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Child rights

Child Rights
Definition of Child :
 An immature or irresponsible person.
 Biologically, a child (plural: children) is gen...
orientation, genderidentity, national origin , religion , disability , color,
ethnicity or other characteristics
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Child rights

  1. 1. Child Rights
  2. 2. Definitions Definition of Child :  An immature or irresponsible person.  Biologically, a child (plural: children) is generally a human between the stages of birth and puberty. The legal definition of child generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a personyounger than the age of majority  Children Rights Convention (CRC) Article 1 defines,“A child is any human being below the age of eighteen years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier  A personwho has not attained maturity or the age of legal majority  According to UNO , A personunder 18 years called a child ( UNO stand for Union Nation Organization )  The Convention defines a 'child' as a person below the age of 18, unless the laws of a particular country set the legal age for adulthood younger  ” Child” for the purpose of this Act means a natural person who has not attained the age of eighteen years  the term “child” comes from the Latin infantwhich means ” the one who does not speak “. Definition of Rights :  Which is morally correct , just , or honorable  A moral or legal entitlement to have or do something Definition of Child Rights : Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of specialprotection and care afforded to minors. This includes their right to associationwith both parents, human identity as well as the basic needs for food,universal state-paid education, health care and criminal laws appropriate for the age and developmentof the child, equal protectionof the child's civil rights, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of the child's race, gender,sexual
  3. 3. orientation, genderidentity, national origin , religion , disability , color, ethnicity or other characteristics Introduction  Child welfare its Concept, Meaning , Nature & Scope , Amis & Goals Child Welfare Definition & Meaning  Social work centered upon the welfare of children (as upon improvementin health and home conditions) and upon vocational training  social work aimed at improving he lives of disadvantaged children  The child welfare system is a group of public and private services that are focusedon ensuring that all children live in safe,permanent and stable environments that supporttheir well-being. Child welfare services may interact with entire families,or they may be focused on direct intervention with children.  See also from book , Page # 200
  4. 4. Child Welfare Concept: See in Book , Page # 206 & 207 The Child Welfare League of America, or the CWLA,is only one of many programs in the United States that supports and concentrates on a child's safety and well being. They offerresourcesand connections forchildren and families who are in need of assistance to build a better foundation for their home life. There are also many programs that offerassistance to these families, such as the Title IV-E Guardianship Assistance Program, which was established in 2008 by the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act. This particular program gives states the ability to provide financial assistance to families for children who are preparing to leave fostercare to be with a guardian or family member.Such programs as these help families and children adjust and are one of the many ways the governmentprovides help for kids in need. The Children's Bureau focuses on the following categories:Adoption,Child Abuse & Neglect,Child Welfare Services,FosterCare, Guardianship, and Tribes.Their website is very useful in many other topics and offers exclusive information for those are seeking help in such areas. Protecting children is a very important subjectfor every family, as emergencysituations can arise at any time without expectation.There are many things that can affecta child's mental and physical well being, from violence in schools to changes at home. As we celebrate the centennial for the foundation of The Children's Bureau, it's important that we evaluate the situation of a child who may be in need and take the appropriate
  5. 5. procedures to make sure every child has a steady, safe, and healthy lifestyle. Nature & Scope : Providing best education Protectionof physical and mental health Economic security Protecting from exploitation through effective legislation Recreational Basic needs Better family life Love & Care Character Building SpecialServices Note : For details see in Book , Page # 201 SpecialNote : Also use your Brain :D messageby Guryaa :p Aims & Goals :  Providing a healthy, safe and secure environment for children;  Encouraging each child in his/her developmentalgrowth by providing an environment that encourages learning through action, inquiry and exploration  Assisting each child to gain better control and understanding of his/her body through interaction with the environment, materials, and equipment  Helping each child develop language skills which will enable expressionof thoughts and feelings as well as an opportunity to increase knowledge
  6. 6.  Promoting a good self image in each child by providing an environment that encourages independence,decisionmaking, and problem solving  Fostering an appreciation for the ethnic and cultural diversity of its families and its community; discrimination, in any form, will not be tolerated  Promoting a cooperative,informative, and respectfulrelationship with family  To provide quality care and comfortin a safe friendly environment  Need and importance of child welfare services in Pakistan , History of child welfare services Need , importance & History of child welfare services in Pakistan : Note : Also see from Book , Page # 206 to 208 Child abuse is not only a widely practiced phenomenonin Pakistan despite its Islamic antecedents but also on the rise, However, rarely is the problem addressedsince the topic is socially and culturally a taboo, and there is an incorrect impressionthat the problem doesn’t not exist The problems in the sphere of juvenile justice in Pakistan are manifold and often complex;and all are important from a child rights standpoint. The Juvenile Justice System Ordinance was enacted in 2000 and deals with children who come into conflictwith the law. Child labor has many faces in Pakistan. It is estimated that there are over 10 million child laborers in Pakistan Child education in Pakistan is in a dismal state. Inadequacies of education system in terms of weak infrastructure, poor quality teaching, lack of qualified teachers, teacher absenteeism,corporalpunishment and emotional, verbal abuse, strict conditions and lack of learning materials pushes children out of school Corporal Punishment is prohibited in the government schools of Sindh since 2004.Despite all these measures, physical violence, government,
  7. 7. `and private schools are widely prevalent and institutions have failed to bring about a major change in banning the practice This bleak situation is mainly due to a lack of vision and the lopsided policies and priorities of the people at the helms of affairs Every child has a right to live his/her life free from violence, including corporal/physicalpunishment and humiliating and degrading punishment. The understanding, acceptance and implementation of child rights can gradually eliminate violence against children in all forms and from the entire institutions Health care for a majority of children suffers from basic deficiencies. That is forgivable and not surprisingly accounts for the poorhealth indicators for Pakistan's children, which is inevitably reflected in the national statistics on health and economic productivity. With the infant mortality rate at 84 per 1000 live births, under- five mortality rate a shocking 125 per 1000 and 38 percent of children under five being under-weight, one can only hold the state accountable for its failure to fulfill its basic duty of providing healthcare to its citizens, especiallythe younger ones History Of Child Welfare Services  Child welfare services in Pakistan , their Organization & Functioning Child welfare Servicesin Pakistan : From Book Their Organization& Functioning : There are many organizations of child welfare are working in Pakistan , Some of their names are Voice of Children , Children First , Children education & Health , Make a Wish and many others They are playing an important role Functioning is as above Who
  8. 8. WHO seeks to improve maternal, newborn and child health in Pakistan. In particular, since the devolution of health services, the provincial role of WHO Pakistan has become more important. WHO's maternal, newborn and child health programme provides technical support to provincial health authorities through the recruitment of maternal, newborn and child health officers and assists them to implement maternal, newborn and child health strategies and programmes. The programme includes family planning and reproductive health components. Training and community awareness The maternal, newborn and child health programme focused on capacity development in 2011. Using newly developed or adapted training modules, health care providers have been trained in the integrated management of newborn and childhood illness, essential newborn care and basic emergency obstetric care. WHO Pakistan developed an emergency obstetric care package, in accordance with the pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and newborn care guidelines for health care providers working at first-level care facilities. Support was also provided on the integration of training on essential newborn care, integrated management of newborn and childhood illness, and hospital management of severe acute malnutrition into the curricula of medical schools. Integrated management of newborn and childhood illness pre-service training was expanded to eight additional medical schools across Pakistan.  Child Welfare Services & their developmentin Allied Societies The traditional child welfare or child protectionservice of the organization completesinvestigations in circumstances of child abuse and neglect when children and youth are under the age of sixteen. The goal of the service is to ensure the safety of children while also
  9. 9. supporting the natural family and whenever possible,keeping children and parents together. To this end, counseling supportand alternative placements are available when necessary. The following non-legal definitions describewhat might constitute a situation which could require reporting to the agency and warrant child protectionintervention: a. Non-accidental infliction of physical harm b. Malnutrition c. Emotional harm d. Sexual abuse/harm PhysicalHarm:is when a child has been injured by a personwho has care or custodyof him, or if that person has permitted the injury. This includes, but is not necessarily restricted to, physical beating, wounding, burning, poisoning and related assaults causing visible or invisible physical injuries. Physical harm for the purposes ofthese provisions is also reportable if the child’s health is at serious risk because of an adult’s neglector refusal to obtain necessarycare or treatment for him. Failure to thrive diagnosis are included in this the definition. Malnutrition:addresses alack of sufficientor adequate nourishment. Dehydration is included in this definition. EmotionalHarm: refers to a situation where a child’s emotional needs have beenso seriously neglected as a result of rejectionor lack of affection that intervention is essential. In such cases,the mental ill-health is reportable if the action or attitude of the personwho has the child’s care is the primary cause of the child’s condition. It is usually accompanied by an unwillingness or inability on the part of the care-taking personto assistthe child to obtain appropriate treatment. SexualAbuse/Harm: refers to any impropersexual activity between a child and the adult who has his care or custody. The consent of the child is irrelevant, as is the absence of physical injury. Incestuous relationships are included in this definition. Improperor excessive sexual activity between children may constitute sexual abuse/harm if an adult in charge of either child knows about it and does nothing. The definition is not intended to encompass normal sexual experimentation between children.
