Title Page Number
1 Introduction To Organizational Behavior 3-4
2 Wipro- The Company Profile 5-8
3 Wipro Group Of Companies 9-12
4 Human Resource Practice At WIPRO 13-21
5 Applicaton Of OB Science To WIPRO 22-34
6 Conclusion 35
7 Webliography 36
INDEX OF FIGURES
Figure Number Figure Name Page Number
1.1 Organizational Behavior Chart 4
2.1 Brief details of WIPRO 6
3.1 The Growth Story of WIPRO from 1945 to 2010 9
3.2 WIPRO’s share in software market 11
3.3 WIPRO’s market share in BPO 12
4.1 Six Sigma Methodology at WIPRO 14
4.2 The components of process Training 17
4.3 Diversity in workforce at WIPRO 18
5.1 Maslow’s Theory
5.2 ERG Theory
5.3 Expectancy Theory
5.4 Path Goal Theory 26
5.5 Theory X and Theory Y
5.6 Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
The systematic study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within
the organizations where they work is known as Organizational Behavior.
Organizational Behavior is the field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups
& structures have on behavior within the organization for the purpose of applying such
knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness.
Importance of Organizational Behavior
Provides road map to our lives in organizations .
Organizational Behavior uses scientific research to help understand & predict org. life.
Organizational Behavior helps us influence organizational events.
Organizational Behavior helps understand himself & others better.
Organizational Behavior helps to understand the basis of motivation.
Organizational Behavior is useful for maintaining cordial industrial relation
Organizational Behavior is also useful in the field of marketing.
The most popular reason to study OB is if one wants to pursue career in management.
Upward trend in economy.
Scope Of Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior is the study of human behavior at work in organizations.
Accordingly the scope of OB includes the study of individuals, groups and
organization/structure. The aspects of these three are –Individuals:- Organizations are the
associations of individuals. Individuals differ in many respects. The study of individuals,
therefore, includes aspects as personality, perception, attitudes, values, job satisfaction, learning
Groups include aspects such as group dynamics, group conflicts, communication, leadership,
power and politics and the like. Organization structure: The study of organization/structure
includes aspect such as formation of organizational structure, culture and change and
Figure 1.1 :Organizational Behavior Chart
CHAPTER 2: WIPRO- THE COMPANY PROFILE
WIPRO Limited (formerly Western India Products Limited) is a multinational IT Consulting and
System Integration services company headquartered in Bangalore,
Karnataka, India. As of March 2014, the company has 146,000
employees servicing over 900 large enterprise corporations with a
presence in 61 countries. WIPRO is the third largest IT services
company in India. On 31 March 2014, its market capitalisation was
approximately 1.27 trillion ($20.8 billion), making it one of India's
largest publicly traded company. Azim Premji is a major shareholder
in WIPRO with over 50% of shareholding. WIPRO is headquartered
in Bangalore and has 28 development centres across India , USA and Europe. It also has offices
21 offices in Canada, France Taiwan and United Kingdom. WIPRO has set a vision for itself to
become a 5 billion dollar company in the next few years. It aims to be in the top 10 IT companies
in the world and also to be one among the top 10 most favoured employers in the world. It is a
global company with revenues of Rs 30922 million for the year 2010. The revenues of the
company have been growing at an annual average rate of 23% and PAT at a rate of 50%. It
employs 14000 employees of which 11500 are in IT business. WIPRO follows six sigma quality
systems and is also a SEI-CMM level 5 companies with principle lines of business being
information technology and consumer products. It also has other businesses of fluid power,
Lighting, Medical equipment products and financial services. It includes software services and as
well as hardware products. It makes up the largest chunk of business for WIPRO. It accounts for
84% of total revenue of WIPRO and around 93% of its PBIDT
WIPRO Mission And Vision WIPRO’s Mission and Vision
Having already achieved the pinnacles of process and quality credentials (through ISO 9000, SEI
CMM,PCMM and Six Sigma), WIPRO’s Vision is focused on attaining leadership in the areas of
business, customer and people. Business Leadership: Among the top 10 Information Technology
Services companies globally and theNo.1 Information Technology company in India. Customer
Leadership : The No.1 choice of customers through innovative solutions and Six Sigma
processes. People Leadership: Among the top 10 most preferred employers globally by creating
an environment of empowerment, intellectual challenge and wealth sharing. Brand Leadership:
WIPRO to be among the 5 most admired brand in India WIPRO enters into various industries for
various businesses in a constant innovative manner. This shows the firm’s strong approach of
tapping new market with the spirit of achievement.
