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  1. 1. Health Impact Assessment: Santa Clara County’s General Plan Health Element Air Quality and Greenhouse Gases/Climate Change San José State University Department of Environmental Studies Yan Yin K. Choy, Adam Filipp, Melanie Rossi, Thai- Chau Le, Sharon Ng, Kenneth Rosales, and Joshua Villa 1 (San Jose, CA Del Monte Cannery Site) (Alviso) (Cal pine Energy Plant, California) (Highway 237)
  2. 2. THANK YOU • Rocio Luna and Maritza Rodriguez: SCC Department of Public Health • Jennifer Lucky: Human Impact Partners • Department of Environmental Studies, SJSU • SJSU Research Foundation 2
  3. 3. Overview I. Introduction: Problem Statement II. Air Quality and Health Impacts III. Climate Change/Greenhouse Gases and Health Impacts IV. Cumulative Environmental Impacts and Adequacy of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Documents V. Recommendations and Mitigation Measures 3 (San Jose, CA.: Reed & Graham Incorporated Asphalt plant)
  4. 4. I. Introduction The Santa Clara County General Plan Update: Health Element new opportunity to improve and protect communities through land-use decisions • Comment on City of San José’ s future development and potential health impacts • Bay Area will experience population growth which requires additional transportation infrastructure and development (housing, commercial, etc) The objective of the proposed research is to conduct a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) for the same six Latino/Hispanic communities in San José: • air quality impacts, • climate change, • and cumulative environmental impacts. 4 (San Jose, California. West San Carlos proposed residential development)
  5. 5. Problem Statement Researchers across numerous disciplines documented the health and environmental disparities in low socio-economic status neighborhoods caused from exposure to environmental pollutants. (Burton and Yandle, 1996; Boer et al., 1997; Been and gupta, 1997; Hefland and Peyton, 1999; Morello-Frosch and Jesdale, 2006; Pellow, 2000; Szasz and Meuser, 2000; United Church of Christ 1987). State, Federal, and local governments identified research needs, initiatives, grants, and mitigation measures to address the health impacts from climate change.  San Francisco Deparment of Public Health only in CA to receive funding from the CDC to create strategies: • Health Impacts: Heat stress morbidity and mortality associated with air quality impacts (http://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/climate_ready.htm) 5 (San Jose, California. Meridian Ave. and West S an Carlos)
  6. 6. 1. Reduce Air Pollution Exposure: from existng and new sources, especially in impacted neighborhoods per BAAQMD and other sensitive receptors 2. Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: to protect qualtiy of life: climate change increases temperatures which further detoriates air qualtiy 3. Reduce Environmental and Health Inequities: Implement the HIA as a tool to evaluate the potential impacts in the CEQA process. Evidence base of health determinants required in HIA Department of Environmental Studies analyzed air quality impacts and Greenhouse Gases (GHGs): Make explicit the health risks caused by • traffic-related air pollutants • other non-traffic air pollution sources; • and the potential health risks from climate change (GHGs). 6 Highest Impacted Communities in San José The SCC Health Department could protect all neighborhoods through the SCC General Plan Health Element and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA): (Google Earth. Sunset)
  7. 7. Demographics o A neighborhood's conditions have impacts on health (CDC, 2011). o Social support is a viable tool in influencing health (SCC, 2012). o Social equity within neighborhoods in Santa Clara County is important to achieve. 7 Source: Santa Clara County Department of Public Health.