  10. 10. Most people in our community want, and try, to be good parents. The majority are capable and responsiblein caring for and protecting their children. There are times when some parents may mistreat or harm their children due to problems they are having in their family. Whena requestfor help or a report is made to Differing Child and Family Services,that a child has been or is suspectedof being mistreated or harmed, a Child ProtectionWorker will becomeinvolved by speaking with everyone in the family to determine what is happening and what services may be of help to protectthe child from risk of harm  Child Welfare Roll of United Nation Agencies UNICEF Child ProtectionProgrammers The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is the main UN organization defending,promoting and protecting children’s rights. It also works towards protecting the world’s mostdisadvantaged children. UNICEF believes that children have the  Right to Adequate Nutrition,  Right to Education,  Right to Health,  Right to Participate,  Right to Protection,  Right to Clean Water Protecting children from violence, exploitation and abuse is an integral component of protecting their rights to survival, growth and development. UNICEF’s commitment to protecting children is underlined in UNICEF's Child Protection Strategy (CPS), approved in
  11. 11. 2008 and contains two main pillars that are applicable in all contexts, including emergencies 1) Strengthening child protectionsystems – including laws, policies, regulations and services across all social sectors but especiallysocial welfare, education, health, security and justice 2) Supporting social change that contributes to improved protection of children from violence, exploitation and abuse. We draw on our Core Corporate Commitments, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Millennium Declaration and numerous international human rights agreements as the basis for our response. Key Issues addressedunderChild Protection Violations of the child’s right to protection take place in every country and are massive, under-recognized and under-reported barriers to child survival and development, in addition to being human rights violations. Children subjected to violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect are at risk of death, poor physical and mental health, HIV/AIDS infection, educational problems, displacement, homelessness, vagrancy and becoming poorparents later in life. Family as an institution with reference to child Rights
  12. 12.  sociologicalsignificance of family in personality developmentof a child The part played by the family in the emotional growth of children, particularly with reference to maladjustments, has been stressed repeatedlyby psychoanalysts and psychiatrists. ProfessorW.F. Ogburn, as a sociologist,emphasized the unique place of the family in providing for the emotional developmentof its members.In fact, he asserted that the essential function of the family at the present time inhered in relationships of affectionabout which it is organized and through which it endures. The environment that you as a family provide for your child will also influence his personality development. According to the AAP, if you and your partner fight in front of your child, he may exhibit aggressive behavior or becomewithdrawn and cry frequently. A child who is part of a stable family environment developsa sense of belonging -- which leads to a healthy self-esteem,confidence and individuality. The child who is born or adopted into a one-thousand-word family is certainly at a disadvantage on an intelligence test, all other factors being equal, when compared with a child who has been brought up in a family with a 10,000 word vocabulary. More important than the number of words are the meanings of words and their construction into idioms that express attitudes and customary behavior. Language is thus a measure of social- cultural participation. Often the cultural attitude implanted in the child is a frustrated ambition of a parent, as the mother who brought her daughter up to go to college and become ateacher as she herself had planned but circumstances prevented.Or the parent may have aspirations of a great career or noble service for the child The mind of the child is . . . deeply rooted in the family as its center; his earliest words, ideas, modes of thought, are those he gathers from parents and brothers; and each day he takes back to them the new words and ideas which he gathers in the outside world, and they again are molded
  13. 13. and interpreted by the family. He recounts his exploits, tells of his companions and teachers, is subjected to praise or criticism,and listens to similar narratives from other members;and next day he returns to the outside Conflicts between parents and children, as well as mental and moral conflicts within the person,are almost always the result of the clash between family and community standards.  The Family's Influence on a Child's Personality There are numerous factors that influence your child's personality development.While certainly your little one's choices and friendships will affecthis behavior and temperament, your family's make-up, the genes that you pass along to him and his familial environment are all powerful influences on your child's personality. Let’s discuss in detail with points Environment and Personality The environment that children grow up in certainly has some impact on what type of personality characteristics they develop.If families are high conflict, and the children are drawn into many arguments and disagreements,they are much more likely to becomewithdrawn or have a personality that is conflict-drivenas they grow older. In addition, if a family does not have any sort of structure within the household,children will be
  14. 14. much more impulsive and may get into trouble more often than children who come from structured households. Genetic Factors Despite the environment playing a role in personality traits, there are still genetic influences that play a role in the developmentof personality traits. Genetic similarities between the family and child can lead to children having a temperamentand attitude that is similar to their parents. For example, outgoing parents can have children who are more willing to take risks as they continue to grow older. Personality Disorders Genetic and environmental influences also have been linked to the developmentof personality disorders,or deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of personality traits that cause distress in a person’s life. According to the American Psychiatric Association,genetic influences play a role in the developmentof personality disorders,especiallyin obsessive- compulsive disorder,while environmental influences such as past trauma and verbal abuse also contribute to the disorders.Developing strong bonds to people can help prevent the developmentof a personality disorder, whether that bond is with a parent, close relative or even a peer. Birth Order Birth orderin children can have major effects on their personality traits as they continue to get older, especiallyif the age between siblings is close. First-borns have been shown to take on more responsibilitythan younger siblings, which likely has to do with the parenting style of the new parents. They are often perfectionists who feel large amounts of pressure to accomplishthe mostthat they can. In addition, a middle child can tend to
  15. 15. get lost in the mix of the family and be more withdrawn and impulsive than the other children. From Book : 203 to 206  Parenthood & Roll of a parents in Child Rearing Definition of Parenthood :  The state of being a parent and the responsibilities involved.  The state of being a Mother or a Father Parenthood : Parenthood is the state of being a parent, or one who is either a father or mother. A parent is responsible forthe well being, education and care for a child while the child is a minor, or under the age of 18 The parent has a moral, social and legal obligation to the child under his care. This means that the parent is legally obligated to provide food, shelter, clothing, safety, health care and an education for the child until the child's 18th birthday. Parents are also charged with the socialization of the child, making sure that the child has the social and communicationskills necessaryto interact successfullyin society. The parent is legally responsible formeeting his obligations to the child and for any actions that the child takes while underage. For instance, if a child commits a crime, such as stealing, the parents are considered as culpable in the eyes of the law as if they had perpetrated the incident. If a parent is found to be neglecting or abusing a child, the state government can revoke parental rights. A parent can also give up his parental rights legally by passing them along to someone elseas part of a legal adoption of the child.  Roll of Parents in Child Rearing :
  16. 16. Children Need Confidence Children with confidence have an easier time at schooland in society, according to KidsHealth.org. A child gets his first taste of confidence at home when he figures out that a toothless grin at any passing adult will garner attention and smiles. As the child grows, parents are responsible for continuing to build that confidence.Children should be given increasing responsibilities so theyexperience successand build confidence in their abilities. A toddler can help put toys in a toy box. A preschoolercan help set a table and elementary-aged kids are able to sweep,take out trash and do other chores.Praising successand correcting errors build a child's confidence whichwill serve him well in life. Boosting Your Child's Self-Esteem Kids start developing their sense of self as babies when they see themselves through their parents' eyes. Your tone of voice,your body language, and your every expressionare absorbed by your kids. Your words and actions as a parent affecttheir developing self-esteem more than anything else. Praising accomplishments,however small, will make them feelproud; letting kids do things independently will make them feelcapable and strong. By contrast, belittling comments or comparing a child unfavorably with another will make kids feelworthless. Avoid making loaded statements or using words as weapons. Comments like "What a stupid thing to do!" or "You act more like a baby than your little brother!" cause damage just as physical blows do. Choose your words carefully and be compassionate.Let your kids know that everyone makes mistakes and that you still love them, even when you don't love their behavior
  17. 17. Set Limits and Be ConsistentWith Your Discipline Discipline is necessaryin every household.The goal of discipline is to help kids choose acceptable behaviors and learn self-control.They may test the limits you establish for them, but they need those limits to grow into responsible adults. Establishing house rules helps kids understand your expectations and develop self-control.Some rules might include: no TV until homework is done, and no hitting, name-calling, or hurtful teasing allowed. Make Time for YourKids It's often difficult forparents and kids to get togetherfor a family meal, let alone spend quality time together. But there is probably nothing kids would like more. Get up 10 minutes earlier in the morning so you can eat breakfast with your child or leave the dishes in the sink and take a walk after dinner. Kids who aren't getting the attention they want from their parents often act out or misbehave because they're sure to be noticed that way. Many parents find it rewarding to schedule together time with their kids. Create a "specialnight" each week to be together and let your kids help decide how to spend the time. Look for other ways to connect — put a note or something specialin your kid's lunchbox. Benefits Dads Bring Children whose fathers are involved in their everyday lives have better social development,self-esteem and chances of academic success, according to Christine Langlois, author of “Raising Great Kids." This may be because your role as a father in child-rearing is differentfrom your partner's, or because children benefitfrom having the increased attention and interest from both of you. The best predictorof this involvement is the amount of quality time you spend one-on-one with your kids. Children