Figure 2.1 : Brief details of WIPRO
WIPRO Ltd. started its journey in 1947 as a vegetable oil trading company (Western India Palm
Refined Oils) in Amlaner , Maharashtra, India. It was M. H. Premji, father of its current
Chairman Azim Premji, who founded WIPRO. After his sudden demise in 1966, his son, a
Stanford University graduate in Electrical Engineering, took the onus of leadership at the age of
21. Azim Premji repositioned the company into a consumer goods company and started
producing hydrogenated cooking oils, laundry soap, wax and tin containers. Later WIPRO Fluid
was set up, which started manufacturing hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders for the industrial
trucks and heavy machines. In 1977, after IBM left Indian IT sector, WIPRO entered into the
market. It started developing its own computers within a couple of years. WIPRO Ltd. started
selling finished products. It licensed technology from Sentinel Computers in U.S .WIPRO is also
the manufacturer of India’s first mini computers. In 1980, WIPRO Ltd. moved towards software
development, when they started providing customized software to their hardware customers or
clients. This was just a beginning of a new era for WIPRO. It spread its roots off shore in U.S. in
1992. By 2000, WIPRO Ltd. managed to get enlisted on the New York Stock Exchange.
WIPRO’s evolution from inception is given at the end of this project.
1945 - Incorporation as Western India Products Limited
1947 - Establishment of an Oil mill at Amalner, Maharashtra, India
1960 - Manufacture of laundry soap 787 at Amalner
1970 - Manufacture of Bakery Shortening Vanaspati at Amalner
1975 - Diversification into engineering and manufacture of hydraulic cylinders as
WINTROL (now called WIPRO Fluid Power) division in Bangalore.
1977 - Name of the Company changed to WIPRO Products Limited
1980 - Diversification into Information Technology.
1988 - Crossed the $10 million mark in annualized revenues.
1990 - Incorporation of WIPRO-GE medical systems
1992 - Going global with global IT services division
1993 - Busy to achieve the "TL9000 certification" for industry specific quality standards. Becomes
world's first PCMM Level 5 Company. WIPRO becomes only Indian company featured in
Business Week’s 100 best-performing technology companies.
1995 - Established WIPRO Academy of Software Excellence
2002 - WIPRO acquires Spectra mind. (InfoTech 100, November 2002)
2003 - WIPRO acquires Nerve wire.
2004 - Crossed the $1 Billion IDC rates WIPRO as the leader among worldwide offshore service
2005 - WIPRO acquires mPower to enter payments space and also acquires European System on
Chip (SoC) design firm NewLogic.
2006 - WIPRO acquires Enabler to enter Niche Retail Market
2007 - WIPRO acquires US's Info crossing for 600mn
2009 - WIPRO acquires Gallagher Financial Systems to enter mortgage loan
CHAPTER 3 : WIPRO GROUP OF COMPANIES
WIPRO Limited is a global provider of comprehensive IT solutions and services, including
Systems Integration, Consulting, Information Systems outsourcing, IT-enabled services, and
R&D services. It is also a value added reseller of desktops, servers, notebooks, storage products,
networking solutions and packaged software for international brands. IT revenues stood at $ 6.2
billion for the year ended March 31, 2013, with a repeat business ratio of over 95%.The business
model at WIPRO Technologies Ltd is an industry aligned customer facing model which gives
greater understanding of customers’ businesses to build industry specific solutions. WIPRO
Consumer Care & Lighting WIPRO Consumer Care and Lighting (WCCLG), a business unit of
WIPRO Limited operates in the FMCG segment offering a wide range of
consumable Commodities The first product to be introduced by WCCLG was vegetable oil, later
popularized under the brand name "Sunflower Vanaspati". It offers personal care products, such
as WIPRO Baby Soft and WIPRO Safe wash, soaps like Santoor and Chandrika as well as
international brands like Yardley. Its portfolio of lighting solutions includes products like
Smartlite CFL, LED, emergency lights and more.
Figure 3.1: The Growth Story of WIPRO from 1945 to 2010
WIPRO Biomed is the Biomedical business division of the Rs. 90 billion (USD 2 billion)
WIPRO Limited. WIPRO Biomed is India's only Biomedical, Health and Life Science service
provider offering integrated products, services and solutions focused on the domestic.