  8. 8. II. Air Quality: San José, CA Background A. Community Risk Reduction Plan (CRRP) Overview B. Existing Conditions: Transportation Emissions (Mobile Sources) C. Stationary Sources D. Health Impacts 8
  9. 9. Background Air Pollution “any substance in air that could, in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation, or material.” US EPA Other health effects: autism, learning disabilities, developmental defects, and known to be, or may reasonably be anticipated to be, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, which cause reproductive dysfunction, or which are acutely or chronically toxic).” (HEI Air Toxics Review Panel, 2007, p.16). Source: California Air Resource Control Board. ARB Fact Sheet: Air Pollution and Health. Retrieved from http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/health/fs/fs1/fs1.htm 9
  10. 10. Regulations and Laws Federal: U.S. EPA • Clean Air Act 1990 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) • six criteria air pollutants • ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and particulate matter • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) State: California EPA • California Air Resource Board (CA ARB) • California Clean Air Act • California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) • SB 25 Children’s Environmental Health Protection Act • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) • 2010 Clean Air Plan • Community Air Risk Evaluation (CARE) Program • California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Source: Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Air Quality Standards and Attainment Status. http://hank.baaqmd.gov/pln/air_quality/ambient_air_quality.htm 10
  11. 11. Figure 5-1 Bay Area Air Quality Management District. CEQA Guidelines. December 2009, p. 5-4 11 A. BAAQMD: Community Risk Reduction Plan (BAAQMD Bay Area 2010 Clean Air Plan, 2010, p. 3-11) o Evaluate and reduce health risks related to Toxic Air Contaminants (TAC) and diesel Particulate Matter (PM) o Identifies areas “at risk” based on sensitive receptors to TACs and PMs from point, non-point, and cumulative sources o Local governments reduce these impacts through Community Risk Reduction Plans (CRRPs),
  12. 12. B. Air Quality Baseline:Transportation 12 Cancer risk – weighted air toxics emissions by source category (Clean Air Plan, 2010, p.2-52). Cancer risk- weighted toxics emissions trends (Clean Air Plan, 2010, p. 2-53) BAAQMD CEQA Guidelines, 2011, p. 2-2 Threshold for PM 2.5 annually that was provided by SFDPH is as follows (Bhatia, 2008, p.16) : 0.2 µg/m3 of PM 2.5 annual average exposure from roadway vehicles within a 150 meter buffer of a sensitive receptor.
  13. 13. Burbank/Buena Vista Mayfaire/ Suenes Tropicana/ Dorsa/ Miller Washington/ Guadalupe Seven Trees/ Los Arboles/ Serenede Cancer and Non-Cancer risks (Ozone and PM 2.5) “The estimated risk and hazard impacts were modeled at two different heights, 6ft. and 20 ft. The 6 ft. height estimates should be used when receptors are located on the ground floor of a building; and the 20 ft. height estimates should be used when receptors are located on the second floor of a building.” • http://www.baaqmd.gov/Divisions/Planning-and-Research/CEQA-GUIDELINES/Tools-and-Methodology.aspx (Maps created by Thai-Chau Le, SJSU, 2012 using Google Earth)
  14. 14. Pollutants monitored in 2009 (CAP, 2010, p. 2-5) BAAQMD, City of SJ CRRP Workshop, 2011 Highway 87 140,000 avegvehicles/day Highway 82 60,000 avg vehicles/day Highway 280 250,000 avg vehicles/day Highway 17 190,000 avg vehicles/day Highway 101 208,000 avg vehicles/day
  15. 15. C. Air Quality Baseline for Stationary Sources Difference between Mobile and Stationary Sources Methodology – BAAQMD Stationary Source Screening Analysis Tool Examples of Stationary Sources Google Earth: Stationary Sources Map 15
  16. 16. One Community Example: Burbank’s BAAQMD Permitted Sources Bay Area Air Quality Management District. 2012. CEQA Guidelines: Tools and Methodology. BAAQMD Website. http://www.baaqmd.gov/Divisions/Planning- and-Research/CEQA-GUIDELINES/Tools-and- Methodology.aspx (accessed November 22, 2012) 16
  17. 17. D. Health Impacts: Cancer Risk by CensusTracts (NATA, 2005) 17 The estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics in the Bay Area is on the order of 400 cases per million(CAP, 2010, p. 1- 17).  This compares to the total lifetime cancer risk of approximately 400,000 cases per million from all causes. (CAP, 2010, p. 1-17). Burbank Washington Mayfair Tropicana Seven Trees Created by Thai-Chau Le, SJSU, 2012 using EnviroMapper
  18. 18. Air Quality: Respiratory Risks by Census Tracts 18 BAAQMD estimates that there are  approximately 2,800 premature deaths in the Bay Area per year related to current air pollution levels,  and that the vast majority of these deaths ‐ more than 90% ‐ are related to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). (p. Intro 3) The health impacts included asthma emergency room visits, respiratory hospital admissions, cardiovascular hospital admissions, chronic bronchitis, non‐fatal heart attacks, cancer onset, and mortality. (NATA,2005) Washington Burbank Mayfair Tropicana Seven Trees Created by Thai-Chau Le, SJSU, 2012 using EnviroMapper
  19. 19. III. Climate Change/ Greenhouse Gases Background A. Greenhouse Gases/Sources B. Laws and Regulations C. Transportation Sources D. Health Impacts 19