  18. 18. whose dads are actively involved usually also have better language skills and fewer behavioral problems Be a Good Role Model Young kids learn a lot about how to act by watching their parents. The younger they are, the more cues they take from you. Before you lash out or blow your top in front of your child, think about this: Is that how you want your child to behave when angry? Be aware that you're constantly being watched by your kids. Studies have shown that children who hit usually have a role modelfor aggressionat home. Model the traits you wish to see in your kids: respect,friendliness,honesty, kindness, tolerance. Exhibit unselfishbehavior. Do things for other people without expecting a reward. Express thanks and offercompliments.Above all, treat your kids the way you expect other people to treat you Daddy'sGirls You can also help your daughters develop their sense of what it means to be a woman, according to Langlois. A woman's relationship with men seems to be based on her relationship with her dad, the first male in her life. Your daughters learn from you that they are worthy of being loved by a man. You are also the modelof how a man should treat women. Girls whose dads are less involved tend to have more mental health problems later in life, Finello reports. When you praise your daughter, she is more likely to develop independence and confidence. From Book : Page # 203 to 206 Ahh…. Haaaa , Jy main ny ol Amo ny mil k bay hain Notes :P , hay nzr na lgy :P
  19. 19. Psychological Factors  Personality growth of a child in Unhappy Homes , Broken Families , Suffering with illness & Constrains A. Unhappy Homes Poor upbringing No Self Grooming Fear of Society Don’t know how to talk Less Confidence Embarrassment In Complex DisturbedMind ( Suicide , Adjustment, Bagi)
  20. 20. B. Broken Families Children from broken families are nearly five times more likely to suffer damaging mental troubles than those whose parents stay together, Government research has found. It also showed that two parents are much better than one if children are to avoid slipping into emotional distress and anti-social behavior. It also looked at conduct disorders which result in aggressive,violent or anti-social behavior. A child whose parents had split during this time was more than four and a half times more likely to have developedan emotional disorderthan one whose parents stayed together. They were nearly three times more likely to exhibit a conduct disorder. Eleven per cent of those children whose families broke up had emotional disorders,against 3 per cent among those whose families were still together Parental divorce has as stronger impact than separation and even death of a parent. However, the effectsdifferby gender: The results suggestthat boys are on average more negatively affected by parental death than girls, while girls seem to suffermore from a separation or divorce of their parents. Children experiencing family disruptions during adolescence. At the same time, these children are more likely to develop behavioral problems.The effects on personality developmentare smaller when children are olderat the time of the experienced disruption. Some older children may show very little emotional reaction to their parents’ divorce.This may not be developmentallybeneficial. Some children who show little emotional response are actually bottling up their negative feelings.This emotional suppressionmakes it difficultfor parents, teachers and therapists to help the child process her feelings in developmentally appropriate ways. Other children may experience anxiety,
  21. 21. which can make it difficultfor them to seek positive socialinteractions and engage in developmentallybeneficialactivities such as teen sports C. Suffering with Illness Mental illness in children include low self-esteem,poorbodyimage, a tendency to be highly self-critical,and feeling helpless when dealing with negative events Teenagers who sufferfrom conduct disorder,attention deficithyperactivity disorder(ADHD), clinical anxiety, or who have cognitive and learning problems,as well as trouble relating to others are at higher risk of also developing a mental disorder. Mentalillness Mental disorders in children are quite common,occurring in about one- quarter of this age group in any given year. The most commonchildhood mental disorders are anxiety disorders, depression,and attention deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with mental-health problems can have lower educational achievement, greater involvement with the criminal justice system,and fewer stable placements in the child welfare system than their peers Anxiety disorders Children with anxiety disorders respond to certain things or situations with fear and dread, as well as with physical signs of anxiety (nervousness), such as a rapid heartbeat and sweating D. Constrains Some children are more likely to have problems building inner strength. They may have risk factors, such as being in certain situations, having certain medical conditions,or having certain personalities,that make it harder for them to be resilient. But the more parents understand about
  22. 22. these risk factors, the better they will be able to help their children learn how to cope. Internalrisk factors Internal risk factors are part of a child's personality or health history. Examples include:  Hyperactivity.  Concentration problems.  Problems with learning.  Serious illness. Externalrisk factors External risk factors are in the family, schools,and community. Examples include:  Poverty.  Parents with severe marital problems.  Remarriage of parents.  Moving to a new town.  Overcrowded classrooms.  High crime rate in the neighborhood. A counseloror therapist can help you and your child learn healthy ways to cope with stress.
  23. 23.  Family Relationship & Emotional Development Families are a vital part of children's and young people'slives as this is where they are loved, nurtured, cared for and learn to become independent adults. The family and the relationships within have a huge influence on a child's well-being and emotional developmentand their ability to cope with situations, challenges, relationships and living Having good and healthy relationships between family members will assist the child/young personto feelsafe, secure and loved. Regardless of the structure of a family, the parent's and care’s role is to establish an environment of love, care, nurturing and respectas well as to provide supportand guidance for children and young people as they grow. This role is critical for fostering their development In particular, parent-child relationships have a crucial impact on child outcomes,with warm and supportive parents being associated with positive mental, behavioral, emotional and physical child development.A child needs this type of emotional environment in which to learn and grow Harsh, abusive, and/or emotionally neglectfulparenting may create emotional, behavioral, mental, and physical health difficulties in childhood and at later stages in life  Tips for growingstrongerfamily relationships Show emotionalstability and consistency Parents are able to demonstrate emotional stability and consistencyin thought and actions they are more likely to be warm, cooperative and sympathetic in relation to their children. This in turn plays an important role in creating a quality parent-child relationship. As parents show that they value socially acceptable behaviors in both themselves and their children they fostergreater trust, harmony, active cooperationand positive coexistence with their children. Being consistently warm and respectfulis a great way to show children and young people that they are being loved and cared for.
  24. 24. Be attentive to your childrenand involve them in family life Being listened to and being involved in family life is a necessityfor every child and young person. Provide your child with opportunities to express their opinion and also be part of the household decisions making. It will help you to understand their point of view and will help them feel that they are part of the family. Spend time together Spend time togetherdoing things that you both enjoy, such as playing together, going to the local park etc. Use the time that you spend together such as mealtimes for conversation and a good laugh. Make sure your family doe’s fun stuff together on a regular basis. When planning family outings and activities take into consideration the needs all family members. One way of spending quality with younger children is by reading with them on a regular basis. This is a great way to develop their reading abilities as well as having time together. This in turn will strengthen the parent-child bond and will provide your child with a great head start at school Give space to your child to express theirindependence It is important to know what's going on in the lives of children and young people but they also need their own personal space and autonomy suited to their age, stage of developmentand maturity.  The Compositionof the Family & its Efforton Personality Development E. The Only Child Defilation :  An only child is a person with no siblings, either biological or adopted.
  25. 25.  Stereotypesaboutonly Child Only children are bossy& aggressive also have imaginary companions to compensate fortheir loneliness. They are also Spoiled & Selfish Only children are people who grow up without siblings. They have been stereotyped as "selfish," "lonely," and "maladjusted." To begin, the only child is first and last child in one and so is the only chance at parenting the parents get. Thus they take this charge very seriously. Because they want to do right by their son or daughter, parenting an only child can be high-pressure parenting. They don't want to make mistakes at the child's expense and so are very conscientious and deliberate in their parenting. Usually the child feels a comparable obligation to do right by the parents. This is not a laid back family because everyone is trying extremely hard to do their best by each other. Second,the only child gets the entire social, emotional, and material resources those parents have to provide. He or she is their sole beneficiary. Because parents typically make a high investment in nurturing
  26. 26. and providing for the child, they oftenhave a high expectation of return. They expect the child to turn out well.  Only child personality traits What are the personality traits of only children? The psychologyof only children Only children are usually overly confidentif not arrogant. Because no one steals the attention they get from their parents only children get used to being in the center of attention and this usually makes them showy adults. Only children usually impress adults with their brilliance and intelligence. As a result of growing up with adults around them they learn quickly and develop better life skills provided that they are not spoiled. If an only child was spoiled he will develop completelydifferent personality traits, for example, he might lack properlife skills, he might lack self confidence and will becomeoverly dependenton others. Only children personality and socializing If the only child was allowed to play with other children he will develop the social skills needed and the personality traits that will help him connect with others. If he was isolated then he might not develop social interest and might not learn how to cooperate with others. An only child also has got the ability to entertain himself and to feelgood on his own as a result of finding himself alone most of the time. This doesn'tmean that only children are not social but it only means that they can enjoy the company of others as well as enjoying their own company.
  27. 27. SocialInteraction of only Child Because only children lack siblings, they lose the immediate availability of others near their own age with whom to interact socially. In order to develop normal social skills, only children must be exposed to other children of the same age through other means. For example, play groups can be valuable for the learning of socialskills. However, only children must work to win friends because family life does not provide them. F. The Middle Child : Definition :  When a middle child - typically of a family of three kids who are close in age - feels left out or neglected.