WIPRO Biomed has three businesses - Life Science Group, Diagnostics System Group and
Medical Systems Group. They have developed expertise in consulting, deploying,servicing and
back up of bio-medical equipments. They have strong partnerships with leading bio-medical
technology providers, wide geographic reach to support and service the equipments backed by
focus on quality and innovation.
WIPRO Consumer Care
WIPRO Consumer Care has been one of the fastest growing FMCG companies as reflected by
the organizational performance in the last three years. We have grown both organically and
WIPRO GE Medical Systems Ltd.
WIPRO GE Medical Systems is a joint venture between WIPRO and General Electric
Company. A part of GE Medical Systems South Asia, it caters to customer and patient needs
with a commitment to uncompromising quality .WIPRO GE is the market leader with unmatched
distribution and service reach in South Asia and is India’s largest exporter of medical systems.
WIPRO GE pioneered the manufacture of Ultrasound and Computed Tomography systems in
India and is a supplier for all GE Medical Systems products and services in South Asia. WIPRO
and its success in handling outsourced information technology from U.S. businesses is detailed
in Thomas L. Friedman's best-selling novel "The World Is Flat".
WIPRO Infrastructure Engineering
WIPRO Infrastructure Engineering (formerly WIPRO Fluid Power) provides solutions ranging
from Precision Engineered Products to value added Services for customers in industries that
serve the core infrastructure sector - ranging from Construction, Mining, Agriculture and Power
to Steel Plants and Ports. Its product and service offerings include high precision hydraulic
cylinders, valves, PTO's, complete tipping solutions and system solutions for a wide range of
applications. They are the largest Indian provider of precision engineered hydraulic components
The 3 indivisible elements of WIPRO Brand identity are:
1) The Rainbow flower as being youthful and Energetic, Multifaceted, Innovative, Large
2) ‘WIPRO’ being the name of the organization
3) ‘Applying Thought’ as being Powerful Intellectual, Futuristic, Mturity and Commitment
WIPRO’s share in software market
Figure 3.2 WIPRO’s share in software market
WIPRO’s market share in Business Process Outsourcing( BPO)
Figure: WIPRO’s market share in Business Process Outsourcing( BPO)
CHAPTER 4: HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICE AT WIPRO
The SIX Sigma program
WIPRO are the first company in India to adopt the Six Sigma TQM methodology for continuous
improvement and eliminate defect and cycle time reduction
Their Six Sigma program spreads right across verticals and impacts multiple areas such as
project management, market development and resource utilization
We have over 3350 employees trained in Six Sigma with 120 certified black belts
We have 500 ongoing Six Sigma projects and the expected financial return is 10% of PBT
WIPRO is the first People Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) Level 5, SEI Capability Maturity
Model (CMM) Level 5 and version 1.1 of CMMi certified IT Services Company globally.
WIPRO’s people processes are based on the current best practices in human resources,
knowledge management and organization development, giving a great focus to match changing
business needs with development of employee competencies.
WIPRO has expertise in Six-Sigma methodologies, which have been put in use to streamline and
enhance existing people processes in organizations, enabling decision making based on metrics
and measurements. The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many
“defects”you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get
as close to “zero defects” as possible. Six Sigma starts with the application of statistical methods
for translating information from customers into specifications for products or services being
developed or produced. Six Sigma is the business strategy and a philosophy of one
working smarter not harder.
WIPRO is the first Indian company to adopt Six Sigma. Today, WIPRO has one of the most
mature Six Sigma programs in the industry ensuring that 91% of the projects are completed on
schedule, mush above the industry average of 55%. As the pioneers of Six Sigma in India,
WIPRO has already put around ten years into process improvement through Six Sigma. Along
the way, it has scaled Six Sigma ladder, while helping to roll out over 1000 projects. The Six
Sigma program spreads right across verticals and impacts multiple areas such as project
management, market development and resource utilization.
Figure 4.1 : Six Sigma Methodology at WIPRO
Evolution of Six Sigma at WIPRO:-
Six Sigma at WIPRO simply means a measure of quality that strives for near perfection. It is an
umbrella initiative covering all business units and divisions so that it could transform itself in a
world class organization. At WIPRO, it means:
(i) Have products and services meet global benchmarks
(ii) Ensure robust processes within the organization
(iii) Consistently meet and exceed customer expectations
(iv) Make Quality a culture within.
Process of human resource planning at WIPRO is done by the top
management executives of HRD. They formulate the different polices in reference to the Human
Recruitment & Selection
Recruitment refers to the process of screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an
organization or firm, or for a vacancy in a volunteer-based organization or community group.
