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SM ASSIGNMENT
SUBSTITUTE FOR THE PRODUCTS AVILABLE IN THE MARKET
2021HT79018
LIST OF 10 PRODUCTS
S.No INDEX Slide No
1 Conventional Fan Vs BLDC Fan 3
2 Convention Water Heater vs Solar Water Heater 7
3 Incandescent Bulb Vs LED 11
4 Shampoo in Bottles Vs Shampoo Bar 16
5 Plastic Tooth Brush Vs Bamboo Tooth Brush 20
6 Plastic Confetti Vs Biodegradable Confetti 24
7 Synthetic Sponges Vs Natural Sponges 28
8 Air Conditioner Vs Evaporative Cooling 32
9 Plastic Buds Vs Bamboo Buds 36
10 Plastic Bottles vs Copper Containers 40
2
CONVENTIONAL FAN vs
BLDC FAN
The most energy-efficient ceiling fans that are currently available in the market are fans that use brushless
direct current electric motors (BLDC motors), a technology that requires an electronic motor controller to drive
the rotor. BLDC motor ceiling fans are up to 50% more energy efficient than regular induction motor fans. They
also require less maintenance, produce less heat and run quieter than standard induction motor fans. Currently,
97% of electrified Indian homes have at least one ceiling fan, however, less than 5% of these are BLDC ceiling
fans
CONVENTIONAL FAN
 Power Consumption: - Conventional fans consume 80 Watts on average and this results in large
electricity bills making it expensive.
 Inverter Operation: - Conventional fans consume a lot of power from the inverter thus draining the
inverter battery faster. Besides, it is not easy to run more number of fans on low capacity inverters at the
same time.
 Noise: - Normal fans make a lot of humming noises, particularly when run on lower budget inverters.
 Motor Design: - Normal fans use conventional induction motors that consume a lot of power. Their
electromagnetic coils suffer a lot of heating losses thus resulting in poor power efficiency.
 Speed Control: - Conventional fans that use induction motors use regulators to control speed. These
regulators use the property of capacitive reactance or resistance to limit the amount of current flowing
into the induction motors thus reducing or increasing speed
 Remote Controls: - Most conventional induction motor fans use no remote controls and their speeds are
mostly controlled using regulators
 Voltage Requirements: - The conventional fans directly take the mains voltage of 110–220 Volts
depending on region
4
BLDC FAN
 Power Consumption: The BLDC fans on the other hand consume only 28 Watts which results in a
more energy efficient option. A 28 Watt BLDC fan saves approximately 1500 to 2000 Indian Rupees in
India per fan every year..
 Inverter Operation: - BLDC fans on the other hand consume very low power thus making it an ideal
option to run multiple fans on low power inverters and on lower capacity batteries for longer time
periods.
 Noise: - The BLDC fans on the other hand generally do not produce a lot of noise and are very silent
in their operation.
 Motor Design: - The BLDC fans on the other hand use Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct
Current Motors (thus the term BLDC) that consume very little power as there is virtually no heating
losses and thus results in higher power efficiency..
 Speed Control: - The BLDC motors in BLDC fans use Speed Controllers that digitally vary the current
going to the motor thus controlling speed. Thus, most BLDC fans use remote controls to control speed
and they cannot be controlled by regulators.
 Remote Controls: - The majority of BLDC fans use remote controls for operation and cannot be
controlled using regulators.
 Voltage Requirements: - The BLDC fans have a switching power supply that steps down the high AC
voltage to a low DC voltage such as 12 Volts or 24 Volts or 48 Volts and feeds it into a BLDC motor
controller to run the BLDC motor.
5
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
 Many BLDC ceiling fans are
considered as eco-friendly, as they
save about 1 kg of CO2 emissions
and 2 liters of water every day by
conserving electricity.
 BLDC motors are also more
environmentally friendly than
conventional AC motors because
they do not contain moving parts and
therefore have no carbon emissions
6
CONVENTIONAL WATER HEATER VS
SOLAR WATER HEATERS
Conventional electric geysers work well for smaller homes and in regions where
weather might be an issue for solar-operated systems. Solar water heaters are
energy-efficient and have a lifetime warranty. Additionally, they save the environment
and help you adopt a sustainable lifestyle.
7
CONVENTIONAL WATER HEATER
 Electric water heaters are reasonably priced and more petite than solar-powered setups, making them
easy to mount. These factors make them suitable for smaller homes and households on a budget.
 Electric heaters work on a two-tank or single-tank system like solar heaters. These devices utilize
approximately 120-240-volts of energy to heat the metal conductors inside the tank. Once the water
tank reaches the desired temperature, the water starts heating.
 Within an hour, you receive hot water whenever you turn the faucet. However, the electrical process can
prove costly when considering the utility bills and carbon footprint it leaves behind
 Installation and maintenance costs are cheaper, we can purchase a custom-sized electric geyser that
you can mount anywhere you want, It offers an on-demand hot water supply with no need for backup
heaters, Environmental damage isn’t a major issue because you keep electrical geysers inside the
house
 On average, 12% of energy consumption in households can be traced to water heating, It uses 380–500
kWh per month, costing hundreds or thousands of rupees,
 Electric water heaters also bring many maintenance problems. These include electrical circuit issues
that result in an inconsistent hot water supply, an electric geyser’s plastic components inside (and
outside) can melt when voltage fluctuates. When that happens, your heating system might stop working.