  20. 20. A. Greenhouse Gases and Sources In California and the Bay Area, climate changes stemming from anthropogenic based GHGs has shown to have negative impacts on the following (EPA, 2012): • water resources, • recreation, • forests, • ecosystems, • human health, energy, • and agriculture. • MOST IMPORTANT, relationship between climate change and air pollution What kinds of gases are considered to be GHGs (EPA 2012) ? • Carbon dioxide (CO2) • Methane (CH4) • Nitrous oxide (N2O) • Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) • Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) • Halocarbons (HFCs, CFCs) • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) represent 99% of the known GHG potential of the Bay Area (p. 1-7) 20
  21. 21. B. Greenhouse Gas Regulation in the US and California Federal: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) •No Current GHG Regulations, only monitoring State: California Natural Resource Agency: CA EPA •California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) California Air Resource Board (ARB) •Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) Local: •City of San José o Envision 2040 EPA CEQA CARB & BAAQMD CITY OF SAN JOSÉ Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32): The Global Warming Solutions Act Senate Bill 375: Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act of 2008 21
  22. 22. CEQA: Thresholds of Significance for Operational-Related GHG Emissions California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Appendix G: GRN-1: If the project generated greenhouse gas emissions, either directly or indirectly, that may have a significant impact on the environment, then the impact would be considered significant. GRN-2: If the project conflicts with an applicable plan, policy or regulation adopted for the purpose of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases, then the impact would be considered significant. Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) 22
  23. 23. 23 C. Greenhouse Baseline Gases: Source for Transportation Transportation = 36.4% (34.86 MMT CO2 Eq.) of GHG emissions in Bay Area (Bay Area Air Quality Management District, 2010) Santa Clara County 2nd largest GHG emitter in region at 19.6% [18.8 MMT CO2 Eq.](BAAQMD, 2010) Transportation = 42% (7.9 MMT CO2 Eq.) out of all GHG emissions in the county.(BAAQMD, 2010) 2010 county population = 27% = 1.8 million people of entire regional population (Department of Finance, 2012) 2040 county projection = 23% = 2.2 million people of entire regional population (Department of Finance, 2012)
  24. 24. reductions in some criteria pollutants, such as black carbon (a component of PM), ROG, and carbon monoxide will help to decrease the “radiative forcing” that drives global warming. (BAAQMD CAP, 2010, p. 1- 19) 24 Transportation largest emitter of GHGs 46.3% (3.52 MMT CO2Eq.) (City of San José, 2011) 2008 population = 9.9 thousand = 53% of county population (City of San José, 2011) 1.2 million by 2035 = 55% of county population (City of San José, 2011) City of San José General Plan GHG Emissions and Population
  25. 25. D. Climate Change: Categories of human health consequences www.niehs.nih.gov/climatereport (p.5, 7) 1. Asthma, Respiratory Allergies, and Airway Diseases 2. Cancer 3. Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke 4. Foodborne Diseases and Nutrition 5. Heat-Related Morbidity and Mortality 6. Human Developmental Effects 7. Mental Health and Stress-Related Disorders 8. Neurological Diseases and Disorders 9. Vectorborne and Zoonotic Diseases 10. Waterborne Diseases Weather-Related 11. Morbidity and Mortality 25
  26. 26. Climate Change: Health Impacts The California Climate Change Center indicates a relationship between temperature and response (Shonkoff et al.2009, p.9) • Rise in temperature of 1°C rise in U.S. causes about • 20-30 additional cancer cases • 1,000 additional deaths caused by air pollution • Ozone and particulate matter  40% of additional annual deaths (Jacobson 2008; Bailey et al. 2008). • 300 annual deaths in California (Bailey et al. 2008). There is increased vulnerability to heat waves and higher temperatures for low-income urban communities and communities of color (Shonkoff et al.2009) • Greater vulnerability to heat-island effect due to inner city segregation (Schultz et al. 2002; Williams and Collins 2001; Shonkoff et al. 2009, p. 4) • Reliance of public transit, agricultural work, outdoor work 26 (Impervious Surfaces in California from the California Department of Public Health and the Public Health Institute. English et al. 2007)
  27. 27. IV. Cumulative Environmental Impacts The Adequacy of Environmental Impact Reports (EIRs) and Mitigated Negative Declarations (MNDs) According to Morello-Frosch et. al., four categories of cumulative impacts at the census tract level: 1. Social and Health Vulnerability 2. Health Risk and Exposure (air pollution) 3. Climate Change Vulnerability 4. Proximity to Hazardous Land-Uses and Sensitive Receptors (EJSM, 2012) 27
  28. 28. Cumulative Impacts In addition to air quality and greenhouse gases Databases used :  Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Public Access Database  U.S. EPA, MyEnvironment Maps  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) database  GeoTracker 28 Created by: Le, Thai-Chau. 2012. Hazardous Waste, Biennial Report, and Underground Tanks in San Jpse. San Jose State University.