While generalist managers or administrators can undertake some components of the recruitment
process, mid- and large-size organizations and companies often retain professional recruiters or
outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. External recruitment is the process of
attracting and selecting employees from outside the organization.
A. Internal Sources:-
· Promotions and Transfer
· Job postings
· Employee Referrals
B. External Sources:-
· Employment Agencies
· On campus Recruitment
· Employment exchanges
WIPRO recruitment process:-
There are 3 selection process in WIPRO
1. APTITUDE TEST
2. TECHNICAL INTERVIEW
3. HR INTERVIEW
Round 1: Written test
1. Verbal: This section will have 15 questions related to synonyms, antonyms, Analogies, SC,
Prepositions and reading comprehension.
2. Aptitude: This section will have 15 questions related to aptitude topics like Time & Work,
Time & Distance, Blood Relations, Series Completion, Puzzles, Calendars, Clocks, Percentages,
Ratio proportions, Ages, Pipes and Cisterns etc.
3. Technical: This section will have 20 questions related to basic technical concepts from C,
C++, Java, Linux, UNIX, DBMS, SQL, Programming fundamentals, Hardware, Software
Engineering, and Micro Processors etc. Candidates are informed to brush up their technical skills
which were covered in their regular academic curriculum.
Round 2: Technical Interview
This is a major elimination round. Candidates should be thorough with their basic technical skills
to clear this round. Candidates are here by informed to be prepared with their core subjects.
Round 3: HR Interview
Candidates will be tested in their communication and vocabulary during technical and HR
WIPRO recruit 40% employees from campus recruitment. Another popular source for WIPRO’s
Recruitment is the Online Placement through NSR (National Skill Registry).
Training & Development
The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of
the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful
Training & Development of individuals is a key focus area at WIPRO. Our Talent
Transformation Division handles this. For those with less than one year of experience a well-structured
induction training program is conducted. This will cover all aspects of software
development skills that are required.
As a PCMM Level 5 organization, there is also high focus on CompetencyDevelopment. Talent
Transformation has a mandate to provide technical & business skill training based on the
departmental and divisional need. All employees are eligible to take training based on the
competency gap identified or Project need.
WIPRO TRAINING MODEL
At WIPRO, we know how critical time is for fulfilling training needs and hence we have
developed competency in the area of Rapid Learning. An emerging form of content
development, Rapid Learning helps to develop content in a short span of time using various
tools; the content delivery can be both synchronous as well as asynchronous.
Critical Training – when the training requirement is critical and must be addressed Immediately.
Minor change – when the difference between what is known and what is new is minimal
Short shelf life – when the content in question has a very short shelf life
Frequent updates – when the content needs to be update frequently.
Large enterprises keep updating their processes to improve the efficacies of their systems.
Business process training is typically a part of any organization’s overall change management
plan. WIPRO provides Process Training in several fields including HR, Quality, Operation,
Payroll, Recruitment, and more. For a meaningful transition of the process, quality training is
Figure 4.2: The components of process Training
Analyze Inform Involve Support
According to the Oxford dictionary, employee welfare or labour welfare means “the efforts to
make life worth living for workmen.” Labour Welfare means anything done for the comfort and
improvement, intellectual or social, of the employees over and governmental, which is not a
necessity of the industry.
Figure4.3 : Diversity in workforce at WIPRO
WIPRO has its own institute, where the Education is given to the employees’ children absolutely
free. The school has classes from JR. kg to class-XII in English medium. Free transportation
facility is also provided to them.
Medical – Company’s philosophy is “Nobody should die without Fund”. Company believes its
responsibility towards health services to provide to the employees go beyond the statutory
provision. Being the petrochemical industry and some of their process are considered
Housing: Company has its own township at different location in Bangalore. If house is available
the new employees are allotted the house otherwise the company can also hire house. All the
maintenance in houses provided to employees by company is done by the company.
Canteen: The company gives canteen facility under which food is provided to the employees but
it is not compulsory for them. They get the allowance in their salary.
Sports: To motivate the employees of the company organizes different sports tournaments i.e.
Cricket, Volleyball, Table Tennis, Badminton Etc.
Recreation activities: For the recreation of the employee, company organized gets to gather
once in a year with their family. And also arranged short distance picnic. For picnic they get Rs.
100/- and free transportation once in a year.
Club membership : The purpose of the club membership is to meet the other members of the
industrial community and interact with them for relation personnel leisure. This facility is
provided only to the SMC and above.