Besides this, using a damaged electric heater can be a potential fire hazard
8
SOLAR WATER HEATERS
 Solar water heating systems consist of solar collectors that capture the sun’s energy and storage
water tanks. The mechanism features a single-tank or two-tank system.
 You need well-insulated storage tanks that maintain consistent water temperatures in both cases.
Later on, the hot water gets distributed around the house through pumps or an automated
thermosiphon controller.
 Solar water heater outlets have a backup electric heater to reheat water during nighttime. You
typically use it when you run out of hot water inside the storage.
 Most eco-first architectural designs and households are switching to solar because of their
environmentally-safe mechanism. Using renewable energy allows you to reduce your carbon
footprint.
 Plus, you save hundreds of rupees in of utility bills. It’s because these heating systems use
sunlight
 The only problem lies in the initial cost of setting up this eco-friendly water heating system.
 They are cost-effective in the long run as they reduce “heating bills by 50-80%.” Solar water
heaters are less likely to emit harmful pollutants, and they don’t deplete any non-renewable
resources. Premium-quality solar collectors can operate for decades when maintained well.
9
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
 Solar water heaters are the most eco-friendly and energy-efficient hot water
heaters as they operate on a natural renewable energy source—no fossil fuels
or coal-burning necessary
 Solar water heating is a renewable heating system and can reduce your carbon
dioxide emissions.
10
INCANDESCENT LIGHT
BULBS VS LED
INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULBS
 Incandescent light bulbs consist of an air-tight glass enclosure (the envelope, or
bulb) with a filament of tungsten wire inside the bulb, through which an electric
current is passed. Contact wires and a base with two (or more) conductors provide
electrical connections to the filament.
 These are the old-fashioned, “typical” bulbs that many of us grew up with. They’re
not very energy-efficient and they don’t last long.
 These bulbs have filaments that glow, producing both heat and light when energy
flows through them
 Need more wattage for more lumens
12
LED BULBS
 LED stands for “light-emitting diode.” They’re tiny semiconductors (diodes) wrapped in
plastic to protect the elements and focus the light. According to Dictionary.com, a diode
is “a semiconductor device with two terminals, typically allowing the flow of current in
one direction only.” The current comes into an anode (+) and flows out of a cathode (-).
LEDs don’t even have wire filaments like a lightbulb does.
 LEDs, on the other hand, have electrons that flow to create photons – light we can see.
Photons generate almost no heat. LEDs also require much less energy to create the
same amount of brightness as incandescent lights, and last much longer.
 LEDs use much less energy than incandescent bulbs because diode light is much more
efficient, power-wise, than filament light.
 LED bulbs use more than 75% less energy than incandescent lighting. At low power
levels, the difference is even larger. Bright LED flood lamps use only 11 to 12 watts
while creating a light output comparable to a 50-watt incandescent bulb.
13
COMPARISON OF INCANDESCENT WITH LED
Lumens
(Brightness)
Incandescent
Watts
LEDWatts
400–500 40W 6–7W
650–850 60W 7–10W
1000–1400 75W 12–13W
1450-1700+ 100W 14–20W
2700+ 150W 25–28W
COMPARISION Incandescent LED
Watts used 60W 7W
Average cost per bulb $1 $4 or less
Average lifespan 1,200 hours
25,000
hours
Bulbs needed for 25,000 hours 21 1
Total purchase price of bulbs
over 20 years
$21 $4
Cost of electricity (25,000 hours
at $0.15 per kWh)
$169 $30
Total estimated cost over 20
years
$211 $34
14
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
 LED lights, however, convert 95% of their energy into light with only 5% being
wasted as heat. This means that LEDs require less power than regular forms of
lighting, so obviously the less energy they require, the more positive the effect on
the environment.
 Standard LED bulbs can be up to 80% more energy efficient than conventional
bulbs, and waste far less energy than other styles of lighting.
 LED lights however, contain no hazardous materials so they are obviously much
safer for the environment and they do not require specialist disposal. This means
there is no need to arrange for a vehicle to drive to the premises to collect and
then dispose of them, so fewer emissions on the road are also produced. While the
impact of this on the environment may not seem much in isolation
15
SHAMPOO IN BOTTLES VS
SHAMPOO BAR
SHAMPOO BOTTLES
 According to the Central Pollution Control Board report (2018-19) India’s annual plastic waste generation is 3.3 million
metric tonnes per year. That’s the weight of 8.25 lakhs male Asian elephants combined so we definitely don’t need to
add to it!
 Plastic doesn’t stop at the packaging. Many liquid shampoos have micro plastics in them! Micro plastics are plastics
that are smaller than 0.5mm in size. Don’t see micro plastic in the ingredients list? Try looking for resins, waxes or
silicones instead. Ingredients like dimethazone and polyethylene help your hair look shiny but they are, in fact, micro
plastics. When you wash your hair, these micro plastics go back into our water bodies.