  28. 28.  Stereotypesaboutmiddle children They are consideredto be neglected,resentful, have no drive, have a negative outlook, and feellike they don’t belong— in other words The challenge that the middle child faces is that he finds himself squeezed between two other siblings who get most of the attention. As a result of this situation the  Middle child might develop these personality traits: Low self esteem If the middle child didn't learn how to cope with that situation he will develop low self esteem and becomesocially withdrawn because of believing that there is something wrong with him Shyness The middle child might develop a personality trait such as shyness if he felt overlooked.Many people lookat shyness superficially without understanding that it’s usually an indication of the person's low estimation of his self worth. As a result of not getting enough attention the middle child might think that he is inferior and so develop shyness. (See Shyness in children) Middle childrenare diplomats Middle children usually become diplomats and peace makers who help the youngest and the eldest get along. In some cases the middle child might
  29. 29. develop excessive jealousy of his siblings and then grow up thinking that he is not loved or overlooked (see Jealousy between siblings) Middle children can become problemchildren: If the middle child started becoming rebellious against the lack of attention he might turn into a problem child. Many people don't understand that the personality traits problem children develop result from the need of attention that they crave for. Middle children feelless pressure to achievethan firstborns Parents place extra focus on their first child and once the third one comes along, the middle child has more space to come into his or her own. Middle kids aren’t expected to be the role model and they aren’t being babied as the youngest so they have more freedom to cookup experiments in the corner. Middles are ambitious Although ambition is a trait most associated with firstborns,middle-borns are often extremely driven, motivated by principals and willing to break new ground. G. The YoungestChild Definition  One that is the least old; especially: the youngest child or memberof a family.  StereotypesaboutYoungestChild They are commonlypretend like a parent or confidentalso little selfish The youngest child finds himself in he usually becomes overly ambitions and highly competitive.Youngest children usually are the ones
  30. 30. who usually make big changes to the world as a result of their extreme ambition and their strong fighting spirit. There is one important fact you must understand about how personality traits develop which is that there are two ways in which a person could respond to his environment, The first one is a the positive way which involves a positive response that helps the persongrow while the other way is the negative one which prevents the developmentof a healthy personality.  Personality traits of youngest children Parentingstyle and personality If the youngest child was raised in house that gave him extra attention than his brothers and sisters then that child might turn into showy adult because that way he will be able to replicate the favorable condition he was in when he was young. Youngest children have a burning desire to be the first at everything they do, being the youngest child myself i discovered that when i was eagerly
  31. 31. reading about psychologytrying to understand why do i always want to be on the top of everything that interests me. If the parents of the youngest child were overprotective and if they pampered him too much then he might develop some undesirable personality traits such as a lack of self confidence. Selfishness Youngest children sometimesdevelop is selfishness. If the youngest child always found everyone around him serving him then he might grow up thinking that he is more important than others and thus becomeself centered. Solid Self confidence Youngest children who are pampered and who are not allowed to face life themselves fail to develop the life skills they need and thus start feeling inferior compared to others. H. Children in Large Family : The large families usually have a diametrically differentculture and milieu to that of the small family. Parental interaction is rare to nonexistent. As a result of this little or none parental interaction, children in large families do not develop the close relationship with their parents that children from small families have. In fact, the conceptof a close and intense parent-child relationship in large families is quite an anathema to put it mildly. Because of little or no parental interaction with their children in large to very large families,it is quite rife for children to mainly interact with each other. They either raise themselves and/or each other. Children having little or no parental interaction have lower levels of intellectual maturity. They possess more childish mannerisms because all they interact with are other
  32. 32. children who are on the lower, same, and/or higher level. It is not uncommon for children from large families to state that they learn more from their siblings than they do from their parents. Studies show that in order for children to develop properly, parental interaction is important; however, this is missing in the average large family. Yes, there is a marked differencebetweenchildren from small and children from large families in terms of parental interaction and in intellectual/academic development. Children in large families are also inculcated not to value their individuality and to considerthemselves to be put of a group. They oftenhave little or no sense of self because they were taught that to have a sense of self is consideredto be self-indulgent, self-centered,and in general, selfish. They are taught not to voice their needs and their individual needs are last. The conceptof privacy is nil in the large family environment. They are taught that personal privacy is totally unnecessary. Psychologistsand social scientists have emphasized the importance of personal space and privacy to the human psyche but it falls on deaf ears in large families. People in large families are used to doing things in crowds. They have a crowd mentality and are quite uncomfortable with solitude and/or being alone. There are many ways which the large family environment dramatically differs from that of the small family environment! Parents in large families seldom interact with their children, leaving that responsibilityto their oldest/olderchildren, especiallydaughters. Middle children, forgetabout it, are totally ignored in large families. If they exist, fine, and if not, well..... In other words, they are mostly in the way. As a result of their nebulous status, many middle children either become more unobtrusive than they actually are or become more vocal and aggressive in a bid to garner parental attention. Well,the youngest, of course, have the longestchildhood and the least responsibilitiesof the birth orders in a large family. He/she has the longestand most carefree childhood and adolescence of all. If you hear anyone say that they loved being part of a large family, guess what- they are ALWAYS the youngest child.
  33. 33.  Advantages of a large family A large family has some very strong advantages, Members can help each other in bad times. A large family has parents, children and uncles, aunties and grandparents. Therefore,children can enjoy the company of all the members.They are never alone. A large family also has a joyful atmosphere.Everyone has his/her story at the end of the day and they all sit and talk about their good experiences,their problems and possible solutions together. Finally, a large family can save money in various differentways. Because they all live together, the cost becomes lowin total and they can save a lot. A large family is a lovely place to live in.  Disadvantages of a Large Family There are several disadvantages of having a large family. First of all, there is hardly any privacy. In a large family, you may have to share bedrooms with your sisters or brothers. It is hard to have any time alone because there are so many people living in one house. In addition, a large family often has more expenses than a small family. Sometimes,children or parents cannot buy what they want because they have to save money for others in the family. Finally, in a large family there is more responsibilityon the parents to take care of all their children. It takes a lot of work by parents to make sure that all their children grow up to be good people.A large family is not easy to live in. I. The Family Cycle with Reference to Child’s Life :
  34. 34. J. Personality Developmentin the Extended Family as Compareto the Nuclear Family : Definition of ExtendedFamily :  An extended family is a family that extends beyond the immediate family, consisting of grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household. An example is a married couple that lives with either the husband or the wife's parents. Definition of Nuclear Family :  A nuclear family or elementary family is a family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children. This is in contrast to a single- parent family, to the larger extended family, and to a family with more than two parents. Personality developmentin ExtendedFamily VS Nuclear Family Family is the most basic social unit in any society.A family is a unit that consists of biologically related people that live together in a house. There are two types of family: Nuclear family and Extended family. It basically said that because of the size of the family, each sibling doesn'tget a sufficientamount of per child parental time and this can result in a more childlike intellectual level. They found that children from smaller families were more likely to have beenread to by their parents earlier in life and were more likely to engage themselves in activities of intellectual or cultural achievement. They also were said to have better social skills because children in larger families are less likely to possessan urgency to associate or play outside of the family. Children in small families receive a greater amount of individual attention and tend to be comfortable around adults at an early age. They may also be overprotected,however, which can result in dependence,lack of initiative, and fear of risk, and the increased parental attention may also take the form of excessive scrutiny and pressure to live up to other people's expectations.Researchers have found that only children are often loners and have the lowest need for affiliation. They tend to have high IQs and are successfulacademically Note : Read previous topic “ Children in large families”
  35. 35. Problems of the Children  Social , Psychological , Emotional Problems of the Children 1. SocialProblems Some of the Social problems are given bellow Family Separation Separation and divorce,and the events leading up to them, interrupt the stability and predictability that children need. Other than the death of an immediate family member,divorce is the most stressfulevent that can affecta family. Because the world as they know it has ended, children may feela great loss as well as anxiety, anger, and sadness.Children may fear being abandoned or losing their parents' love. Also,for many reasons, parenting skills oftenworsen around the time of the divorce.Parents are usually preoccupiedand may be angry and hostile toward each other. Children may feel guilty about causing the divorce. If parents ignore children or visit sporadically and unpredictably, children feelrejected. Child Abuse Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglectof a child or children.