Insurance Policy: WIPRO provides personal accident insurance policy of Rs 100000 for
employees. Premium of the company is half pay by employee and other will pay by WIPRO.
Benefits Given To The Employee In WIPRO
Very few organizations can match WIPRO's capability to offer the kind of flexibility and
opportunity to pursue multiple careers and unhindered growth, while you continue to work in the
Every employee will get an annual leave of 30days and if more than thirty days is taken than
leave will be deducted from the next year.
Annual Sick Days
In a year 5 days are given as leave for sick days, if more than five days are taken a certain
amount will be deducted from the salary.
A Person who join WIPRO with less than one year experience works as developer for a couple
of project to learn and develop the various developing software program.
Training is provided as per required.
WIPRO Hall of Frame
Thanks a zillion
Learning through internet is provided.
Education tie-ups :
It provide (PGSM)Post Graduate Software Management program.
It also give middle management course for 5 weeks.
It also provide distance learning.
Medical assistance program.
Interest free loan is also provided.
It provides WIPRO Employee Stock Option Plan (WESO) allows WIPRO to make employee
share with them and reward the success.
It provides credit cards for the employee as per the policy.
WIPRO Leaders Program
The program is designed to identify the specific actions and attitudes that constitute the WIPRO
leader's qualities. It examines how each manager rates against these qualities, provide an
understanding of how the required skills and competencies can be developed and plan what each
individual can do to strengthen his or her leadership qualities.
Employees hard work and contribution never go unnoticed at WIPRO. The size we have grown
to and the diversity of people has given rise for a need to introduce awards. At every step of
success there is an award awaiting you. The challenges we encounter, motivates us to accomplish
greater feats and the comforts of rewards and recognition comes as a package
Long Services Award
We at WIPRO take pride in our long serving colleagues. They are a major force behind our
success. We recognize their contribution through a comprehensive Reward programme -
Schemes include holiday packages with special facilities.
The governing theme in our organization is the well being of employees. The benefits we offer
them are on par with the best available.
Our Compensation package is among the best in the industry and it is aimed at retaining existing
talent. The package caters to all positions across WIPRO. A reward for each position is based on
performance, potential, criticality and market value. We have a comprehensive medical
assistance program that covers the whole gamut of medical expenses you and your family incur.
Our reimbursement scheme provides you tax shelter on quasi-official expenses. Your growth in
the company will be complemented by your own self-development. Our educational assistance
plan offers you all encouragement in pursuing the course of your interest. Our leave policy also
includes a sabbatical to pursue higher studies related to your profession.
CHAPTER 5: APPLICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR SCIENCE TO WIPRO
WIPRO was started in 1945 and got in IT business in 1980.
WIPRO is listed in
Mumbai Stock Exchange
National Stock Exchange
Network Stock Exchange
WIPRO is a fast growing company which matches innovation with robust performance in
providing IT enabled services to other countries
WIPRO has a workforce of ten thousand associates of more then seventy different nationalities
and has more than 72 global branches in over 55 countries catering the business needs of other
WIPRO has a strong R&D department .it is first in the world which has the certification of SEI
CMM of Level 5.With the help of resources and expertise WIPRO has immerged as a giant in
innovating technology with around one hundred thirty six patents registered on its name.
WIPRO understand the importance of retained customers in doing a successful business and with
its hard work and focus towards its customer it is able to achieve a mark of around 95 percent of
its total earnings from its retained customers.
It provides service in different countries such as:
USA, EUROPE, CHINA
Motivation And Its Background
The researchers have made use of variety of concepts/theories/ideas/models to study this vast
field of motivation with respect to the organizational behavior in companies. Motivation can be
defined as to excite the people to focus and apply their efforts to their best in order achieve a
particular goal. Today in this fast growing world of competition and globalization there is an
important need for managers to have a knowledge of various theories and knowledge og
organizational behavior and how to make use of them in order to improve the performance of
organization. The performance of an organization majorly depends on the workforce. No
organization can excel without a skillful labor though it has other resources available such as a
good infrastructure and technology etc because at the end of the day tits being used by the
workforce who are actually going to produce the output. Thus there is a great need for the
workforce to be motivated so that they don’t loose their focus and apply best of their effort in
order to produce better result and enhance the performance of an organization. Few of the most
commonly used motivational theories comes from the need theories which discuss and sheds
light on the needs of the people and the conditions and the way in which they want the needs to
The need theory comprises of the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and it explains the five
types of needs in a pyramid format with the basic needs at the lower end and then it moves
upwards covering the more complicated needs of people such as social, security, esteem and self
actualization needs. So basically if a person’s different needs will be fulfilled then the person
will be more satisfied and feel secure and happy and will be able to focus his mind more on the
work because he will be free from these basic problems and thus the worker will be able to
perform efficiently and optimally. The lower end of the Maslow’s needs hierarchy model
basically discusses and focus on the physiological needs of people such as food, shelter and
clothing.once these needs are fulfilled then people want that they should achieve respect and
recognization in the society. Maslows theory thinks that the fulfillment of the basic needs of
peope has the highest motivating potential to drive the people to perform and achieve them.
