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Blood - composition and function

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This ppt covers composition and functions of blood in a systematic and interactive manner. I hope this PPT will be helpful for instructor's as well as students.

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Blood - composition and function

  1. 1. BLOOD PHYSIOLOGY
  2. 2. BLOOD Blood is a special type of fluid connective tissue derived from mesoderm. The branch of science concerned with the study of blood, blood-forming tissues, and the disorders associated with them is called haematology. (Gk: haeme – blood and logos - study)
  3. 3. PROPERTIES OF BLOOD Colour Bright red in arteries & dark red in veins Mass 8 % of the body mass pH Slightly alkaline (pH = 7.35 – 7.45) Taste Salty Temperature 38° C (100.4° F) Viscosity 3 – 4 times more viscous than water Volume 5 – 6 litre
  4. 4. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD Plasma Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Centrifuged blood
  5. 5. Blood Plasma (55%) Cellular elements (45%) RBCs (erythrocytes) WBCs (leucocytes) Platelets (thrombocytes)
  6. 6. Plasma Plasma is a pale yellow coloured liquid component of a blood that holds the cellular elements of blood in suspension.
  7. 7. Constituents of plasma Plasma Water (91.5%) Proteins (7%) Albumins Globulins Fibrinogen Other solutes (1.5%) Waste products (Urea, uric acid, amonia, creatinine) Nutrients (Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids) Gases (O2, CO2, N2) Electrolytic ions (Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Cl− , HCO3 − , SO4 2− )
  8. 8. Functions of plasma Constituent Function Water Absorbs, transports and releases heat Albumins Osmotic balance Globulins Defense mechanism Fibrinogen Blood clotting Electrolytic ions pH buffering
  9. 9. Red blood cells Shape Circular biconcave non-nucleated Size Diameter = 7 – 8 μm Thickness = 2.5 μm Colour Red (haemoglobin pigment) Count Adult male = 5.4 million RBCs/μL Adult female = 4.8 million RBCs/μL Life span 120 days
  10. 10. Erythropoiesis The production of RBCs is known as erythropoiesis. Adult Red bone marrow of long bones (hip bone, breast bone & ribs) Child (upto 5 year) Bone marrow of all the bones Foetus Liver & spleen  Increase in number of RBCs is known as polycythemia  Decrease in number of RBCs is known as erythropenia
  11. 11. Functions of RBCs  Transport O2 from lungs to tissues  Transport CO2from tissues to lungs  Normal blood contains 13 – 15 g of Hb per 100 ml of blood  One RBC contains about 250 million molecules of Hb  Each molecule of Hb carries four molecules of oxygen
  12. 12. White blood cells Shape Amoeboid nucleated Size 12 – 15 μm Colour Colourless & translucent Count 5000 – 10000 WBCs/μL Life span 10 – 13 days
  13. 13. Leucopoiesis The production of WBCs is known as leucopoiesis.  Increase in number of WBCs is known as leucocytosis  Decrease in number of WBCs is known as leucopenia  Pathological increase in number of WBCs is known as leukemia (blood cancer) Adult Liver, spleen, tonsils, bone marrow Foetus Liver, spleen
  14. 14. Types of WBCs WBCs Granular Neutrophils (62%) Acidophils (2.3%) Basophils (0.4%) Agranular Lymphocytes (30%) Monocytes (5.3%)
  15. 15. Granular WBCs Type Appearance Features Functions Location produced Neutrophils • Nucleus with 3-4 lobes • Stain with neutral dye (hematoxylin) Destroy bacteria by phagocytosis Bone marrow Acidophils (eosinophils) • Nucleus with 2 lobes • Stain with acidic dye (eosin) Combat the effect of histamine in allergic reactions Bone marrow Basophils • Nucleus with indistinct lobes • Stain with basic dye (methylene blue) Liberate heparin and histamine in allergic reactions to intensify inflammatory response Bone marrow
  16. 16. Type Appearance Features Functions Location produced Lymphocyte • Smallest of WBCs • Large round nucleus Produce antibodies Bone marrow, spleen, tonsils Monocyte • Largest of WBCs • Large kidney shaped nucleus Ingest microorganisms Bone marrow Agranular WBCs
  17. 17. Platelets Shape Circular biconvex non-nucleated Size 2 – 4 μm Count 1,50,000 – 4,00,000 platelets/μL Life span 5 – 9 days Function Blood clotting
  18. 18. Thrombopoiesis The production of platelets is known as thrombopoiesis. Platelets are the fragments of large cells called megakaryocytes that remain in the bone marrow.  Increase in number of platelets is known as thrombocytosis  Decrease in number of platelets is known as thrombocytopenia
  19. 19. Blood clotting Blood clotting is the process in which blood looses its fluidity and becomes a jelly like mass few minutes after it is shed out.
  20. 20. Process of blood clotting 1. Blood vessel is punctured 2. Platelets form a plug 4. Fibrin thread forms & trap red blood cells3. Platelets & damaged tissue cells release prothrombin activator, which initiates a cascade of enzymatic reactions Prothrombin activator Prothrombin Thrombin Soluble FibrinogenCa2+ Ca2+ Insoluble fibrin
  21. 21. Anticoagulant A substance which prevents the coagulation of blood is called as anticoagulant. Heparin is a natural anticoagulant present in the blood.  If blood clots too easily, the result can be thrombosis – clotting in an undamaged blood vessel.  If the blood takes too long to clot, haemorrhage can occur.
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This ppt covers composition and functions of blood in a systematic and interactive manner. I hope this PPT will be helpful for instructor's as well as students.

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