5. Identify potential countermeasures. 6. Develop & test countermeasure(s) 7. Refine and finalize countermeasure(s). 8. Implement countermeasure(s). Study Evaluate Results 9. Measure process performance. 10. Refine, standardize, & stabilize the process. 11. Monitor process performance. 12. Reflect & share learning. Adjust Do Clarifying the PDSA Cycle Plan Develop Hypothesis Conduct Experiment Refine Standardize Stabilize Phase Nailing the Plan stage of PDSA is the most important element in the entire cycle.
10. The Nature of 10 At times…perplexing, confounding, frustrating, and taxing
11. Investigation Takes Many Forms 11 P/U AFrame Power Pole o st g Up Spag ett ag a e o e a e t p o e e ts st ated d sta ce a ed du g g Up 3095 t ag a o o s t e oo a d a d does ot c ude o g t e a e g Up e 90 utes Water
12. 12 Detailed Steps 1. Define and break down the problem. 2. Grasp the current condition. 3. Set a target condition. 4. Conduct root cause & gap analysis. 5. Identify potential countermeasures. 6. Develop & test countermeasure(s) 7. Refine and finalize countermeasure(s). 8. Implement countermeasure(s). Study Evaluate Results 9. Measure process performance. 10. Refine, standardize, & stabilize the process. 11. Monitor process performance. 12. Reflect & share learning. Adjust Do Clarifying the PDSA Cycle Plan Develop Hypothesis Conduct Experiment Refine Standardize Stabilize Phase Iterative Problem Definition & Scoping
13. 13
14. Truth Truth Truth Truth Truth Truth Truth CLARITY 14
15. 15
16. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 16 1. Define and Breakdown the Problem • Example: “Data integrity problem” – Says who? What are they saying SPECIFICALLY? Go interview! – Are we talking about inaccurate data, missing data, incomplete data, data in wrong location, similar but slightly different data stored in different locations, incorrect conclusions about accurate data, or…? • Example: “No control of refrigerant inventory (controlled substance)” – Is this true in all locations? All types of refrigerant? – Is physical inventory quantity higher, lower, or both when compared to computer numbers?
17. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 17 Problem Definition: Clarify, Qualify, Justify, Quantify 1. Is the problem clear and focused or vague and diffuse? 2. Why is this a problem? 3. How do we know it’s a problem? What evidence or proof exists? 4. How big is the problem? 5. Which aspect of the problem are we going to address?
18. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 18 Example: Iterative Problem Definition 1. Lack of a patient-centered care culture 2. Improve the patient experience 3. Reduce nursing turnover
19. 19 2. Grasp the Current Condition • Understand the details behind the problem. • Options – OBSERVATION – Interview – Data analysis – Video analysis – Document review – Value stream or process mapping, – Etc.
20. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 20 3. Set a Target Condition • Describe the future. How does “better” look and feel? • From/to: “If not this, then what?” • Must be measurable – Surveys enable you to convert anecdotal feedback into quantifiable data • Should stretch the organization/team/problem owner (improvement is largely a mind game) • Level of aggressiveness depends on : – Urgency – Timeframe – Available resources – Consensus around the problem – Degree of focus
21. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 21 4. Conduct Root Cause & Gap Analysis • What’s stopping you from performing at the target condition NOW? • Consider all obstacles: – Physical / Environmental – Mechanical – Process-related – Psychological / cultural – Resource-related CauseCause--andand--Effect DiagramEffect Diagram Machine Measurement Environment People Material / Info Method Budgets Submitted Late Lack of experience Time availability No sense of import No stnd spread sheet Email vs. FedEx No standard work Input rec’d late Forecast in other system Manual vs. PC System avail. No milestones \$ vs. units Weather delays Dispersed sales force Changing schedule Machine Measurement Environment People Material / Info Method Budgets Submitted Late Lack of experience Time availability No sense of import No stnd spread sheet Email vs. FedEx No standard work Input rec’d late Forecast in other system Manual vs. PC System avail. No milestones \$ vs. units Weather delays Dispersed sales force Changing schedule 5 Why’s Why? Why? Why? Why? Why?
22. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 22 5. Identify Potential Countermeasures • Standard work • Quality at the Source / Error proofing • 5S / Visuals • Pull systems • One-piece flow • FIFO lanes • Kanban • Cells / co-location • Level loading • Work/line balancing • Batch size reduction • Setup reduction / changeover • Work segmentation • Autonomation • Cross-training / multi- functional workers
23. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 23 Problem Owners/Teams have to work with a seasoned Coach!
24. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 24 Karen Martin, President 858.677.6799 @karenmartinopex Blog & newsletter: www.ksmartin.com/subscribe