 It gets scarier – a research study has shown that these micro plastics make the perfect habitat for the growth of
antibiotic-resistant bacteria. And if 2020 has taught us anything, we really don’t want any of those!
 Liquid shampoos require quite a lot of water to make
 It’s not just water in the shampoo that needs to be looked at, there’s water behind the shampoo ingredients too. They
typically use a lot of freshwater to either grow or to chemically process
 An ingredient called siloxane used to make liquid shampoo feel silky, has been shown to release CO2 in the presence
of sunlight. This means that if you wash your hair with a shampoo containing siloxane, then step out into the sun, your
hair will literally emit CO2. You’d be a walking environmental hazard!
 Plus, when the size and efficiency of shampoo bars are compared to liquid shampoos, it’s clear that you can transport
more haircare in a truck as shampoo bars rather than as liquid shampoos. More bars per transport vehicle equals
fewer transport vehicles. And fewer transport vehicles equals less CO2 emission!
17
SHAMPOO BAR
 Shampoo bars can be packaged in biodegradable packaging and will last you a
long time.
 When the size and efficiency of shampoo bars are compared to liquid shampoos,
it’s clear that you can transport more haircare in a truck as shampoo bars rather
than as liquid shampoos. More bars per transport vehicle equals fewer transport
vehicles. And fewer transport vehicles equals less CO2 emission
 Shampoo bars don’t require packaging like shampoo bottles, so they are much
better for the environment than their bottled counterparts.
18
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
 All the below problems can be eliminated when we are using Shampoo bar hence it was greener
compare to Shampoo in Bottles
 Shampoos are usually stored in the plastic bottles which is usually made of PET, LDPE, HDPE or
PVC here are some terrifying highlights that shed light on the enormity of just how much
disposable bottles we are generating annually:
 A million plastic bottles are bought around the world every minute and the number is projected to
jump another 20% by 2022
 This equates to about 20,000 bottles being bought every second
 More than 480 billion plastic drinking bottles were sold in 2016 across the world, up from about
300 billion a decade ago. If placed end to end, these bottles would extend more than halfway to
the sun.
 By 2022 annual plastic bottles sold is projected to increase to 583.3 billion.
 Fewer than half of the bottles bought in 2016 were collected for recycling and just 7% of those
collected were turned into new bottles. That means, approximately 93% of the 480 billion plastic
water bottles sold in 2016 ended up in landfill or in the ocean.
19
PLASTIC TOOTH BRUSHES
vs. BAMBOO TOOTH BRUSH
PLASTIC TOOTH BURSH
 The average Indian throws away about 300 plastic toothbrushes in their lifetime.
They can take up a lot of space in a landfill and will not biodegrade for a long time,
Several studies have shown that there is a high chance of toxins getting into our
water supply. This is due to the fact that when plastic gets in contact with sunlight it
can release chemicals, which have been proven to be carcinogenic
 It’s been estimated that around one billion toothbrushes are produced every year!
That’s a lot of toothbrushes, that will end up in a landfill or worse- in our oceans.
It’s terrible for the environment
 The bristles of conventional toothbrushes are made from nylon, which is oil. The
handles are made from polycarbonate, which is oil. The see-through plastic
packaging is made from PET, which is oil. The concept of brushing your teeth with
an instrument made entirely from a non-renewable resource which is
simultaneously polluting and heating the planet
21
BAMBOO TOOTH BRUSH
 Bamboo has many benefits including being sustainable, biodegradable, and recyclable.
It also has natural antibacterial properties that prevent bacteria from building up
 When bamboo is harvested the bamboo plant continues to grow, making it a renewable
resource. The end result is a toothbrush that can last for months with no break-down in
quality while also being environmentally friendly.
 Toothbrushes made from bamboo don’t contain plastic micro-particles, which can be
harmful when ingested by animals and humans alike.
 Unlike plastic toothbrush handles, toothbrush handles made from bamboo will
biodegrade naturally. Depending on the level of soil activity, a bamboo handle can
completely decompose within a time period as short as 3 months, whereas a plastic
toothbrush handle persists in the environment for thousands of years.
 Bamboo is an ideal replacement for plastic toothbrush handles because, like plastic,
bamboo is extremely strong yet light in weight. It is often called “green steel” because
of its durability and hardness
22
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
 Bamboo does have a smaller ecological footprint than plastic because bamboo
plants grow quickly, re growing what was taken for the production of the
toothbrush.
 Bamboo toothbrush help save the environment, especially the oceans, from being
destroyed. Using a bamboo toothbrush is as effective as a manual plastic
toothbrush. The difference is that handle is made from bamboo which is strong,
biodegradable and has no negative impact on the planet
23
PLASTIC CONFETTI VS
BOIDEGRADABLE CONFETTI
LIKE LEAVES, FLOWER
PETALS, SEED PAPER OR
EVEN RICE IN SOUTH INDIAN
MARRIAGES
PLASTIC CONFETTI
 Confetti may be small, but using it can have big consequences. Traditional
confetti—the kind you'll find at most stores and online—is made of polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) and other plastics. According to experts, it can take 1000 YEARS
to breakdown meaning that quick burst of fun can leave an impact on the planet
for a really long time.