  29. 29. Cumulative Impacts (by zip codes) 29 Created by: Le, Thai-Chau. 2012. Hazardous Waste, Biennial Report, and Underground Tanks in San Jpse. San Jose State University.
  30. 30. Cumulative Impacts & Sensitive Land-use (schools) 30 Created by Thai-Chau Le, SJSU, 2012 using EnviroMapper
  31. 31. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) Adequacy of Analysis and Disclosure in proposed developments under CEQA: • Reviewed Environmental Impact Reports (EIRs) and Mitigated Negative Declarations (MND) for AIR Quality and Climate Change • Did the lead agency and private developers provide a rigorous environmental and health analyses ? • Can these documents provide an indication of the environmental changes from existing environmental baseline conditions (Environmental Setting)? • Whether mitigations are adequate to protect the environment and health? • Whether the documents fully disclose and analyze the cumulative effects and provide adequate mitigation measures to protect health? 31 Project Name District # Size of Development Area North San Pedro Apartment Project (IS/EIR) 3 0.73 acres Japantown Project (EIR) 3 5.78 acres 8th Street & William Condominiums (MND) 3 0.57 acres Santana Row Planned Development (MND) 5 40.78 acres Ohlone Mixed-Use (EIR) 5 8.25 acres Page Street & Meridian Mixed-Use (MND) 6 3.59 acres Race Street Terrace (MND) 6 2.12 acres Sun Garden Redevelopment (EIR) 7 7 acres
  32. 32. Findings: Environmental Documents Air Quality: • Lack of Quantitative Analysis • Inadequate projection models • Cumulative Impacts were not addressed Greenhouse Gas Emissions • Lack of Quantitative Analysis • Absence of outlined "Thresholds of Significance" from regulatory agencies (BAAQMD) • Inadequate disclosure of mitigation measures 32 • The connection between health and the environment was not made
  33. 33. (Morello-Frosch, R., Pastor, M., Sadd., J, EJSM, 2012) City of San José: Current Environmental Impact Assessment Documents lack Cumulative Impact Analysis (especially vulnerable populations) 33
  34. 34. V. Recommendations and Mitigation Measures 34
  35. 35. 35 Recommendations When Looking at Future Developments:  San José requires a CRRP: Thus far, mitigations for air quality have not been successful.  Cumulative impacts need to be analyzed to communities in the Latino Health Assessment from current and proposed developments  Outlined measurable mitigation strategies should be included when developing in impacted neighborhoods  Disclosure of health impacts to sensitive receptors in non-attainment areas should be upheld  Nexus between air quality, traffic/transportation, and GHG emissions and their association to public health impacts should be explicit and analyzed. • Use Health & Equity Metrics addressed by Human Impact Partners’ take on SB 375 35 http://www.bayareavision.org/initiatives/equitabledevelopmen t.html
  36. 36. Mitigation Measures: Air Quality Impacts Sustainable SF mitigations • Inform all potential buyers of all increased health risk associated with living close to major highways and thoroughfares and educate them in the proper use of any installed air filtration. • Consider limiting building heights adjacent to roadways with high traffic flows. BAAQMD provide mitigations specifically based on the phase of the project. 36 Source: California Air Resource Board. 2005. Air quality and landuse handbook: A community health perspective. Page 4-7. Retrieved from California Air Resource Board website: http://www.arb.ca.gov/ch/handbook.pdf Source: Safe and sustainable transportation. Humboldt County General Plan Health Impact Assessment: Transportation Indicators. Source: Bay Area Air Quality Management District. 2012. California Environment Quality Act Air Quality Guidelines. Recommendation on Development of New Sensitive Land Uses Such as Residences, Schools, Daycare Centers, Playgrounds, or Medical Facilities Source Category Advisory Recommendations Freeways and High-Traffic Roads - Avoid development of new sensitive land uses within 500 feet of a freeway, urban roads with 100,000 vehicles/day, or rural roads with 50,000 vehicles/day. (Google Image) (Google Image) (Google Image)
  37. 37. Mitigation Measures: Climate Change/ Greenhouse Gases Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD, 2012) • Urban Form • Infill development • High density mixed use • Compact Development • Balance jobs and housing • Improve the jobs and housing ratio within the plan area • Sustainable Development • Construction of new buildings comply with the California green building code • Permitting incentives for energy efficiency and solar projects. 37 Chris Lepe, 2010 California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA, 2010) • Vegetation • Urban tree plantings • Energy • Building energy use • Energy efficiency lighting • Water • Water supply (greywater, reclaimed water) • Water use (efficiency – low flow, dought tolerant landscapes)