  36. 36.  Physical abuse Involves physical aggressiondirected at a child by an adult.  Child sexual abuse (CSA) Is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescentabuses a child for sexual stimulation.  Emotional abuse Is defined as the production of psychologicaland social defectsin the growth of a child as a result of behavior such as loud yelling, coarse and rude attitude, inattention, harsh criticism, and denigration of the child's personality. Other examples include name-calling, ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings Child trafficking Child trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receiptof children for the purpose of exploitation.[ Children are trafficked for purposes such as of commercialsexual exploitation, bonded labor, camel jockeying, child domestic labor, drug couriering, child soldiering, illegal adoptions,begging. It is difficult to obtain reliable estimates concerning the number of children trafficked each year, primarily due to the covert and criminal nature of the practice Child marriage A child marriage is a marriage whereby minors are given in matrimony - often before puberty. Child marriages are commonin many parts of the world, especiallyin parts of Asia and Africa. These marriages are typically arranged and often forced;as young children are generally not capable of giving valid consentto enter into marriage, child marriages are often considered bydefault to be forced marriages. Marriages under the age of majority have a great potential to constitute a form of child abuse
  37. 37. Child Labor Child labor refers to the employmentof children in any work that deprives children of their childhood,interferes with their ability to attend regular school,and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organizations. Legislations across the world prohibit child labor StreetChildren Street children is a term for children experiencing homelessness who live on the streets of a city. Homeless youth are often called street kids and street youth Book , Page # 212 to 221 2. PsychologicalProblems Mentalillness Mental disorders in children are quite common,occurring in about one- quarter of this age group in any given year. The most commonchildhood mental disorders are anxiety disorders, depression, and attention deficithyperactivity disorder(ADHD). Children with mental-health problems can have lower educational achievement, greater involvement with the criminal justice system,and fewer stable placements in the child welfare system than their peers Anxiety disorders Children with anxiety disorders respond to certain things or situations with fear and dread, as well as with physical signs of anxiety (nervousness), such as a rapid heartbeat and sweating. Disruptive behavior disorders Children with these disorders tend to defy rules and often are disruptive in structured environments, such as school.
  38. 38. Pervasivedevelopmentdisorders Children with these disorders are confused in their thinking and generally have problems understanding the world around them. Eating disorders Eating disorders involve intense emotions and attitudes, as well as unusual behaviors associated with weight and/or food. Elimination disorders Disorders that affectbehavior related to using the bathroom. Enuresis, or bed-wetting, is the mostcommonof the elimination disorders. Learning and communication disorders Children with these disorders have problems storing and processing information, as well as relating their thoughts and ideas. Affective (mood) disorders These disorders involve persistent feelings of sadness and/or rapidly changing moods,and include depressionand bipolar disorder.A more recent diagnosis is called disruptive mood deregulations disorder,a childhood and adolescentcondition involving chronic or persistent irritability and frequent angry outbursts. Schizophrenia This disorderinvolves distorted perceptions and thoughts. Behavior Children show aggressioneven for miner things 3. EmotionalProblems Children with emotional or behavioral disorders are characterized primarily by behavior that falls significantly beyond the norms of their cultural and age group on two dimensions:externalizing and internalizing. Both patterns
  39. 39. of abnormal behavior have adverse effects on children’s academic achievement and social relationships. Externalizing Behaviors The most commonbehavior pattern of children with emotional and behavioral disorders consists of antisocial or externalizing behaviors. In the classroom,children with externalizing behaviors frequently do the following  Get out of their seats  Yell, talk out, and curse  Disturb peers  Hit or fight  Ignore  Complain  Argue excessively  Steal  Lie  Destroy property  Do not comply with directions Internalizing Behaviors A child with an internalizing disorder is said to be suffering from depression, and experience loss of interest in activities including social activities, work, and life. Internalizing behaviors are negative, problematic behaviors that are directed toward the self.Children with internalizing behaviors have difficulty coping with negative emotions or stressfulsituations, so they directtheir feelings inward. internalizing behaviors are usually not visible to others.  Social withdrawal  Feelings of loneliness or guilt
  40. 40.  Unexplained physical symptoms, i.e., headaches and stomach aches, not due to a medical condition  Not talking to or interacting with others  Feeling unloved  Feelings of sadness  Nervousness or irritability  Fearfulness  Not standing up for yourself  Changes in sleeping or eating patterns From Book : Page # 209  Child Rights Convection The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights—civil, cultural, economic,politicaland social rights. In 1989,world leaders decided that children needed a specialconvention just for them because people under 18 years old often need specialcare and protectionthat adults do not. The leaders also wanted to make sure that the world recognized that children have human rights too The Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles and two Optional Protocols.It spells out the basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protectionfrom harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life The four core principles of the Convention Non-discrimination Devotion to the bestinterests of the child The right to life, survival and development Respectfor the views of the child
  41. 41. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious developmentof every child. The Convention protects children's rights by setting standards in health care; education; and legal, civil and social services. By agreeing to undertake the obligations of the Convention (by ratifying or acceding to it), national governments have committed themselves to protecting and ensuring children's rights and they have agreed to hold themselves accountable for this commitmentbefore the international community. States parties to the Convention are obliged to develop and undertake all actions and policies in the light of the bestinterests of the child. Pakistan Pakistan ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 12 November 1990 SaudiArabia Saudi Arabia ratified the Convention in 1996,with a reservation "with respectto all such articles as are in conflictwith the provisions of Islamic law” and considers it to be a valid source of domestic law. The Committee on the Rights of the Child, which reviewed Saudi Arabia's treatment of children under the Convention in January 2005,strongly condemned the government for its practice of imposing the death penalty on juveniles, calling it "a serious violation of the fundamental rights". The committee said it was "deeplyalarmed" over the discretionary power judges hold to treat juveniles as adults From Book , Page # 210  Child Rights in Islam Allah, subhanahu wa ta`ala, has made the parents' heart as the source of love for their children. The love for children has been `legislated' by Allah in the very nature of parenthood. It is normal for a parent to love
  42. 42. this or her child; it is abnormal for a parent not to love his or her child. This is the natural law as well as the religious law. Islam has provided some wonderful guidelines for the parents in orderto bring up their children —from birth to age 21— in the properIslamic manner. The Prophet said to Imam ‘Ali: “O ‘Ali, there are as many rights of children incumbent upon parents as there are rights of parents incumbent upon children.” The topic of Islam and children includes the rights of children in Islam, children's duties towards their parents, and parent's rights over their children, both biologicaland fosterchildren. Also discussedare some of the differences regarding rights with respectto differentschools of thought.  Some Basic Rights The rights of children upon their parents can be summarized under the following six items: THE RIGHT TO LIVE No parent has the right to abort the child or to kill the child after birth for any reason whatsoever. For example, the Qur'ân has strongly condemned those who kill their children for fear of poverty. Allah says: “Do not kill your children because of (fear of) poverty—We will provide for you and them.” (6:152)The Prophetsaid, “Whoeverrefrains from marriage because of fear of poverty, he has indeed thought badly of God.” THE RIGHT TO BELONG TO A FAMILY No parent can disown his or her child, or deprive the child from the family name. THE RIGHT TO HAVE A GOOD NAME Imam ‘Ali says: “The first beneficence ofa parent towards his child is to give him a good name; therefore,you should name your child with a good name.” A child hears his name day and night; and it is reasonable to believe that the meaning of that name subconsciouslystrengthens those characteristics which are implied in that name. What is emphasized here is
  43. 43. the fact that a name has a psychologicaleffecton the person, provided it is not counter-mended by rearing or society. A bad name has one more tangible evil effect.Wheneverthat name is announced, the personwill feel embarrassmentand the name will become a source of constant irritation, affecting his outlook on society. Hence the emphasis in ahâdith on giving good names to children. The Prophet used to emphasize this aspectof life so much that Imam as- Sadiq said, “The Prophet used to change the bad names of people and places.” THE RIGHT OF MAINTENANCE It is a child's right to be provided by the parents with the necessities of life: food,dress,shelter, furniture, and whatever a personnormally needs to live a respectablelife. THE RIGHT TO HAVE BASIC EDUCATION It is the right of a child to receive basic secular as well as religious education. THE RIGHT TO BE BROUGHT UP ACCORDING TO ISLAM It is the right of the child to be brought up in a home environment which is Islamic. Equality and Justice Between children Justice, in particular social justice, is a major theme in Islam, which was revealed in a time when justice was lacking. Islam's teachings and rulings restored social justice in the tribal societies at the time. Muslims who fear Allah in their heart and are keen to earn His satisfaction should treat their children equally, not favoring one over the others, in spending,treatment, and giving gifts to them. Children are a blessing from Allah and to thank Allah for such a blessing, parents should fulfill the duties Allah prescribed onthem towards their children
  44. 44.  Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and Loving Children Once Messengerof Allah (PBUH) was on his way to someone'shome;he saw Imam Hussain playing with boys. Messengerof Allah (PBUH) extended his hands for little Imam Hussain to go up and played with him and made him laugh in front of everybody; then he held him and gave him a kiss. Messengerof Allah (PBUH) used to give his Salaam (greetings)to children and would tell his companions (Sahaba): "I give my Salaam to children and respectthem, and Muslims should followmy behavior and always be warm and loving with children." Messengerof Allah (PBUH) said : Children are the Flowers of Jannah Prophet Muhammad was reported as saying: "Be fair and just in terms of the gifts you offeryour children. If I was to give preference to any (gender over the other) I would have preferred femalesover males (in terms of giving gifts)."  Relationship betweenParents and Childrenin Islam: "Your parents and your children, you know not which of them is the nearer to you in usefulness;this is an ordinance from Allah: Surely Allah is knowing, Wise." Noble Qur'an (4:11) The above verse from Noble Qur'an shows the Islamic attitude towards the relationship betweenparents and children. From infancy to adulthood, it is unparalleled tender love and care of the parents which brings the child from the stage of absolute weakness and helplessnessto perfectstrength and independence. Conversely, in old age a man becomeslike a small child; the mind and body turn so weak that Allah (SWT)says in Noble Qur'an: If We grant long
