1. CLASS X NCERT CHAPTER 4
SUBJECT – S.SC. (GEOGRAPHY)
PRESENTED BY – MAHENDRA KUMAR
Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the
food that we consume.
an age-old economic activity
Besides food grains, it also produces raw material for various
Moreover, some agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices,
etc. are also exported
cultivation methods have changed significantly
Farming varies from subsistence to commercial
4. TYPES OF FARMING
1 Primitive Subsistence Farming –
It is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools
like hoe, Dao and digging sticks, and family/ community labour.
depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other
Farmers do not use fertilizers or other modern inputs.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
This type of shifting allows Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
It is Jhumming in north-eastern states likeAssam, Meghalaya, Mizoram
and Nagaland; Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district of
Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
6. Intensive Subsistence Farming
Intensive Subsistence Farming This type of farming is
practised in areas of high population pressure on land.
It is labor-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical
inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher
Though the‘right of inheritance’ leading to the division of
land among successive generations has rendered land-holding
size uneconomical, the farmers continue to take maximum
output from the limited land in the absence of alternative
source of livelihood.Thus, there is enormous pressure on
7. Commercial Farming
use of higher doses of modern inputs
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds
chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in order to
obtain higher productivity.
rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in
Odisha, it is a subsistence crop
Plantation is also a type of commercial farming.
a single crop is grown on a large area.
The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry
using capital intensive inputs.
All the produce is used as raw material in respective
industries. In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana,
etc., are important plantation crops.
Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in Karnataka are some
of the important plantation crops grown in these states.
10. CROPPING PATTERN
India has three cropping seasons — rabi, kharif
Rabi crops - sown in winter from October to
December harvested in summer from April to
wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and
Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are
important for the production of wheat and other
Availability of precipitation during winter months
due to the western temperate cyclones helps in
the success of these crops. However, the success
of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana,
western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has
also been an important factor in the growth of the
abovementioned rabi crops.
11. CROPPING PATTERN
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of
monsoon and these are harvested in
Paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar),
moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and
Rice growing regions are Assam,West
Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha,Andhra
Pradesh,Telangana,Tamil Nadu, Kerala and
Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan
coast) along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Recently , paddy has also become an
important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In
states like Assam,West Bengal and Odisha,
three crops of paddy are grown in a year.
These are Aus,Aman and Boro
12. CROPPING PATTERN
In between the rabi and the
kharif seasons, there is a short
season during the summer
months known as the Zaid
cucumber, vegetables and
Sugarcane takes almost a year
14. Rice -
Temperature: Between 22-32°C with high humidity.
Rainfall: Around 150-300 cm.
SoilType: Deep clayey and loamy soil.
Top Rice Producing States:West Bengal > Punjab > Uttar
Pradesh > Andhra Pradesh > Bihar.
It is the staple food crop of majority of Indian people.
India is the second largest producer of rice in the world
In states like Assam,West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of
paddy are grown in a year.These are Aus, Aman and Boro.
Temperature: Between 10-15°C (Sowing time) and 21-26°C
(Ripening & Harvesting) with bright sunlight.
Rainfall: Around 75-100 cm.
SoilType:Well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy (Ganga-
Satluj plains and black soil region of the Deccan)
TopWheat Producing States: Uttar Pradesh > Punjab >
Madhya Pradesh > Haryana > Rajasthan.
India is the second largest producer after China.
This is the second most important cereal crop and the
main food crop, in north and north-western India.
Success of Green Revolution contributed to the growth of Rabi
crops especially wheat.
Temperature: Between 27-32°C
Rainfall: Around 50-100 cm.
SoilType: Can be grown in inferior alluvial or loamy soil because they are less sensitive
to soil deficiencies.
Jowar- Rain-fed crop grown in the moist areas with less or no irrigation.
Bajra- Sandy soils and shallow black soil.
Ragi- Red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils. (dry regions)
Top Millets Producing States: Rajasthan > Karnataka > Maharashtra >
Madhya Pradesh > Uttar Pradesh
Jowar: Maharashtra > Karnataka > Madhya Pradesh >Tamil Nadu >Andhra Pradesh.
Bajra: Rajasthan > Uttar Pradesh > Gujarat > Madhya Pradesh > Haryana.
These are also known as coarse grains, which have high nutritional value. Ragi is
very rich in iron, calcium, other micro nutrients and roughage.
Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and
Temperature: Between 21-27°C
Rainfall: High rainfall.
SoilType: Old alluvial soil.
Top Maize Producing States: Karnataka > Maharashtra
> Madhya Pradesh >Tamil Nadu >Telangana
India is the seventh largest producer worldwide.
It is used both as food and fodder.
Use of modern inputs such as High-YieldingVariety seeds,
fertilisers and irrigation have contributed to the increasing
production of maize.
Temperature: Between 20-27°C
Rainfall: Around 25-60 cm.
SoilType: Sandy-loamy soil.
Top Pulses Producing States: Madhya Pradesh > Rajasthan >
Maharashtra > Uttar Pradesh > Karnataka.
India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the
These are the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet.
Major pulses grown in India are tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur,
peas and gram.
Being leguminous crops, all these crops except arhar help in restoring
soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.Therefore, these are
mostly grown in rotation with other crops.
20. Food Crops other than Grains: sugarcane
Temperature: Between 21-27°C with hot and humid climate.
Rainfall: Around 75-100 cm.
SoilType: Deep rich loamy soil.
Top Sugarcane Producing States: Uttar Pradesh >
Maharashtra > Karnataka >Tamil Nadu > Bihar.
India is the second largest producer of sugarcane after
It can be grown on all variety of soils ranging from sandy loam to
clay loam given these soils should be well drained.
It needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting.
It is the main source of sugar, gur (jaggery), khandsari and
21. Oil seeds
Temperature: Between 15-30°C
Rainfall: Around 30-75 cm.
SoilType: Loam to clayey loam and well drained sandy loams.
Top Oilseeds Producing States: Madhya Pradesh >
Rajasthan > Gujarat > Maharashtra > Uttar Pradesh.
Main oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard,
coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton
seeds, linseed and sunflower.
Most of these are edible and used as cooking mediums. However,
some of these are also used as a raw material in the
production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.
22. महेंद्र पारीक22
Yellow Revolution and Integrated Scheme on Oilseeds,
Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM) are examples of
government initiatives for oilseeds
Groundnut is a kharif crop and accounts for about half of the
major oilseeds produced in the country.
Linseed and mustard are rabi crops.
Sesamum is a kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south
Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.
23. Plantation Crops Tea
Temperature: Between 20-30°C
Rainfall: Around 150-300 cm.
SoilType: Deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic
TopTea Producing States:Assam >West Bengal >Tamil Nadu.
India is the second largest producer of tea.
It was introduced in the eastern hill slopes of India by the
Slopes of eastern hills have humid climate and evenly distributed
rainfall without water logging which are optimal conditions
for terrace farming of tea.
Tea is a labour intensive industry. It requires abundant, cheap and
skilled labour.Tea is processed within the tea garden to retain its freshness.
Temperature: Between 15-28°C
Rainfall: Around 150-250 cm.
SoilType:Well drained, deep friable loamy soil.
Top Coffee Producing States: Karnataka > Kerala >Tamil Nadu.
India is the seventh largest producer.
Coffee was initially brought fromYemen and introduced on the
Baba Budan Hills.
Hills with well-defined shade canopy, comprising evergreen
leguminous trees provide the optimal condition for coffee cultivation
that is why it is mainly concentrated in the hilly regions.
Indian variety of coffee ‘Arabica’ is famous worldwide.
25. Horticulture crops
Horticulture is the branch of
agriculture concerned with cultivation,
production and sale of fruits,
vegetables, flowers, herbs,
ornamental or exotic plants.
India is the second largest producer of
fruits and vegetables and it produces
both tropical and temperate fruits.
India produces about 13 percent of the
world’s vegetables. It is an important
producer of peas, cauliflower, onions,
cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.
26. Non-Food Crops :Rubber
Rainfall: More than 200 cm.
Temperature: Above 25°C with moist and humid climate.
SoilType: Rich well drained alluvial soil.
Top Rubber Producing States: Kerala >Tamil Nadu >
It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also
grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.
Rubber is an important industrial raw material.
27. Fibre Crops
Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre
crops grown in India.
The first three are derived from the crops grown in the soil,
the SILK is obtained from cocoons of the silkworms fed on
green leaves specially mulberry.
Rearing of silk worms for the production of silk
fibre is known as sericulture.
28. Fibre Crops : COTTON
Temperature: Between 21-30°C
Rainfall: Around 50-100cm.