 Confetti isn't just polluting the environment—it's also harming wildlife. Animals may
be attracted to the shine that comes off the plastic pieces and wind up eating it. It
can also end up in rivers and oceans, putting fish and other marine life at risk.
According to National Geographic, when these little pieces of plastic collect in an
animal's stomach, it can cause them to die of starvation.
 So every time someone is using traditional confetti at an event, they're really just
throwing microplastics into the environment.
25
BIODEGRADABLE CONFETTI
 Flower petals: Either dried or fresh, these are especially lovely options for pictures. Unless you choose
white petals, the dried variety will likely be preferred by the venue if the walkway is paved, in order to
avoid the risk of stains.
 Lavender or other herbs: Lavender blooms have the benefit of being both small and plentiful, making it
very similar to confetti. This will also smell wonderful as you take your newlywed recessional, and in the
future the scent may bring back that memory.
 Birdseed: If you worry about rice or chunks of glitter being harmful to birds, this is a safe bet. As an
added benefit, cleanup is unlikely to be an issue because it will be eaten up!
 Leaves: You can use full-sized leaves, whether small or large, like Gwyneth Paltrow and Brad Falchuk
did at their wedding, or get a hole puncher and make your own organic confetti.
 Seed paper or biodegradable confetti: Dissolvable “paper” (often made with corn starch) makes it less
of a problem if not every little piece is picked up. Natural paper filled with seeds will grow new flowers
when planted.
 Coconut flakes. The snow-like visual makes this especially popular for winter weddings, and as with
herbs, it smells great! However, you’ll want to make sure no guests (or staff!) have any coconut
allergies, as that applies to skin contact as well as ingestion
26
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
 they are eco-friendly and quickly biodegrade. We can even leave them lying
around after we’re done with them and not worry about it causing any adverse
effect on the environment.
 Paper confetti, however, will decompose in about 2-4 months.
 Flower confetti is natural. And so, it’s biodegradable. It’ll typically take about 1-3
months to degrade completely. However, it can decompose within a few weeks
under suitable weather and temperature conditions
27
SYNTHETIC SPONGES VS
NATURAL SPONGES
SYNTHETIC SPONGES
 People use artificial and natural sponges are for many purposes. Common uses include
dishwashing, bathing, home cleaning, car washing and arts & crafts. Either product can often be
used with similar results
 Synthetic sponges, on the contrary, are made of cellulose polymers (plastic). The synthetic
sponges are processed from materials such as nylon or rubber, which generate as much pollution
in their processing as in their residues.
 One of the concerns surrounding Synthetic sponges is that they contribute to the degradation of
the environment. The main ingredient in many sponges is cellulose--a raw material obtained from
trees. Polyurethane, a petroleum byproduct, is also frequently used. Deforestation tends to leave
soil vulnerable to erosion, and petroleum is a non-renewable resource. In addition, the
manufacturing processes used to create artificial sponges can release pollutants into the
atmosphere
 Many of the classic, cheap synthetic poufs can take over 100 years to decompose. Nylon synthetic
pouf’s can take 30-40 years to decompose.
 It’s also recommended when using synthetic poufs, to replace them roughly every 8 weeks. That
adds up to about 6 synthetic poufs a year.
29
NATURAL SPONGES(SEA SPONGES)
 Natural sea sponges are one of the best tools for cleansing the body. Not only are
they great for your skin, but they are a better choice for the environment
 Sea sponges are more durable and last longer than synthetic sponges because
they are more resistant to abrasion. In addition, natural sea sponges are better for
bathing and cleaning because they soak up and hold more water without dripping.
30
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
 Natural sponges last longer and are a healthier option for our skin.we may not
know that with proper care, a natural sea sponge can last up to 2-6 YEARS. At this
rate, buying a sea sponge is going to save more money in the long run. If a sea
sponge lasts someone 6 years, another person would have bought 36 synthetic
poufs or more in this amount of time.
 At the very end of their use life, they can be cut up and composted or buried in the
soil to natural biodegrade. Compare this to synthetic sponges, made from
polyurethane, which can take 20 years to break down into plastic microfibers which
pollute the planet and enter our food chain.
31
AIR
CONDTIONER
VS
EVAPORATIVE COOLING
AIR CONDITIONER
 Air conditioning generally cools recirculated indoor air to avoid extra energy use needed to cool and
dehumidify incoming outdoor air
 Mechanical cooling systems require 1 kWh of electricity to produce only 2 to 4 kW of cooling power
 The hotter the outside temperatures, the more energy is needed for conventional air conditioners to
achieve the desired indoor temperature. With the global temperature increase, the window for
conventional air conditioning to function energy-efficiently is becoming smaller
 Air conditioning dehumidifies the air. Deep cooling causes the moisture in the air to condense on the
cold evaporator. The cooled air then contains less moisture. Comfortable in terms of temperature and
humidity, but not always healthy. Our immune system cannot defend itself against viruses in dry air while
the pathogens thrive. In addition, dry air can also cause discomforts such as an itchy throat or irritated
eyes
 By 2100, many cities across the world could've warmed up as much as 4°C if GHG emissions (CO2)
continue at high levels. Air conditioners, additionally, release high temperatures from their condenser,
negatively impacting the build-up of urban heating.
