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Harish final . Extraction prosses

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Harish final . Extraction prosses

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS Shree Mahavir Institute of Pharmacy, Nashik MAHARASHTRA (INDIA) 2022 – 2023 1
  2. 2. AREVIEWARTICLEBY LADE HARISH RAVSAHEB FINAL YEARB.PHARMACY {PRNNO-2052811823005} {ROLLNO-53} UNDER GUIDANCE MS. TEJASHRI DUGAJE MAM 2
  3. 3. Course structure and content for PRACTICE SCHOOL (BP706PS) • DOMAIN -11 ADVANCED HERBAL TECHNOLOGY ADVANCED EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES 3
  4. 4. INDEX  INTRODUCTION  IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTIFICATION OF DRUG  WHO GUIDELINE  INTRODUCTION OF DRUG  CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT  EXTRACTION PROCESS  SIMPLE EXTRACTION PROCESS  ADVANCED EXTRACTION PROCESS  ANALYTICAL TECHNIQES  USES  CONCLUSION  REFERENCE 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION • HERBAL TECHNOLOGY 1) ALL TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF VALUE ADDED PLANT PRODUCTS CAN BE CALLED AS HERBAL TECHNOLOGY. 2) HERBAL DRUG TECHNOLOGY IS USED FOR CONVERTING BOTANICAL MATERIAL INTO MEDICINES. Herbal drugs and pharmaceuticals Neutraceuticals Biopestisides New techniques for evaluation Fuctional foods,health foods and drinks. 5
  6. 6. WHO GUIDELINE 1. AUTHENTICATION (STAGE OF COLLECTION, PARTS OF THE PLANT COLLECTED, REGIONAL STATUS, BOTANICAL IDENTITY LIKE PHYTO MORPHOLOGY, MICROSCOPICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS, TAXONOMICAL IDENTITY, ETC.) 2. FOREIGN MATTER (HERBS COLLECTED SHOULD BE FREE FROM SOIL INSECT PARTS OR ANIMAL EXCRETA, ETC.) 3. ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION (SENSORY CHARACTERS TASTE, APPEARANCE, ODOUR, FEEL OF THE DRUG, ETC.) 4. TISSUES OF DIAGNOSTIC IMPORTANCE PRESENT IN THE DRUG POWDER 6
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION OF DRUG • NAME- INDIAN KINO TREE • SYNOYM – BIJASAL, MALBAR KINO. • BIOLOGICAL SOURCE- IT CAN CONSIST DRIED JUICE OF PLANT PECTROCARPUS MARSUPIUM BELONGING TO FAMILY FABACEAE • GEOGRAFICAL SOURCE- GUJRAT, MADHYAPRADESH, BIHAR. • MORPHOLOGY • COLOUR- RUBY RED • ODOUR – CHARACTERISTIC • TASTE – ASTRINGENT 7
  8. 8. METHOD OF IDENTIFICATION OF PLANT TAXONOMICAL KEYS – • GENUS- PECTROCARPUS • FAMILY- FABACEAE • CLASS – MAGNOLIOPSIDA • SPECIES – MARSUPIUM  WRITTEN DISCRIPTION SPECIMEN COMPARISON EXPERT DETERMINATION 8
  9. 9. AUTHENTIFICATION TECHNIQE Authentification technique Macroscopic 1.Colour 2.Odour 3.Taste 4.Identification taste Microscopic T.S. 9
  10. 10. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT Sr. No. Name Source Biological Source 1 Liquiritigenin Bark Antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic effect. 2 Isoliquiritigenin Bark Antidiabetic 3 Pterosupin Bark Antihyperlipidemic effect 4 Epicatechin Bark Antidiabetic, anthelmintic properties 5 Pterostlvene Bark Antidiabetic, anti-oxidant 6 Marsupinol Bark Antihyperlipidemic 10