  38. 38. Climate Change Health Mitigations Prevent any heat-related illnesses and death i.e. 2006 heat wave esp. among sensitive demographics (English et. al 2007): • Establish cooling centers & access to centers • Outreach about heat waves and personal cooling strategies  target older adults that live alone (English et. al 2007) • Install reflective roofs, increase green spaces and trees (English et. al 2007) • Provide those with mental illnesses: psychological support, family reunion, and family support following a disaster (Ebi and Paulson, 2010) • The draft EIR and MNDs should include mitigation and adaptation proposals (City of San José , 2009) • Map neighborhoods with high pollution levels (Shonkoff et al. 2009, Morello-Frosch, 2012). 38 (English et. al 2007) Santa Clara County Open Space Authority http://www.openspaceauthority.org/trails/
  39. 39. The SCC Health Element with the Department of Public Health =an invaluable opportunity to create a interdisciplinary approach to connect the environmental impacts, health disparities, and mitigation measures. Conclusion Environmental Justice will be achieved when everyone enjoys the same degree of protection from environmental and health hazards (EPA, 2012).  Engage communities in the decision-making processes, research, data collection, and outreach.  CEQA provides an opportunity for government agencies and the public to submit comments on future development  SCC Health Element, SCC Department of Health, other agencies, and the community working together for environmental equality. 39
  40. 40. References • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). (2011). 2015 Toxics Modeling to Support the Community Air Risk Evaluation (CARE) Program. (Publication No. 201101-008-TX). Retrieved from: Link • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Air Quality Standards and Attainment Status. Retrieved from: Link • Bay Area Air Quality Management (BAAQMD). (2009). Applied Method for Developing Polygon Boundaries for CARE Impacted Communities Technical Memorandum. Retrieved from: Link • Bay Area Air Quality Management (BAAQMD). (2010). California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Air Quality Guidelines. Retrieved from: Link • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). (2010). Clean Air Plan 2010 Volume I Appendices. Retrieved from: Link. • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). (2010). Source inventory of bay area greenhouse gas emissions. Retrieved from: Link 40
  41. 41. References • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). (2011). 2015 Toxics Modeling to Support the Community Air Risk Evaluation (CARE) Program. (Publication No. 201101-008-TX). Retrieved from: Link • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Air Quality Standards and Attainment Status. Retrieved from: Link • Bay Area Air Quality Management (BAAQMD). (2009). Applied Method for Developing Polygon Boundaries for CARE Impacted Communities Technical Memorandum. Retrieved from: Link • Bay Area Air Quality Management (BAAQMD). (2010). California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Air Quality Guidelines. Retrieved from: Link • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). (2010). Clean Air Plan 2010 Volume I Appendices. Retrieved from: Link. • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). (2010). Source inventory of bay area greenhouse gas emissions. Retrieved from: Link 41
  42. 42. References • Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). (2010). Source inventory of bay area greenhouse gas emissions. Retrieved from: Link • Bell, J., Lee, M., M. (2011). Why Place and Race Matter; Impacting Health Through a Focus on Race and Place. • Blake, P., & Dooris, M. (2010). A green and healthy future: the settings approach to building health, equity and sustainability. Critical Public Health, 20(3), 281-298. • California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA). (2010). Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measures - A Resource for Local Government to Assess Emission Reductions from Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measures. Retrieved from: Link • California Air Resource Control Board. ARB Fact Sheet: Air Pollution and Health. Retrieved from: Link 42