  45. 45. life to any, We cause him to be reversed in nature: Will they not then understand? Noble Qur'an (36:68) Messengerof Allah (PBUH) says: "The parents are responsible with regard to their children in the same manner in which the children are responsible with regard to their parents."  The Rights of Children on Parents in Islam Muslims have responsibilities towards their children, and they stand accountable for these responsibilitiesso that they can truly enjoy and appreciate the blessings ofhaving children and get rewarded by the Giver. The adult of today was the child of yesterday, and the child of today is the adult of tomorrow. In order for children to fulfill their responsibilitiestowards their parents, they must first get their rights from them. Muslim parents should teach their children all about Islam and show them how to worship Allah, with no compulsionor force. They should also guide them to the stairways to Paradise, and protectthem from falling into Hellfire. It is the responsibilityof parents to provide their children with the environment and tools to learn all about Islam. Allah says in the Qur'an what means: {O ye who believe! save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones.} (At-Tahrim 66:6)  Adoption & Fostering Islam highly recommends the "fostering" of children, defined as "assuming partial or complete responsibilityof a child in lieu of the biologicalparents". However, Islam forbids naming the child as one's own, or creating any "fictive relationships".Islamic adoption is sometimes called "fostering" or "partial adoption" and is similar to "openadoption" Traditionally Islam has viewed legal adoption as a source of potential problems,such as accidentally marrying one's sibling or when distributing inheritance
  46. 46. If a child is adopted he or she does not become ason or daughter, but rather a ward of the adopting caretaker(s). The child’s family name is not changed to that of the adopting parent(s) and his or her guardians are publicly known as such. Legally, this is close to other nations' systems for fostercare. Other commonrules governing adoption in Islamic culture address inheritance, marriage regulations, and the fact that adoptive parents are considered trustees of another individual's child rather than the child's new parents. Usually an adopted child inherits from his or her biologicalparents, not automatically from the adoptive parents. If the child is below the age of consentat the time of inheritance (from the biologicalfamily), his or her adoptive parents serve as trustees over the child's wealth, but may not intermingle with it. Adoptionwas a commonpractice in pre-Islamic Arabia. According to this custom, the adopted son would take the name of his adoptive parent, and would be assimilated into the family in a "legal sense".[1] Islam viewed this practice as "erasure of natal identity".  Fatherless Children The Quran in 19 versus forbids harsh and oppressive treatment of orphaned children while urging kindness and justice towards them. Six- year-old Muhammad himself became an orphan after his mother died in 577. An early Quranic verse celebrates God'sprovidence and care towards him. Other Quranic verses identify those who repulse the orphan as unbelievers, rebuke those who do not honor the orphans, and encourage the unbelievers to feed the orphans The Quran speaks of the reward waiting for those who feed orphans, poor and the prisoner for the love of Allah. It also warns those who wrongfully consume the propertyof orphans that they will be punished in the hereafter with "fire in their own bellies".The Quran also gives concrete instructions to guardians regarding the orphans, particularly on how to protecttheir wealth and property rights
  47. 47. Child Welfare Services  Child Health Services ACCESS to child healthcare and education is a challenge for many families who simply cannot afford providing these facilities to their children, primarily in the rural areas of the country. The situation of child health in Pakistan is abysmal and serious efforts are needed by the governmentand civil societyto save the lives of thousands of children who die every year from preventable diseases. Medical reports reveal that one child dies every minute from the expanded programmers on immunization diseases,diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infection.They also reveal that every year about 400,000 infants die during the first year of their life. Child health in Pakistan is among the most important national issues that needs serious attention. Child mortality in Pakistan is a major cause of concern, with every one among 10 children dying before reaching the age of five and one among 30 just after they are born. Low state spending on healthcare, abject poverty, low literacy, lack of skilled birth attendants, widespread communicable diseases,insufficient emergencychild health services in government-run district and rural hospitals are amongst other major reasons behind growing diseases in children. WHO WHO seeks to improve maternal, newborn and child health in Pakistan. In particular, since the devolution of health services,the provincial role of WHO Pakistan has become moreimportant.
  48. 48. WHO's maternal, newborn and child health programme provides technical supportto provincial health authorities through the recruitment of maternal, newborn and child health officers and assists them to implement maternal, newborn and child health strategies and programmes. The programme includes family planning and reproductive health components. Child Health Centers Child Health Centers are staffed by registered nurses with qualifications in child and family health. They provide a range of services in partnership with parents and careers of babies and young children up to the age of 4 years. Community Child Health Nurses can assess children's health and developmentas well as provide information about many aspects of parenting, maternal and family health and healthy lifestyles. Child DevelopmentServices Child DevelopmentService provides a range of supportservices for children, with or at risk of developmentaldifficulties,and their families. Developmental difficulties may include problems with:  Coordination and movement (e.g. crawling, walking, writing and drawing)  Social/emotionalskills (e.g. managing feelings,relating to others)  Behavior  Speechand language  Learning and attention From Book , Page # 202 , 203
  49. 49.  Post Natal Care , Infant Care , Diseases ofChildren , Causes of Infant Morality A. Post Natal Care Definition  Postnatal care is pre-eminently about the provision of a supportive environment in which a woman, her baby and the wider family can begin their new life together. It is not the management of a condition or an acute situation Basic care for all newborns should include promoting and supporting early and exclusive breastfeeding, keeping the baby warm, increasing hand washing and providing hygienic umbilical cord and skin care, identifying conditions requiring additional care and counseling on when to take a newborn to a health facility. Newborns and their mothers should be examined for danger signs at home visits. At the same time, families should be counseled on identification of these danger signs and the need for prompt care seeking if one or more of them are present. Newborns with who have preterm birth or low birth weight, who are sick or are born to HIV-infected mothers need special care. Newborns born in health facilities should not be sent home in the crucial first 24 hours of life, and postnatal visits should be scheduled. For all home births a visit to a health facility for postnatal care as soonas possible afterbirth is recommended. In high mortality settings and where access to facility based care is limited, WHO and UNICEF recommend at least two home visits for all home births: the first visit should occur within 24 hours from birth and the second visit on day 3. If possible, a third visit should be made before the end of the first week of life.
  50. 50.  Handling a Newborn If you haven't spent a lot of time around newborns, their fragility may be intimidating. Here are a few basics to remember: Wash your hands (or use a hand sanitizer)before handlingyour baby Newborns don't have a strong immune system yet, so they are susceptible to infection. Make sure that everyone who handles your baby has clean hands. Be careful to support your baby'shead and neck Cradle the head when carrying your baby and support the head when carrying the baby upright or when you lay your baby down. Be careful not to shake yournewborn, whetherin play or in frustration Shaking that is vigorous can cause bleeding in the brain and even death. If you need to wake your infant, don't do it by shaking — instead, tickle your baby's feetor blow gently on a cheek. B. Infant Care Definition  The term "infant care" refers to the social welfare service concerning supportfor nursery facilities and home fostering, taking care of and nurturing from 0 to 5 year old infants in a healthy and safe manner, while providing them with education that is suitable for their mental and physical developmental characteristics. Eating is pretty much a new infant’s favorite way to spend "awake time" Newborns grow very quickly and have a need to consume milk, either from a breast or bottle, to help support and sustain that growth. Breast milk or formula is a choice each parent should make before a newborn arrives so they can be prepared with the appropriate knowledge and
  51. 51. equipmentthat will be needed to feed a newborn. Make sure to ask the nursing staff or a lactation consultant if you need help feeding your infant before leaving the hospital. Bathing an infant everyday is not necessary Since most newborns do not get down on the floorand crawl around in dirt, bathing is not essential to everyday care. However, it is a good idea to give your infant a wipe down (especiallyin the diaper area and under chin/neck folds)just to ensure baby is clean and sanitary. A gentle bath at night before bed may help an infant relax and sleep better Toys are notnecessary to newborn infants as they cannotsee far and have little interestin anything butpeople and faces If you want to buy toys for your infant, pick things that are contrasting, like a softblack and white block with some red on it, as colors are very hard for newborns to make out. Sleep is importantfor both new parents and new babies New babies should sleep about 16 hours a day, but they usually sleep in spurts. Don't get frustrated with your infant because they won't sleep, there is probably a reason why. Most babies need to be fed about every 2-4 hours because they have small stomachs.Uncomfortable wetness or dirty diapers can also wake a baby. Sometimes,babies just want to be held or comforted.Develop a strategy with your partner for taking care of an infant when you are both tired. Ensuring that everybodyis well rested will make life with an infant much easier. Continuity of care Having one caregiver over an extended period of time rather than switching every 6 to 9 months or so is important to the expansion of a child's development.Switching from one caregiver to another takes its toll. The child has to build trust all over again. When a very young child loses a caregiver, he really loses part of his sense of himself and the way the world operates:The things that the child knows how to do, and the ways that he knows to be simply don't work any more. Too many changes in caregivers can lead to a child's reluctance to form new relationships.