Figure 5.1 : Maslow’s Theory
There is another researcher Alderfer’s who proposed ERG theory. This theory does not discuss
the five needs to define the motivation but instead has a three stage model covering the following
Existence needs-these are the needs which satisfy a particular condition for an individual.
Growth needs-these are the needs which give satisfaction to an individual by
participation,association and contribution.
Relatedness needs-these needs satisfy the people by communication.
Figure 5.2: ERG Theory
In the Maslow’s hierarchy the basic needs are most important and most desired and must be
fulfilled for the satisfaction of the people but as we move upwars in the hierarchy there are other
needs which if fulfilled will be greatly appreciated by the people.
Another motivation theory is known as expectancy theory where we define expectations for the
events to occur.this is done to create an interest in minds of people and to attract them.this work
as a driving force for the people in order to reach to some decided goal and in order to create
some change, which will act a s motivator to perform in order to achieve it in real..
Motivation here can be defined as comprised of-
VALENCE-it can be defined as making people understand what is the outcome or the value they
are going to get
EXPECTANCY-This is to make people feel that they are capable of performing a task.
INSTRUMENTALITY-This is to make people feel that if people will perform the task in a
desired way they will be able to get the outcome.
Figure 5.3: Expectancy Theory
In this theory we set certain goals for an individual which act as a challenge for them and act as
driving force to push them to workhard and achieve them.
These can be of two types-
1) Directional goal-here the individual is motivated to perform by telling them reason and
the way to perform.
2) Accuracy goal-here the individual is motivated to perform in most accurate way and this
is used when stake of inaccuracy is high.
Figure 5.4:Path Goal Theory
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT S AND ITS BACKGROUND
Scientific management was invented by taylor.he introduced the use of incentives which can be
used as driving and motivating force.he saw that if people are given rewards or incentives for
performing their task then they take more interest and give their best efforts to fulfill the task.
His study was comprised of the managing skills blended with his personal experience of working
in the organizations.he emphasized on use of scientific approach to solve he problems
encountered in practically managing the organization.his study was focused on the incentive as a
stimulus to drive people to put effort in performing the task.
Managers now a days still follow the studies carried by tailor and think that his techniques of
measuring task and incentive has a positive impact on the work culture.taylor thought that people
not able to perform efficiently is a common thing and it happens a lot but unnecessary usage of
time and unplanned use of resources resulting in no output is inexcusable.
Around 20 century taylor proposed the concept of scientific management.taylor gave it the name
scientific management due to the following reasons-
Taylor thought that all the different steps to be performed for the production task should be
carefully examined and any redundant and avoidable actions in the process should be excluded.
We should check and note the improvement in the production process.
We should checkout how long the tasks left will take to get completed.
After the outcomes should be checked in order to know how long each task has taken to get
processed and as per these findings we should renumerate and punish the quicker and slower
We should adopt and apply such practices in order to improve the performance of the staff and
the production process.
The study was applied in different production companies and it was noted that their was
considerable improvement in the production process.
NEO-HUMAN RELATIONS AND ITS BACKGROUND
In the concept of Neo-human relation managers try to establish a persona touch with the staff in
order to motivate then to perform well and achieve the desired goal. Contrary to the scientific
management approach where there is no personal touch and the stimulus is if u perform well you
will be recognized and rewarded but if you fail to perform the task and achieve the desired goal
then you will be penalized. Neo-human relations approach is one of the most widely used
approach now a days by the managers to improve the organization behavior.in this approach
managers try to focus on fulfilling the needs of their employees in order to make them satisfied
and happy, so that they can focus on the main objective of the company and perform at their best
to achieve that goal. This approach focus on fulfilling all the necessary needs of the people like
physiological, financial needs etc. The human relation also emphasized on the arguments,
thinking and attitudes of the work group.