 Nowadays, air conditioning uses "less" damaging chlorine-free refrigerants like hydrofluorocarbons as
its cooling agents. These refrigerants are continuously evaporated and condensed in a closed system to
achieve the desired cooling. Also, regular refill has to be taken into account to avoid reduced efficiency,
as some of the refrigerants will escape into the open air. It should not be forgotten that water is also
required to generate electricity. Most of the electricity is produced by power plants using oil or coal and
at least 10 liters of freshwater per kWh is needed for steam to run the turbines.
 Air conditioning allows for comfort in all climates. In terms of relative humidity, AC systems are not
affected in their efficiency. However, the higher the outside temperatures, the more energy is needed to
provide the required cooling capacity.
33
EVAPORATIVE COOLING
 Two-stage evaporative cooling uses fresh air to cool and ventilate multiple times an hour. This air is filtered
to remove any dust or allergens
 Two-stage evaporative cooling uses only 10% of energy compared to conventional air conditioning. 95% of
the cooling capacity is provided through the natural process of water evaporation. The motor-driven fan
that regulates the adiabatic process requires 1 kWh of electricity and provides up to 40 kW of cooling
power
 On hot days the cooling efficiency of the two-stage evaporative cooling system increases. Warmer
temperatures allow for more moisture in the air, and thus the system can evaporate more water. And the
more water is evaporated, the more cooling power the system can provide without increasing its energy
consumption.
 Two-stage evaporative cooling will provide up to 70% less humidity. In a room, this will result in a humidity
level between 40% and 60%. This humidity level helps us fend off viruses and provides comfort against dry
eyes and an itchy throat
 Evaporative cooling is a physical process based on water evaporation, meaning that relative humidity
affects the effectiveness of the chosen system. The hotter and dryer a climate is, the higher the
performance of an evaporative cooling system. In a tropical climate, though, the system might be less
efficient in cooling. However, indirect/direct evaporative cooling systems hold their performance far better
than direct systems in more humid regions, such as coastal areas, during humid hours.
34
 The world’s cities are heating up at twice the
global average rate due to rapid
urbanization and the urban heat island
effect. Evaporative cooling releases process
air at low temperatures, thus having a
positive impact on the growing problem of
“urban heating”.
 Evaporative cooling uses nature’s most
potent refrigerant as its cooling agent -
water! With an exceptionally high latent heat
of vaporization (2501 kJ/kg at 0 °C),
evaporating 1 m3 water generates as much
as 695 kW of cooling power. The evaporated
water will finally end up in the air and at a
later stage come down as rain. Traditional
air conditioning technology would demand at
least 250 kWh to deliver the same cooling
power.
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
35
PLASTIC BUDS VS
WOODEN BUDS
PLASTIC BUDS
 Cotton buds are small but yet a big issue. You use it once, and it takes 400 years to go
away. And because it’s plastic, it will never go away. Instead, it will become tiny micro
plastics that slowly will be absorbed by nature.
 Plastic cotton buds disposed of down toilets enter the sewage system
 Plastic cotton buds are so small, then storm events and blockages result in the release
of plastic cotton buds out to sea with untreated sewage
 The physical structure of plastic cotton buds enables them to bypass the filters of many
wastewater treatment works and be released to sea with treated sewage
 At sea, plastic cotton buds can attract and concentrate background pollutants to toxic
levels
 Mistaken for food by many animals, plastic cotton buds and the toxins coating them can
enter the food chain
37
BAMBOO BUDS
 It’s a much better alternative than polluting plastic cotton swabs. Bamboo cotton
buds can be used for a variety of purposes
 The whole product is made from organic and biodegradable bamboo and cotton,
 so these cotton buds will naturally biodegrade.
 After usage, dispose of it by throwing them into organic waste.
38
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
 Made from bamboo, these cotton buds are biodegradable, compostable .
 Bamboo grows incredibly fast, making deforestation not an issue with its rapid and
frequent growth spurts.
39
PLASTIC WATERBOTTLES
VS
COPPER CONTAINERS
PLASTIC CONTAINER
 Lightweight with a high strength-to-weight ratio, can be manufactured
inexpensively and mass produced, water resistant, shock resistant, thermally and
electrically insulating
 Poor longevity as plastic degrades over time. Plastic is affected over time by
scratches, being dented or cracked. ...
 Absorbs flavors and smells easily. ...
 Large environmental and health impact. ...
 At higher risk for high levels of BPA.
41
COPPER CONTAINER
 If you see before 30 years in all our houses we used only the cooper utensils
which last longer and even good for health
 Copper is known to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic
and antioxidant properties.
 It can kill all the microorganisms like molds, fungi, algae and bacteria, present in
the water that could be harmful for the body. It also helps maintain body's pH
(acid-alkaline) balance.
42
HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY
 A copper bottle is indeed the best option if you’re looking to make the switch to a reusable water
bottle. It is easy to clean as well. All you need is lemon and salt to scrub the bottle clean. Not only
are you using an eco-friendly bottle but you are also using ingredients easily available in your
pantry to clean the bottle.