  52. 52. Cultural and familial continuity If there is no one in a child care setting who speaks the child's home language, or validates the childrearing values and beliefs of the family, the early developmentof the self is threatened. Particularly for infants, what they sense from their caregivers is incorporated into their definition of self.If infants get subtle messagesthat their way of communicating should change or that they are hard to understand, both their sense of rightness about where they come from and their feelings of personal potency are shaken. Child care should be in harmony with what goes on at home, following the form and style of what is familiar to the child. C. Diseasesof Children Chickenpox Red, quite itchy, spots or blisters are typically scattered over the entire body, spreading to the arms, legs and face. Whooping cough Whooping coughis a bacterial infection affecting the respiratory system, caused by the bacterium Bordetellaperuses. The condition is characterized by fever, nasal discharge and long fits of coughing followed by wheezy breathing and possiblyvomiting. Symptoms are typically worse at night. Three-day-fever A child with three-day-feverhas a high fever for three days. The fever then drops and the child develops arash consisting of pale, reddishspots,perhaps with small heads. It affects the body and spreads to the arms and legs, lasting for about 12-14 hours. Then its over. It is mostly seen in children under the age of three years. Hand, foot and mouth disease This condition can be due to a number of differententer viruses, causing the child to develop a large number of small spots and blisters,particularly in the mouth and on the feet and hands. The disease can cause a fever of
  53. 53. up to 39ºC for a few days. D. Causes ofInfantMortality Definition  The death of children under the age of one year. The most commoncauses of death in children are Birth asphyxia Failure to initiate and sustain breathing at birth, which accounts for about a quarter of all newborn deaths across the world. Effective resuscitation at birth can prevent a large proportion of these deaths. Pneumonia The prime cause of death in children under five. The major risk factors include malnutrition and indoor air pollution. Measures to prevent it include vaccination and breastfeeding,and children who sufferfrom pneumonia need access to antibiotics and oxygen. Pre-term birth complications Pre-term birth is rising in mostcountries, and is now the second leading cause of death globally for children under five, after pneumonia. Low- birth-weight babies are more likely to survive if they are kept warm by skin-to-skin contact with the mother. Diarrhealdiseases Which are a major cause of sickness and death among children in developing countries. Breastfeeding helps prevent diarrhea among
  54. 54. young children and treatment with oral rehydration salts combined with zinc supplements is safe, cost-effective,and saves lives. Malaria This kills one child every minute. Insecticide-treated bed nets prevent transmission and increase child survival. Measles This is a leading cause of childhood mortality. Measles can be completelyprevented with two doses of a safe,effective and inexpensive vaccine but in many developing countries, poverty, poor health systems and a lack of information can make it difficultfor families to secure preventative vaccinations for each of their children. Malnutrition This makes children more vulnerable to severe diseases,is an underlying factor in about one-third of all child deaths.  Physical , Social & Cognitive Developmentof Children A. PhysicalDevelopmentof Children Definition  The term motor development refers to physical growth or growth in the ability of children to use their bodies and physical skills. Motor development often has been defined as the process by which a child acquires movementpatterns and skills As a child matures, parents eagerly await important milestones such as learning how to roll over and crawl. Each of these represents a part of physical development.The maturation processhappens in an orderly
  55. 55. manner; that is, certain skills and abilities generally occurbefore other milestones are reached. For example, mostinfants learn to crawl before they learn to walk. However it is also important to realize that the rate at which these milestones are reached can vary. Some children learn to walk earlier than their same-age peers,while others may take a bit longer.  Motor Skill Development As a child grows, his or her nervous system becomesmore mature. As this happens, the child becomes more and more capable of performing increasingly complexactions. The rate at which these motor skills emerge is sometimesa worry for parents. Caregivers frequently fret about whether or not their children are developing these skills at a normal rate. As mentioned above, rates may vary somewhat. However, nearly all children begin to exhibit these motor skills at a fairly consistent rate unless some type of disability is present. There are two types of motor skills:  Gross (or large)motor skills Involve the larger muscles including the arms and legs. Actions requiring gross motor skills include walking, running, balance and coordination. When evaluating gross motor skills, the factors that experts look at include strength, muscle tone, movementquality and the range of movement.  Fine (or small) motor skills Involve the smaller muscles in the fingers, toes, eyes and other areas. The actions that require fine motor skills tend to be more intricate, such as drawing, writing, grasping objects,throwing, waving and catching.  PhysicalGrowth Physical developmentin children follows a directional pattern: Large muscles develop before smallmuscles
  56. 56. Muscles in the body's core,legs and arms develop before those in the fingers and hands. Children learn how to perform gross (or large) motor skills such as walking before they learn to perform fine (or small) motor skills such as drawing. The center ofthe body develops before the outer regions Muscles located at the core of the body become strongerand develop soonerthan those in the feetand hands. Development goes from the top down,from the head to the toes This is why babies learn to hold their heads up before they learn how to crawl. B. SocialDevelopmentof Children Definition  Social development is about putting people at the centre of development.This means a commitment that development processes need to benefit people,particularly but not only the poor, but also a recognitionthat people,and the way they interact in groups and society,and the norms that facilitates such interaction The significance of social and emotional developmentis seen in every area of a child's life. A child will have a strong foundation for later developmentif he or she can manage personal feelings,understand others' feelings and needs,and interact positively with others. Differencesin social and emotional developmentresult from a child's inborn temperament,cultural influences,disabilities, behaviors modeled by adults, the level of security
  57. 57. felt in a child's relationships with adults, and the opportunities provided for social interaction.  Social Developmentis aware of others. Enjoys exploring objects with adults as a basis for establishing relationships (e.g., plays "peek-a- boo" over and over again with grandfather).  Social Developmentmay make simple overtures to familiar children (e.g., looks for and smiles at children at the store, offers a toy or hug to another child whether or not the gesture is welcome).  Social Development shows "contagious distress" when others are unhappy (e.g., at child care, starts to cry when he or she sees another child crying).  Social Development when a conflictoccurs with another child or adult, he or she often acts out physically or emotionally (e.g., another child grabs Sara's shovel, so she pushes the child and screams). Calms down when an adult helps resolve the conflict. Healthy socialand emotionaldevelopmentallows children to  Develop relationships  Master the ability to initiate, discover,play and learn  Develop persistenceand attention  Self-regulate their behavior  Develop emotional range C. Cognitive Developmentof Children Definition  Cognitive developmentis the construction of thought processes, including remembering,problem solving,and decision-making, from childhood through adolescenceto adulthood
  58. 58.  Stages of Cognitive Development The Sensor motor Stage:A period of time between birth and age two during which an infant's knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responsescaused by sensorystimuli. The Preoperational Stage: A period betweenages two and six during which a child learns to use language. During this stage, children do not yet understand concrete logic,cannot mentally manipulate information and are unable to take the point of view of other people. The Concrete Operational Stage: A period betweenages seven and eleven during which children gain a better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficultyunderstanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. The Formal Operational Stage: A period between age twelve to adulthood when people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning and systematic planning also emerge during this stage
  59. 59.  Institutional Care , FosterCare , Guardianship , Custody& Adoption A. InstitutionalCare Definition  Facility for care (usually long-term) of patients who are not sick enough to need hospital care but are not able to remain at home. Children in institutional care are at risk of attachment disorderand developmental delay. Children in institutional care are more likely to sufferfrom poor health, physical underdevelopmentand deterioration in brain growth. A minority of children live without their parents, either because their biologicalparents have died or abandoned them or because their parents do not have the means to care for them appropriately. Under the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child all 52 countries in the World Health Organization's European region agreed to provide children in need with temporary or permanent substitute care. Substitute care varies from institutional care to forms of family based care, such as guardianship by relatives or friends,fostering,or adoption. The services that have been offeredhave changed over time and have been influenced by political, economic,and social changes. Institutional care is damaging to children without exception.Children’s physical, cognitive and emotional developmentis severely damaged and clear evidence exists to demonstrate structural and functional changes in the brains of children who grow up in institutional care. Most have low academic achievement and many fall victim to trafficking, exploitation, unemployment, homelessnessand depressionon leaving the care system.Many institutional care leavers becomesingle parents and rely on institutional care for their children.
  60. 60. B. Foster Care Definition  Fostercare is a system in which a minor has beenplaced into a ward, group home, or private home of a state-certified caregiver referred to as a "fosterparent". The placementof the child is usually arranged through the government or a social-service agency Fostercare is a way of providing a family life for children who cannot live with their own parents. All over the world, fosterfamilies open their hearts to children in need, and share their family life with them. Fostercare is often used to provide temporary care while parents get help sorting out problems,or to help children or young people through a difficult period in their lives. Often children will return home once the problems that caused them to come into fostercare have been resolved and it is clear that their parents are able to look after them safely. Others may stay in long-term fostercare, some may be adopted,and others will move on to live independently. The institution, group home or fosterparent is compensatedfor expenses. The state via the family court and child protectionagency stand in loco parentis to the minor, making all legal decisions while the fosterparent is responsible forthe day-to-day care of the minor. The vast majority of children who would otherwise need fostercare are in kinship care, that is, in the care of grandparents or other relatives.[2] Most kinship care is done informally, without the involvement of a court or public organization. However, in the U.S., formal kinship care is increasingly common.In 2012,a quarter of all children in formal fostercare were placed with relatives.