  43. 43. References • California Climate Change Center: CA Air Resources Board. (2009). Environmental Health and Equity Impacts from Climate Change and Mitigation Policies in California: A Review of Literature. Retrieved from: Link • Center for Disease and Control (CDC). (2012). Health impact assessment. Retrieved from: Link • City of San José – Department of Planning, Building, and Code Enforcement. (2011). General Plan: Envision 2040 Draft Environmental Impact Report Appendix B: Transportation impact analyses reduced. Retrieved from: Link • City of San José – Department of Planning, Building, and Code Enforcement. (2009). Notice of Preparation (NOP) and Responses to the NOP. Retrieved from: Link • City of San José. (2011). General Plan: Envision 2040 Draft Environmental Impact Report: Appendix K – Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Retrieved from: Link 43
  44. 44. References • Ebi, K.L., & Paulson, J.A. (2010). Climate Change and Child Health in the United States. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 40(1), 2-18. • Ellman, M., Solomon, G., Trent, R. & Ross, Z. (2007). Heat-Related Illness and Mortality: Information for the Public Health Network in California. Retrieved from: Link • English, P., Fitzsimmons, K., Hoshiko, S., Kim, T., Margolis, H.G., McKone, T.E., Rotkin- Ellman, M., Solomon, G., Trent, R. & Ross, Z. (2007). Heat-Related Illness and Mortality: Information for the Public Health Network in California. Retrieved from: Link. • Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). EPA: Greenhouse Gases Threaten Public Health and the Environment. • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2012). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2010. Accessed at: Link • Focus Maps. (2009). Retrieved from: Link 44
  45. 45. References • HEI Air Toxics Review Panel. (2007). Mobile-Source Air Toxics: A Critical Review of the Literature on Exposure and Health Effects. HEI Special Report 16. The Health Effects Institute, Boston, Mass. Retrieved from www.healtheffects.org or from HEI • Jacobson, M. (2008). On the causal link between carbon dioxide and air pollution mortality. Geophys Res. Let. 35 (L03809). • Kim Gilhuly, et al. 2011. Using health impact assessment in community development to improve air quality and public health. Community Development; 42(2) 193-207. • Metropolitan Transportation Commission and Association of Bay Area Goverments. (2005, May 24). About mtc news jobs & contracts meetings & events get involved services library maps & data maps and gis datamart funding planning projects legislation links san francisco bay area vehicle miles of travel (vmt) population and employment, 1990-2030. Retrieved from: Link • Morello-Frosch, R. (2012). Environmental Justice (EJ) Screening and Community Participation. Retrieved from: Link 45
  46. 46. References • Morello-Frosch, R. (2012). Facing the Climate Gap: How Environmental Justice Communities are Leading the Way to a More Sustainable and Equitable California. Retrieved from: Link • Morello-Frosch, R. (2010). Minding the Climate Gap: What’s at Stake if California’s Climate Law isn’t Done Right and Right Away. Retrieved from: Link • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (2010). A Human Health Perspective On Climate Change. Environmental Health Perspectives. Retrieved from: Link • Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment California Environmental Protection Agency. (2001). Prioritization of Toxic Air Contaminants Under the Children’s Environmental Health Protection Act SB 25. Retrieved from: Link 46
  47. 47. References • Portier CJ, Thigpen Tart K, Carter SR, Dilworth CH, Grambsch AE, Gohlke J, Hess J, Howard SN, Luber G, Lutz JT, Maslak T, Prudent N, Radtke M, Rosenthal JP, Rowles T, Sandifer PA, Scheraga J, Schramm PJ, Strickman D, Trtanj JM, Whung P-Y. (2010). A Human Health Perspective On Climate Change: A Report Outlining the Research Needs on the Human Health Effects of Climate Change. Research Triangle Park, NC:Environmental Health Perspectives/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002272. Retrieved from: Link • Santa Clara County Public Health Department. (2011). Executive Summary 2011; Health and Social Inequality in Santa Clara County. Retrieved from: Link • State of California, Department of Finance. (2012a). Interim population projections for california and its counties 2010-2050. Retrieved from: Link • State of California, Department of Finance. (2012b). New report: California added more than a quarter-million in 2011: total state population nearly 37.7 million. Retrieved from: Link 47
  48. 48. References • Santa Clara County. 2012. Association Between Neighborhood Conditions and Health Outcomes at a local level. • Santa Clara County Public Health. 2012. Status of Latino/Hispanic Health. • Shonkoff, S. B., Morello-Frosch, R., Pastor, M. & Sadd, J. (2009). Environmental Health and equity impacts from climate change and mitigation policies in California: a review of the literature. Retrieved from: Link 48
  49. 49. THANK YOU! 49

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