McGregor proposed the theory X and Y, Maslow theory of needs and motivation theory
proposed by Herzberg. who emphasized on the hygeine factors are some of the theories that add
up to the research and study of the concept of neo-human relations in organizational behavior.
McGregor theory X and Y has the following assumptions
Theory X assumed-
People who are average don’t like work
People are lazy
They try to stay away from work
They need to be supervised.
Theory y assumed-people
people want accountability
people can guide themselves
if they are led free to perform they can use their potential and show their capability and worth.
Figure 5.5 :Theory X and Theory Y
Maslow theory divides the needs of a person into five categories which are the physiological,
social,safety and security, self esteem and self actualization. He believed that if these needs will
be fulfilled then the worker will feel satisfied and inturn will perform to achieve these needs.
Herzberg proposed the two factors theory. He carried an experiment to examine the attitudes,
thinking and behavior of people when they were asked about how they feel at work and the
reason for their behavior.
Figure 5.6: Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
From this experiment whe concluded a two factor theory
policies of the company
pay and wages
opportunities to grow
the work itself
The neo-relations along with the scientific management approach has given a new way of
improving the organizational behavior and inturn the performance of the organization
Scientific management and WIPRO
The scientific management approach regards that every worker can be motivated by rewards and
penalties depending on their performance. WIPRO has also followed this approach and taken
different steps, plans and measures in order to apply this approach to improve the performance
and also to create a fair deal for the workers that if they perform well then its their benefit
because they will receive promotions, rewards and recognition in the company and if they will
underperform or do not perform then they should be penalized and the severity of the penality
depends on the level they have underperformed. It also benefits the company because the good
performers will help the company to perform well and achieve its objectives and the
underperformers will get punishments such as they have to undergo special training or special
supervision or have to work for extra time in order to pay for their falt or in some cases will have
to resign and leave the company. This will help the underperformers to improve them and
become better performers and contribute to achieve the objective of the company and increase its
performance and in case they are unable to improve them after the efforts and the special
attention given to them then in that case the companies will throw these underperformers and
will get rid of then. So the rewards and penalties will act as a stimulus to motivate people to
focus on their job objective and to perform well.
WIPRO has also added certain plans which are beneficial for the employer as well as for the
company. The company has introduced various types of rewards and certain guidelines which the
employer have to follow and have to fulfill those conditions in order to achieve them.
Some of these incentives which are added to the organizational plan of the WIPRO bpo are
1) Attendance incentive- WIPRO has introduced a unique and an effective scheme of
attendance incentive which will reward the worker as per their punctuality and regularity
in the work. Since we know that the regularity of the worker is very important for the
company to get the tasks done and thus by this measure WIPRO is able to achieve the
consistency of regularity of its workers. Here the stimulus which motivate the workers to
come regularly is the attendance incentive or the extra pay that they can earn. Once they
start coming regularly by the motivation and driving force they have received through
this plan of attendance incentive, it will become a habit for them to become regular and
punctual in their work. This will help WIPRO to improve its work culture.
2) Processed based performance pay- WIPRO has adopted another plan of processed
based incentive pay wherein it provides a fair chance to the working staff to perform well
and become eligible for this processed based performance pay. here the stimulus which
drive the workers to perform well is the extra salary they are going to receive if they will
perform well. Here the company also keeps in mind that it gives the basic salary to the
workers in case they are not able to perform well or underperform. This will fulfill the
basic needs of the workers but at the same time when the other workers will get the
reward of this extra salary for their good performance then it will create an environment
of competition between the various workers and therefore to achieve the PBPP and in
urge of competing with the other employees the worker will try to give his best in order
to perform well and this will in turn improve the performance of the company.
3) Productivity linked incentive-This is another incentive plan where in the worker
recives the reward in the form of extra pay if he will perform which proves to be
productive i.e his performance will earn profit for the company .here also the stimulus or
the motivating factor is to achieve this incentive by performing well which will in turn
increase the productivity of the company.
The other measures taken by the WIPRO is special training to the underperformers.for example-if
you are a associate and you are unable to perform well in taking your call then WIPRO will
have a supervision on you and your team leader will pay attention to you and will also inform
you that your performance is going down and will guide you and give you time to improve and
prove yourself. in case you are unable to improve and consistently keep on underperforming then
you will be placed off calls either partially like for few hours of your whole shift or fully based
on the level of your underperformance and then will be given special training to improve
yourself where you are lagging. in case you are unable to perform after so much efforts from the
company then you are put on probation period for three months and if there will be extra
requirement in the other processes of the company and if company thinks that you are suitable to
work in that process then the company will take you in, otherwise you have to leave the company
at the end of the mentioned probation period.