 For every six bottles people buy, only one is recycles. That leads to a big problem given the fact
that water bottles do not biodegrade, but rather photodegrade. This means that it takes at least up
to 1000 years for every single bottle to decompose, leaking pollutants into our soil and water along
the way
 It takes 3 times the amount of water in a bottle of water to make it as it does to fill it.Plastic water
bottles are made from a petroleum product called polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which
requires giant amount of fossil to make and transport.
 It takes almost 2000 times the energy to manufacture a bottle of water than it does to produce tap
water.
43

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2021HT79018_SM_Assignment.pptx

  • 1. SM ASSIGNMENT SUBSTITUTE FOR THE PRODUCTS AVILABLE IN THE MARKET 2021HT79018
  • 2. LIST OF 10 PRODUCTS S.No INDEX Slide No 1 Conventional Fan Vs BLDC Fan 3 2 Convention Water Heater vs Solar Water Heater 7 3 Incandescent Bulb Vs LED 11 4 Shampoo in Bottles Vs Shampoo Bar 16 5 Plastic Tooth Brush Vs Bamboo Tooth Brush 20 6 Plastic Confetti Vs Biodegradable Confetti 24 7 Synthetic Sponges Vs Natural Sponges 28 8 Air Conditioner Vs Evaporative Cooling 32 9 Plastic Buds Vs Bamboo Buds 36 10 Plastic Bottles vs Copper Containers 40 2
  • 3. CONVENTIONAL FAN vs BLDC FAN The most energy-efficient ceiling fans that are currently available in the market are fans that use brushless direct current electric motors (BLDC motors), a technology that requires an electronic motor controller to drive the rotor. BLDC motor ceiling fans are up to 50% more energy efficient than regular induction motor fans. They also require less maintenance, produce less heat and run quieter than standard induction motor fans. Currently, 97% of electrified Indian homes have at least one ceiling fan, however, less than 5% of these are BLDC ceiling fans
  • 4. CONVENTIONAL FAN  Power Consumption: - Conventional fans consume 80 Watts on average and this results in large electricity bills making it expensive.  Inverter Operation: - Conventional fans consume a lot of power from the inverter thus draining the inverter battery faster. Besides, it is not easy to run more number of fans on low capacity inverters at the same time.  Noise: - Normal fans make a lot of humming noises, particularly when run on lower budget inverters.  Motor Design: - Normal fans use conventional induction motors that consume a lot of power. Their electromagnetic coils suffer a lot of heating losses thus resulting in poor power efficiency.  Speed Control: - Conventional fans that use induction motors use regulators to control speed. These regulators use the property of capacitive reactance or resistance to limit the amount of current flowing into the induction motors thus reducing or increasing speed  Remote Controls: - Most conventional induction motor fans use no remote controls and their speeds are mostly controlled using regulators  Voltage Requirements: - The conventional fans directly take the mains voltage of 110–220 Volts depending on region 4
  • 5. BLDC FAN  Power Consumption: The BLDC fans on the other hand consume only 28 Watts which results in a more energy efficient option. A 28 Watt BLDC fan saves approximately 1500 to 2000 Indian Rupees in India per fan every year..  Inverter Operation: - BLDC fans on the other hand consume very low power thus making it an ideal option to run multiple fans on low power inverters and on lower capacity batteries for longer time periods.  Noise: - The BLDC fans on the other hand generally do not produce a lot of noise and are very silent in their operation.  Motor Design: - The BLDC fans on the other hand use Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct Current Motors (thus the term BLDC) that consume very little power as there is virtually no heating losses and thus results in higher power efficiency..  Speed Control: - The BLDC motors in BLDC fans use Speed Controllers that digitally vary the current going to the motor thus controlling speed. Thus, most BLDC fans use remote controls to control speed and they cannot be controlled by regulators.  Remote Controls: - The majority of BLDC fans use remote controls for operation and cannot be controlled using regulators.  Voltage Requirements: - The BLDC fans have a switching power supply that steps down the high AC voltage to a low DC voltage such as 12 Volts or 24 Volts or 48 Volts and feeds it into a BLDC motor controller to run the BLDC motor. 5
  • 6. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY  Many BLDC ceiling fans are considered as eco-friendly, as they save about 1 kg of CO2 emissions and 2 liters of water every day by conserving electricity.  BLDC motors are also more environmentally friendly than conventional AC motors because they do not contain moving parts and therefore have no carbon emissions 6
  • 7. CONVENTIONAL WATER HEATER VS SOLAR WATER HEATERS Conventional electric geysers work well for smaller homes and in regions where weather might be an issue for solar-operated systems. Solar water heaters are energy-efficient and have a lifetime warranty. Additionally, they save the environment and help you adopt a sustainable lifestyle. 7
