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Anatomy of Heart

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This presentation covers internal structures of heart like atria and ventricles & external structures like emerging blood vessels and grooves on the heart. I hope this PPT will be helpful for instructors as well as teachers.

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Anatomy of Heart

  1. 1. Heart Anatomy
  2. 2. Heart The heart is a hollow muscular organ that pumps blood through the blood vessels to all the tissues. The scientific study of the normal heart and the diseases associated with it is known as cardiology. (Gk: cardio – heart and logos - study)
  3. 3. Heart Shape Hollow cone with broad base and narrow apex Size Closed fist (Length = 12 cm & width = 9 cm) Mass Adult male = 300 gram Adult female = 250 gram Origin Mesodermal
  4. 4. Location of heart a. Inferior view of cross section of thoracic cavity Right lung Mediastinum Sternum Vertebra Left lung
  5. 5. b. Anterior view of the heart in the thoracic cavity Location of heart Right lung Diaphragm Left lung Heart
  6. 6. Pericardium Pericardium is a double layered membrane that surrounds and protects the heart.
  7. 7. Pericardium Outer parietal pericardium Layers of the pericardium Serous layer Inner visceral pericardium Pericardial cavity Fibrous layer
  8. 8. Layer Sub-layer Description Function Outer parietal pericardium Fibrous pericardium Made up of fibrous connective tissue • Protects the heart • Prevents overfilling of the heart with blood Serous pericardium Made up of squamous epithelial cells • Secretes a pericardial fluid which reduces friction during relaxation & contraction of heart Inner visceral pericardium - Made up of flattened epithelial cells • Adheres to heart forming its outer covering
  9. 9. Layers of the heart wall Epicardium (outer) Subepicardial fat Myocardium (middle) Endocardium (inner)
  10. 10. Layer Description Function Epicardium Made up of single layer of flat epithelial cells called mesothelium Imparts a smooth, slippery texture to the outermost surface of the heart Myocardium Thickest layer made up of cardiac muscle fibres Responsible for pumping action of the heart Endocardium Made up of single layer of flat epithelial cells called endothelium Provides a smooth lining for the chambers of the heart
  11. 11. Chambers of the heart Right atrium Left atrium Right ventricle Left ventricle Four Chambers:  Two superior chambers (Atria)  Two inferior chambers (Ventricles)
  12. 12. RA LA Systemic Aorta Blood vessels arising from the chambers of the heart RV LV Superior vena cava Right pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk Left pulmonary artery Right pulmonary veins Left pulmonary veins Inferior vena cava
  13. 13. Chamber Description Function Atria • Small thin walled • Right atrium is larger than left atrium • Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from all over the body through superior & inferior vena cava • Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through four pulmonary veins Ventricles • Large thick walled • Wall of left ventricle is three times thicker than right ventricle • Inner surface consists of muscular ridges called columnae carnae or trabeculae carnae • Right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs • Left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body
  14. 14. Septa of the heart RA LA RV LV Interatrial septum Interventricular septum
  15. 15. • A shallow depression on the right side of interatrial septum • Represents a remnant of foramen ovale in foetus Fossa ovalis RA RV Fossa ovalis
  16. 16. Coronary vein Atrioventricular (Coronary sulcus) Sulci of the heart Interventricular sulcus Coronary artery Receives deoxygenated blood from the tissues of the heart Supply oxygenated blood to the tissues of the heart
  17. 17. Valves of the heart Pulmonary valve Right AV valve Papillary muscles Aortic valve Chordae tendinae Left AV valve
  18. 18. Valves of the heart Right AV valve (tricuspid) Left AV valve (bicuspid or mitral) Aortic valve (tricuspid) Pulmonary valve (tricuspid)
  19. 19. Valves of the heart Type Valve Position Function Atrioventricular valve Right AV valve (tricuspid) Between right atrium and right ventricle Prevent backflow of blood into the atria when ventricles contractLeft AV valve (bicuspid or mitral) Between left atrium and left ventricle Semilunar valve Aortic valve (tricuspid) Between left ventricle and aorta Prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles Pulmonary valve (tricuspid) Between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
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This presentation covers internal structures of heart like atria and ventricles & external structures like emerging blood vessels and grooves on the heart. I hope this PPT will be helpful for instructors as well as teachers.

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