  11. 11. ADVANCED EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES Simple Techniqueas Infusion Decoction Maceration Percolation Advance method of extraction Super critical fluid extraction Soxhlet extraction Ultrasound assisted extraction microwave-assisted extraction 11
  12. 12. EXTRACTION 12
  13. 13. EXTRACTION BY INFUSION METHOD • THE AQUEOUS INFUSION OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM BY SOAKING 50 GRAMS OF SAW DUST OF THE WOOD IN 500 ML. DISTILLED WATER FOR OVERNIGHT AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. • THE SUPERNATANT LIQUID WAS COLLECTED AND THE FINAL VOLUME WAS ADJUSTED SO THAT 10 ML OF INFUSION REPRESENTED 1 GRAM OF THE CRUDE DRUG. • THE INFUSION WAS STORED IN A SEALED CONTAINER IN REFRIGERATOR AT 4 °C FOR SUBSEQUENT USE. 13
  14. 14. EXTRACTION BY DECOCTION METHOD METHOD • THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA (1990) RECOMMENDS 50-100 GRAMS OF THE DRUG FOR DECOCTION . IN ONE STUDY, DRIED HEARTWOOD OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM WAS PULVERIZED, BOILED WITH DISTILLED WATER UNTIL THE VOLUME WAS REDUCED TO LESS THAN 100 ML, AND FILTERED. • THE VOLUME WAS ADJUSTED TO 100 ML IN ORDER TO OBTAIN AN EXTRACT, 1ML OF WHICH CORRESPONDS TO 1 GRAM OF THE DRUG SURI ET AL. PREPARED THE DECOCTION OF POWDERED PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM HEARTWOOD IN BOILING WATER AND THEN SPRAY DRIED IT . 14
  15. 15. EXTRACTION BY MACERATION METHOD • CHOPPED THE WOOD OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM INTO SMALL PIECES AND EXTRACTED IN ABSOLUTE ETHANOL FOR 1 WEEK . JOSHI ET AL. COLLECTED THE HEARTWOOD AND CUT IT INTO VERY SMALL PIECES. • MACERATION WITH METHANOL WAS DONE FOR 7 DAYS. THE EXTRACT WAS VACUUM DRIED AND STORED IN A REFRIGERATOR UNTIL FURTHER USE . IN ONE STUDY, THE ALCOHOL EXTRACT OF THE BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM WAS PREPARED BY COLD DOUBLE MACERATION. 15
  16. 16. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION •THIS METHOD INVOLVES USE OF LIQUEFIED GASES, USUALLY CO2 WHICH IS PUMPED THROUGH A CYLINDRICAL CHANNEL CONTAINED THE TEST SAMPLE MATERIAL AT AROUND 32◦C OR HIGHER AND 74 BARS •THE MIXTURE IS THEN TAKEN TO A SEPARATING CHAMBER WHERE THE GASES ARE RECOVERED FOR RE-USE AND THE EXTRACT SEPARATED COMPLETELY FROM THE SOLVENT. •LABILE COMPOUNDS LIKE TERPENES AND TERPENOIDS (B.P ~ 150◦C) • IT IS NON-TOXIC, EASY TO RECOVER, MAINLY ESSENTIAL OILS, AND NON-FLAMMABLE. IT IS HOWEVER AN EXPENSIVE SET UP. 16
  17. 17. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION •THIS IS BASICALLY THE TRADITIONAL SOLVENT EXTRACTION BUT THE SOLVENT AND SAMPLE MIXTURE IS HEATED USING MICROWAVE ENERGY. •THE MICROWAVE ENERGY PENETRATES THROUGH PLANT MATERIALS TARGETING AND EVAPORATING THE SMALLEST TRACES OF MOISTURE IN PLANT CELLS. THE CELL WALLS RAPTURE DUE TO PRESSURE CREATED BY THE HEATING INSIDE THE CELLS. •THIS RAPTURING EXUDATES ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM WITHIN THE CELLS, MAKING THIS METHOD MORE YIELDING OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS 17