  61. 61. Fosterparents may care for a child for a short period,perhaps only overnight, or they may care for them for years. While the system varies from state to state, temporary or permanent custody of the child is held by the state or a private agency. Fosterparents are responsible forthe day-to- day care of the children but social workers and the courts make major decisions,sometimes with input from birthparents. C. Guardianship Definition  Guardianship is the office or duty of one who legally has the care and management of the person, or the estate, or both, of a child during its minority." According to the country’s guardian and wards law, a court may appoint outlanders as guardians, considering the well-being of a child; and also has the authority to allow the guardian to take the child abroad. There would be no illegality if a Pakistani court appointed a foreign national a guardian and allowed them to take the child abroad and there is no legal hurdle for guardians to formalize an adoption in other countries having law on adoption A legal guardian is an adult designated to care for a child in case both parents die before that child reaches adulthood. While the thought might make you shudder, you need to choose a guardian so the courts don't do it for you if the worst should happen. If you think your mother or sister would automatically receive custody of your child, you're mistaken. Unless you specificallyname a guardian in
  62. 62. your will, anyone can step forward and ask for the job, and a judge will decide who gets custody. A court can remove an appointed guardian because of any of the reasons like, abuse of trust; incapability to perform the duties well, neglecting or showing indecent behavior to the ward, not withholding the court’s orders as per GWA provisions,being convicted in an offence of defectin character, bankruptcy, or residing beyond the limits of the court’s jurisdiction. Besidesthe above reasons,a guardian can himself relinquish from the responsibilitiesby submitting to court a request thereof; death of guardian, upon the ward attaining majority; after the marriage of female ward whose husband is fit to take care of her responsibilities orthe court itself taking the responsibilityof superintendence of the minor.  Guardianship for Minor Most countries and states have laws that provide that the parents of a minor child are the legal guardians of that child, and that the parents can designate who shall becomethe child's legal guardian in the event of death, subjectto the approval of the court. Some jurisdictions allow a parent of a child to exercise the authority of a legal guardian without a formal court appointment. In such circumstances the parent acting in that capacity is called the natural guardian of that parent's child. D. Custody Definition  The protective care or guardianship of someone or something.
  63. 63.  Typesof Custody PhysicalCustody Physical custodymeans that a parent has the right to have a child live with him or her. Some states will award joint physical custodywhen the child spends significant amounts of time with both parents. Joint physical custody works bestif parents live relatively close to each other, as it lessens the stress on children and allows them to maintain a somewhat normal routine. Where the child lives primarily with one parent and has visitation with the other, generally the parent with whom the child primarily lives (called the "custodial" parent) will have sole or primary physical custody,and the other parent (the noncustodial parent) will have the right to visitation or parenting time with his or her child. LegalCustody Legal custodyof a child means having the right and the obligation to make decisions about a child's upbringing. A parent with legal custody can make decisions about the child's schooling,religious upbringing and medical care, for example. In many states, courts regularly award joint legal custody, which means that the decisionmaking is shared by both parents. If you share joint legal custodywith the other parent and you exclude him or her from the decision-making process,your ex can take you back to court and ask the judge to enforce the custodyagreement. You won't get fined or go to jail, but it will probably be embarrassing and cause more friction between the two of you -- which may harm the children. What's more, if you're represented by an attorney, it's sure to be expensive. Sole Custody One parent can have either sole legal custodyor sole physical custody of a child. Courts generally won't hesitate to award sole physical custodyto one
  64. 64. parent if the other parent is deemed unfit -- for example, because of alcohol or drug dependencyor charges of child abuse or neglect. It goes without saying that there may be animosity between you and your soon-to-be ex-spouse.But it's best not to seek sole custody unless the other parent truly causes direct harm to the children. Even then, courts may still allow the other parent supervised visitation. Joint Custody Parents who don't live together have joint custody (also called shared custody) when they share the decision-making responsibilities for,and/or physical control and custody of, their children. Joint custodycan exist if the parents are divorced,separated,or no longer cohabiting, or even if they never lived together.Joint custody may be:  Joint legal custody  Joint physical custody (where the children spend a significant portion of time with each parent), or  Joint legal and physical custody.  Child Custody in case of Divorce Children are focus of attention for any couple being their joint responsibilityto take care of their needs,responsibilities,medicaland emotional desires and care. In case of divorce the responsibilityis split as per best abilities of each parent. In the Holy Quran (2:233) children’s future after divorce is specificallyemphasized with the principle of “mutual consent and counsel” focusing on co-parenting relationship. As father being the legal guardian, has got the responsibilityto look after the material needs,while mother preferablygot the role of physical care in order to be their emotional guardian of children thus balancing multitude levels of children’s need
  65. 65. E. Adoption  Definition Adoptionis the act of taking something on as your own. Adoptionusually refers to the legal process of becoming a non- biologicalparent, but it also refers to the act of embracing ideas, habits, or free kittens. The history of establishing the Edhi child adoption centre and childcare services dates back to 1949. Mrs. Bilquis Edhi is supervising and looking after the caring and feeding of babies and children. For this purpose, exclusive cradles have been placed outside all Edhi Centers, across the country with a view to keep the abandoned and illegitimate babies in these cradles. Mostly these abandoned newborn babies are provided to the childless couples, who in accordance with our own policies, after ensuring that they are fully deserved and exactly suitable for this noble cause. Bilquis Edhi, after completely going through the background of the couples, and undertaking a rigorous screening process she decides that the couple or the family is precisely suitable for the baby adoption. On annual basis, Edhi Foundation is giving over 250 babies or children for adoption. Till to date, over 23,320 babies and children have been provided to the childless couples and families.  Adoption creates a legal parent / child relationship for:  Children whose birth parents make an adoptive plan  Children adopted from outside Pakistan  Children adopted by stepparents
  66. 66.  Children who come under guardianship of the country  Services of the Orphan & those in need of Special Care A. Services of Orphan Definition  A child whose parent ( father ) dead. And only called Orphan till 12 Years. After that he can earn for himself Children orphaned by AIDS are especially vulnerable to abuse and exploitation because of stigma and the lack of adult care and support. A large share of orphaned children is living in households headed by women and by elderly family members. Orphaned children face a number of vulnerabilities and risks, such as sexual exploitation and abuse, hazardous child labor, early sexual debut and marriage, dispossession of property, poor access to basic services, poor school attendance and performance and poor emotional and mental health. The Government, national institutions and civil society are supported by UNICEF and other partners to increase access to basic services and social protection for orphaned and other vulnerable children in provinces most affected by HIV and AIDS. Building government capacity, mobilizing communities to support orphaned and vulnerable children and delivery of essential services are the main strategies used for this objective. Institutional capacity building is a pre- condition to improving the lives of vulnerable children. UNICEF’s work is guided by the national Plan of Action for Orphaned and Vulnerable Children, which outlines the main principles of intervention,
  67. 67. targets and priority actions that have been agreed upon by the Government, civil society, and multi-lateral partners. B. Services in Need of Special Care The term, "children with specialhealth care needs," includes those with a broad range of chronic health conditions, from major physical or developmental disabilities to oftenless limiting conditions such as attention deficitdisorderor asthma. One- quarter of children with specialhealth care needs are, according to parents' report, usually or always affected bytheir condition, while about one in three (35 percent) are never affectedin their ability to do things that other children their age do. (Appendix 2) In 2000, children with specialhealth care needs accounted for 34 percent of all health care costs among children, more than twice their share of the child population. The coordination of care, involving doctors,teachers,and community resources,can be challenging for parents of children with specialhealth care needs.The required time commitmentalone is substantial for some parents. More than one of every five children with specialcare needs (24 percent) has parents who spend at least five hours a week coordinating care.24 percent of children with specialhealth care needs required at least one health service they did not receive in 2009-2010.In addition, parents may have to schedule care at the last minute or miss work to care for their children. Fifty-one percentof children with specialhealth care needs ages 5 to 17 missed at least four days of schooldue to illness. (Appendix2) More than one-third of children with special health care needs in 2009-2010had inadequate insurance, according to parents' responses.In sum, parents may need help navigating a complexhealth care system.Indeed,more than one-fifthof parents of children with special health care needs report receiving help with coordination of care or services. SpecialCare Nursing Services,has caregivers well trained to help the individual to continue to enjoy independence at home. Whetherit's advanced stages of Alzheimer's,a long-term disability or the natural occurrences of aging, SpecialCare Nursing has caregivers that can enhance a person's quality of life. To help continue their independenceat home, the caregiver will assist with daily activities that may include assisting with shower, dressing,meals, light housekeeping,visiting friends, going to church or synagogue,or meeting a friend at a senior center,