  • 8. CONVENTIONAL WATER HEATER  Electric water heaters are reasonably priced and more petite than solar-powered setups, making them easy to mount. These factors make them suitable for smaller homes and households on a budget.  Electric heaters work on a two-tank or single-tank system like solar heaters. These devices utilize approximately 120-240-volts of energy to heat the metal conductors inside the tank. Once the water tank reaches the desired temperature, the water starts heating.  Within an hour, you receive hot water whenever you turn the faucet. However, the electrical process can prove costly when considering the utility bills and carbon footprint it leaves behind  Installation and maintenance costs are cheaper, we can purchase a custom-sized electric geyser that you can mount anywhere you want, It offers an on-demand hot water supply with no need for backup heaters, Environmental damage isn’t a major issue because you keep electrical geysers inside the house  On average, 12% of energy consumption in households can be traced to water heating, It uses 380–500 kWh per month, costing hundreds or thousands of rupees,  Electric water heaters also bring many maintenance problems. These include electrical circuit issues that result in an inconsistent hot water supply, an electric geyser’s plastic components inside (and outside) can melt when voltage fluctuates. When that happens, your heating system might stop working. Besides this, using a damaged electric heater can be a potential fire hazard 8
  • 9. SOLAR WATER HEATERS  Solar water heating systems consist of solar collectors that capture the sun’s energy and storage water tanks. The mechanism features a single-tank or two-tank system.  You need well-insulated storage tanks that maintain consistent water temperatures in both cases. Later on, the hot water gets distributed around the house through pumps or an automated thermosiphon controller.  Solar water heater outlets have a backup electric heater to reheat water during nighttime. You typically use it when you run out of hot water inside the storage.  Most eco-first architectural designs and households are switching to solar because of their environmentally-safe mechanism. Using renewable energy allows you to reduce your carbon footprint.  Plus, you save hundreds of rupees in of utility bills. It’s because these heating systems use sunlight  The only problem lies in the initial cost of setting up this eco-friendly water heating system.  They are cost-effective in the long run as they reduce “heating bills by 50-80%.” Solar water heaters are less likely to emit harmful pollutants, and they don’t deplete any non-renewable resources. Premium-quality solar collectors can operate for decades when maintained well. 9
  • 10. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY  Solar water heaters are the most eco-friendly and energy-efficient hot water heaters as they operate on a natural renewable energy source—no fossil fuels or coal-burning necessary  Solar water heating is a renewable heating system and can reduce your carbon dioxide emissions. 10
  • 12. INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULBS  Incandescent light bulbs consist of an air-tight glass enclosure (the envelope, or bulb) with a filament of tungsten wire inside the bulb, through which an electric current is passed. Contact wires and a base with two (or more) conductors provide electrical connections to the filament.  These are the old-fashioned, “typical” bulbs that many of us grew up with. They’re not very energy-efficient and they don’t last long.  These bulbs have filaments that glow, producing both heat and light when energy flows through them  Need more wattage for more lumens 12
  • 13. LED BULBS  LED stands for “light-emitting diode.” They’re tiny semiconductors (diodes) wrapped in plastic to protect the elements and focus the light. According to Dictionary.com, a diode is “a semiconductor device with two terminals, typically allowing the flow of current in one direction only.” The current comes into an anode (+) and flows out of a cathode (-). LEDs don’t even have wire filaments like a lightbulb does.  LEDs, on the other hand, have electrons that flow to create photons – light we can see. Photons generate almost no heat. LEDs also require much less energy to create the same amount of brightness as incandescent lights, and last much longer.  LEDs use much less energy than incandescent bulbs because diode light is much more efficient, power-wise, than filament light.  LED bulbs use more than 75% less energy than incandescent lighting. At low power levels, the difference is even larger. Bright LED flood lamps use only 11 to 12 watts while creating a light output comparable to a 50-watt incandescent bulb. 13
  • 14. COMPARISON OF INCANDESCENT WITH LED Lumens (Brightness) Incandescent Watts LEDWatts 400–500 40W 6–7W 650–850 60W 7–10W 1000–1400 75W 12–13W 1450-1700+ 100W 14–20W 2700+ 150W 25–28W COMPARISION Incandescent LED Watts used 60W 7W Average cost per bulb $1 $4 or less Average lifespan 1,200 hours 25,000 hours Bulbs needed for 25,000 hours 21 1 Total purchase price of bulbs over 20 years $21 $4 Cost of electricity (25,000 hours at $0.15 per kWh) $169 $30 Total estimated cost over 20 years $211 $34 14
  • 15. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY  LED lights, however, convert 95% of their energy into light with only 5% being wasted as heat. This means that LEDs require less power than regular forms of lighting, so obviously the less energy they require, the more positive the effect on the environment.  Standard LED bulbs can be up to 80% more energy efficient than conventional bulbs, and waste far less energy than other styles of lighting.  LED lights however, contain no hazardous materials so they are obviously much safer for the environment and they do not require specialist disposal. This means there is no need to arrange for a vehicle to drive to the premises to collect and then dispose of them, so fewer emissions on the road are also produced. While the impact of this on the environment may not seem much in isolation 15
  • 16. SHAMPOO IN BOTTLES VS SHAMPOO BAR