SoilType:Well drained black cotton soil of Deccan Plateau.
Top Cotton Producing States: Gujarat > Maharashtra >
Telangana > Andhra Pradesh > Rajasthan.
India is believed to be the original home of the cotton
plant. 2ND LARGEST PRODUCER AFTER CHINA Cotton is
one of the main raw materials for cotton textile industry.
Cotton needs 210 frost-free days and bright sun-shine for
It is a kharif crop and requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
29. Fibre Crops : JUTE
Temperature: Between 25-35°C
Rainfall: Around 150-250 cm
SoilType:Well drained alluvial soil
Top Jute Producing States:West Bengal > Bihar > Assam >
Andhra Pradesh > Odisha.
It is mainly concentrated in eastern India because of the rich
alluvial soil of Ganga-Brahmaputra delta.
India is the largest producer of jute.
It is known as the golden fibre.
It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and
Due to its high cost, it is losing market to synthetic fibres and
packing materials, particularly nylon..
30. Technological Reforms
Why reforms are needed –
Farmers are still depend upon monsoon and natural fertility in
order to carry on their agriculture.
This posses a serious challenge for a growing population.
The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology
and theWhite Revolution (Operation Flood) were some of the
strategies initiated to improve the lot of Indian agriculture.
Limited result were achieved.
in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development
programme was initiated,
32. Institutional Reforms
collectivization, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of
zamindari, etc. were given priority to bring about institutional reforms.
Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and
Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for
providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
Kissan Credit Card (KCC), PersonalAccident Insurance Scheme (PAIS)
are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the
benefit of the farmers
The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative
and procurement prices for important crops
33. Contribution of agriculture to the national economy, employment and output
Agriculture’s share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has registered
a declining trend from 1951 onwards.
the Government of India made concerted efforts to modernise
Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres
horticulture development, research and development in the field of
meteorology and weather forecast, etc.
Subsidy on fertilisers is decreased leading to increase in the
cost of production. Moreover, reduction in import duties on
agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the
Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a
downfall in the employment in agriculture.
34. FOOD SECURITY
every citizen of the country should have access to food which
provides minimum nutritional level
If any segment of our population does not have this access,
that segment suffers from lack of food security.
It consists of two components
(a) buffer stock and
(b) public distribution system (PDS).
35. FOOD SECURITY
PDS is a programme which provides food grains and other
essential commodities at subsidised prices in rural and urban
Food Corporation of India (FCI) is responsible for procuring
and stocking foodgrains, whereas distribution is ensured by
public distribution system (PDS).
The FCI procures food grains from the farmers at the
government announced minimum support price (MSP).The
government used to provide subsidies on agriculture inputs
such as fertilizers, power and water.
36. Agriculture – Problems
Excessive and imprudent use of fertilizers and water has led to
waterlogging, salinity and depletion of essential micronutrients in the
The high MSP, subsidies in input and committed FCI purchases have
distorted the cropping pattern.Wheat and paddy crops are being
grown more for the MSP they get. Punjab and Haryana are foremost
Creation of necessary infrastructure like irrigation facilities,
availability of electricity etc. may also attract private investments in
37. Agriculture – Problems -
Fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides, which once showed dramatic
results, are now being held responsible for degrading the soils
Inefficient water management has led to water logging and salinity
farmers are badly affected by the uncertainties of production and
market.They suffer from a double disadvantage as they pay high
prices for inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilisers etc. but lack the
bargaining power to fix prices in their favour
38. Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture
Cotton textile industry in Manchester and Liverpool
flourished due to the availability of good quality cotton from
farmers of Champaran (1917 )in Bihar were forced to grow
indigo because it was necessary for the textile industries
located in Britain.They were unable to grow foodgrains to
sustain their families
Despite being an important producer of rice, cotton, rubber,
tea, coffee, jute and spices our agricultural products are not
able to compete with the developed countries because of the
highly subsidised agriculture in those countries.
39. Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture
Agriculture has caused land degradation due to overuse of
chemicals, drying aquifers and vanishing biodiversity.
The keyword today is “gene revolution”.Which includes
India’s rural population is about 600 million which depends
upon 250 million (approximate) hectares of agricultural land,
an average of less than half a hectare per person.
Indian farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from
cereals to high-value crops.This will increase incomes and
reduce environmental degradation simultaneously.