  18. 18. SONICATION • IT CAN BE USED UNDER NORMAL TEMPERATURES BUT MOSTLY ON A HOT PLATE AT VARIED ELEVATED TEMPERATURE THEREBY INCREASING CELL WALL PERMEABILITY. •CHOICE OF SOLVENTS IS CRITICAL BASED ON THE VISCOSITY, POLARITY, SURFACE TENSION AND VAPOR PRESSURE WHICH INFLUENCE THE CAVITATION PHENOMENA • METHANOL, ETHANOL AND HEXANE ARE THE MOST COMMON SOLVENTS, TO WHICH SOMETIMES. •THIS METHOD IS EFFECTIVE IN RELEASING COMPONENTS BUT ITS DISADVANTAGES INCLUDE HIGH INSTALLATION AND OPERATIONAL COSTS, MODIFICATION OF SOME ACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND THE FORMATION OF FREE RADICALS IN THE SAMPLES WHICH ARE LIKELY TO FALSIFY RESULTS •IN THIS SONOCHEMISTRY BASED METHOD, ULTRASOUND WAVES (20 TO 2000 KHZ) ARE USED TO PENETRATE THE SAMPLE MATERIALS. 18
  19. 19. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IR SPECTROCOPY UV Spectroscopy HPLC TLC 19
  20. 20. USES OF INDIAN KINO • ANEMIA • DYSENTERY • HERPES • TOOTHACHE DIABETES BODY PAIN ASTHMA SKIN DISEASES 20
  21. 21. CONCLUSION •COST OF SOME OPERATIONAL APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT MAY BE A LIMITING FACTOR IN EXTRACTION AND ISOLATION. A COMBINATION OF SIMPLER AND CHEAPER METHODS COULD OVERCOME THIS LIMITATION. DUE TO A VARIETY OF COMPOUNDS IN PLANTS FOR POTENTIAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT, A SINGLE METHOD MAY NOT BE IDEAL TO EXTRACT AND TO ISOLATE THEM. SOMETIMES, EFFICIENCY MAY BE ACHIEVED WHEN TWO OR MORE METHODS AT THE EXTRACTION AND ISOLATION STAGES ARE COMBINED. STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION IS ALREADY DONE IN COMBINATION OF VARIOUS TECHNIQUES FOR MEANINGFUL INTERPRETATION OF SPECTRAL DATA. HOWEVER, THERE IS NEED FOR A SINGLE ROBUST PIECE OF EQUIPMENT THAT CAN DO ALL THE TECHNIQUES AT ONCE TO DETERMINE STRUCTURES OF COMPOUNDS. • 21
  22. 22. REFRENCE • 1] VATS V. GROVER JK. ET AL "EVALUATION OF ANTI HYPERGLYCEMIC AND HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM LINN, OSMIUM SANCTUM LINN AND PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM LINN IN NORMAL AND ALLOXANIZED DIABETIC RATS" ETHNOPHARMACOLOG, 2002,79: 95-100. • 2) MANKANI KL. KRISHNA V. ET AL EVALUATION OF OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB INDIAN JOURNAL PHARMACOLOGY, 2005, 37:165-168. • 3) GROVER RK. ROY R. ET AL "DYNAMIC NMRINVESTIGATION OF TWO NEW INTERCONVERTIBLEDIASTERIOMERIC EPIMER OF NATURAL 2-BENZYL-2HYDROXYBENZOFURONE DERIVATIVE FROM PTEROCARPUSMARSUPIUM" TETRAHEDRON, 2004, 60:2005-2010.8) MANIKAM M. RAMANATHAN M. ET AL "ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PHENOLICS FROM PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM" J NAT PROD, 1997, 60: 609 10. • 4) ACHARYA KP, ROKAYA MB "ETHNO BOTANICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS TRADED IN THE STREETS OF KATHMANDU VALLEY "SCIENTIFIC WORLD, 2005,3: 44-48. • 5) GENUS PTEROCARPUS. VERSION 10.01. 10.01 INTERNATIONAL LEGUME DATABASE AND INFORMATION SERVICE (ILDIS) 2008 22
  23. 23. THANKS 23

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