The other steps taken by the company includes the promotions and to be eligible to get promoted
you have to perform to a certain required level. Thus the promotion act as a driving force to
motivate the workers to perform well to reach their desired position and to get the recognition
they always wanted. This also helps the workers to fulfill their higher level needs such as self
esteem, self actualization.
Thus we can see that here the WIPRO has used the system of rewards and penalties and has
followed the Taylor’s scientific approach of management in order to improve its performance.
MOTIVATION AND WIPRO
WIPRO has also followed different theories of motivation in order to motivate the workers to
perform well. This can be seen in its thinking which it call as the “spirit of WIPRO” and also the
quality of life, career and growth opportunities and the attention it gives regarding the issues
related to the health and family of it employees. We have studied different theories of motivation
and now we will find how WIPRO has made use of them to increase the performance and
efficiency of its organization.
WIPRO gives a good salary and a working environment as well as security of job to its
employees. As discussed earlier there are several incentives based on the way you perform
within the organization. The company also has introduced various rewards and recognition
within the organization which are also achievable if you perform well within the organization.
Thus WIPRO is able to fulfill the lower level as well as the higher level needs of its employees.
According to the Maslow’s theory of motivation he has categorized the various needs of the
workers into the higher and lower level needs. The lower level needs includes psychological
needs (food, shelter and clothing),safety needs and security needs. WIPRO is able to fulfill these
needs as discussed above by providing salary, incentives and job security to its employees. The
higher level needs are self esteem and self actualization and for this purpose WIPRO offers
various rewards, recognition and growth opportunities wherein one can perform and prove his
worth and abilities. According to Maslow once these needs are fulfilled, workers feels satisfied
and to achieve them they perform at their best..Thus this will act as a driving force or stimuli
which will led the workers perform well. In this way WIPRO has followed the Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs to improve the organizational behavior and the performance of the
According to Herzberg two factor theory which has been discussed earlier in this assignment, he
has divided the theory in two parts-
1 hygiene factors
2 motivation factors
Now the WIPRO has also taken certain steps and measures to fulfill these factors. WIPRO
provides a good infrastructure, facilities and working environment to its employees which
includes- 24 hour cafeteria, gym, pickup and drop facilities, concierge desk, online HR help,
recreation facilities etc. WIPRO is a brand name ,a big global company which has a good
business reputation, thus it provides a sense of job security to its employees. Companies do
business globally all over world and to maintain its standards the company has some strict
policies and quality administration. Company also focus on providing health facilities such as dr
max onsite(an onsite service by the doctors),med claim and accident insurance. Company also
provides knowledgeable and experienced supervisors and trainers who help the employees to
improve their performance. Thus by giving all these provisions WIPRO is able to focus on the
fulfillment of the hygiene factors of the Herzberg two factor theory of motivation. WIPRO also
focus on providing good and handsome salaries to its employees along with rewards and
recognition based on the way the employee performs. WIPRO provides multiple growth
opportunities through its various programs like STEP, wings within and career mosaic. It also
has a provision of in-house education initiative through its program called seed.WIPRO has
introduced performance management system and employee engagement program wherein one
gets an opportunity of advancement and feeling of responsibility. WIPRO also provides different
trainings(from new hire training to development training).with all these plans and provision
WIPRO is able to fulfill the motivation factors of the Herzberg two factor theory. In this way
WIPRO BPO has applied the Herzberg’s two factor theory to improve the organizational
behavior and its performance.
WIPRO faced many barriers when it first started, the biggest as its CEO mentioned in an
interview with Forbes was that they were looked as a joke being a consumer care company going
into technology. That's why they changed their name from Western India Products Limited to
WIPRO. It was about the credibility. But they invested a lot in R&D and talent. WIPRO put
plenty of support money into building custom solutions and into building a strong after-sales
service network that was not very prevalent in those days.
Today the IT industry is strong and so its WIPRO. WIPRO has presence around the world and
even in Latin Amerca where it has been difficult for them to acquire the experience. WIPRO is a
company that keeps growing, and expanding around the world.
WIPRO is doing recruitment from American, European campuses and are now starting Japanese
campuses. They are setting up a center in Atlanta, where they will be recruiting from
universities, and would like to build up to 500 people. They'll probably have two more centers in
the U.S., typically in low-cost areas, university towns. Community sensitivity and visa concerns
make this essential, and it makes sense to have a local cadre, apart from employees gained
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