  • 17. SHAMPOO BOTTLES  According to the Central Pollution Control Board report (2018-19) India’s annual plastic waste generation is 3.3 million metric tonnes per year. That’s the weight of 8.25 lakhs male Asian elephants combined so we definitely don’t need to add to it!  Plastic doesn’t stop at the packaging. Many liquid shampoos have micro plastics in them! Micro plastics are plastics that are smaller than 0.5mm in size. Don’t see micro plastic in the ingredients list? Try looking for resins, waxes or silicones instead. Ingredients like dimethazone and polyethylene help your hair look shiny but they are, in fact, micro plastics. When you wash your hair, these micro plastics go back into our water bodies.  It gets scarier – a research study has shown that these micro plastics make the perfect habitat for the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. And if 2020 has taught us anything, we really don’t want any of those!  Liquid shampoos require quite a lot of water to make  It’s not just water in the shampoo that needs to be looked at, there’s water behind the shampoo ingredients too. They typically use a lot of freshwater to either grow or to chemically process  An ingredient called siloxane used to make liquid shampoo feel silky, has been shown to release CO2 in the presence of sunlight. This means that if you wash your hair with a shampoo containing siloxane, then step out into the sun, your hair will literally emit CO2. You’d be a walking environmental hazard!  Plus, when the size and efficiency of shampoo bars are compared to liquid shampoos, it’s clear that you can transport more haircare in a truck as shampoo bars rather than as liquid shampoos. More bars per transport vehicle equals fewer transport vehicles. And fewer transport vehicles equals less CO2 emission! 17
  • 18. SHAMPOO BAR  Shampoo bars can be packaged in biodegradable packaging and will last you a long time.  When the size and efficiency of shampoo bars are compared to liquid shampoos, it’s clear that you can transport more haircare in a truck as shampoo bars rather than as liquid shampoos. More bars per transport vehicle equals fewer transport vehicles. And fewer transport vehicles equals less CO2 emission  Shampoo bars don’t require packaging like shampoo bottles, so they are much better for the environment than their bottled counterparts. 18
  • 19. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY  All the below problems can be eliminated when we are using Shampoo bar hence it was greener compare to Shampoo in Bottles  Shampoos are usually stored in the plastic bottles which is usually made of PET, LDPE, HDPE or PVC here are some terrifying highlights that shed light on the enormity of just how much disposable bottles we are generating annually:  A million plastic bottles are bought around the world every minute and the number is projected to jump another 20% by 2022  This equates to about 20,000 bottles being bought every second  More than 480 billion plastic drinking bottles were sold in 2016 across the world, up from about 300 billion a decade ago. If placed end to end, these bottles would extend more than halfway to the sun.  By 2022 annual plastic bottles sold is projected to increase to 583.3 billion.  Fewer than half of the bottles bought in 2016 were collected for recycling and just 7% of those collected were turned into new bottles. That means, approximately 93% of the 480 billion plastic water bottles sold in 2016 ended up in landfill or in the ocean. 19
  • 20. PLASTIC TOOTH BRUSHES vs. BAMBOO TOOTH BRUSH
  • 21. PLASTIC TOOTH BURSH  The average Indian throws away about 300 plastic toothbrushes in their lifetime. They can take up a lot of space in a landfill and will not biodegrade for a long time, Several studies have shown that there is a high chance of toxins getting into our water supply. This is due to the fact that when plastic gets in contact with sunlight it can release chemicals, which have been proven to be carcinogenic  It’s been estimated that around one billion toothbrushes are produced every year! That’s a lot of toothbrushes, that will end up in a landfill or worse- in our oceans. It’s terrible for the environment  The bristles of conventional toothbrushes are made from nylon, which is oil. The handles are made from polycarbonate, which is oil. The see-through plastic packaging is made from PET, which is oil. The concept of brushing your teeth with an instrument made entirely from a non-renewable resource which is simultaneously polluting and heating the planet 21
  • 22. BAMBOO TOOTH BRUSH  Bamboo has many benefits including being sustainable, biodegradable, and recyclable. It also has natural antibacterial properties that prevent bacteria from building up  When bamboo is harvested the bamboo plant continues to grow, making it a renewable resource. The end result is a toothbrush that can last for months with no break-down in quality while also being environmentally friendly.  Toothbrushes made from bamboo don’t contain plastic micro-particles, which can be harmful when ingested by animals and humans alike.  Unlike plastic toothbrush handles, toothbrush handles made from bamboo will biodegrade naturally. Depending on the level of soil activity, a bamboo handle can completely decompose within a time period as short as 3 months, whereas a plastic toothbrush handle persists in the environment for thousands of years.  Bamboo is an ideal replacement for plastic toothbrush handles because, like plastic, bamboo is extremely strong yet light in weight. It is often called “green steel” because of its durability and hardness 22
  • 23. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY  Bamboo does have a smaller ecological footprint than plastic because bamboo plants grow quickly, re growing what was taken for the production of the toothbrush.  Bamboo toothbrush help save the environment, especially the oceans, from being destroyed. Using a bamboo toothbrush is as effective as a manual plastic toothbrush. The difference is that handle is made from bamboo which is strong, biodegradable and has no negative impact on the planet 23
  • 24. PLASTIC CONFETTI VS BOIDEGRADABLE CONFETTI LIKE LEAVES, FLOWER PETALS, SEED PAPER OR EVEN RICE IN SOUTH INDIAN MARRIAGES
  • 25. PLASTIC CONFETTI  Confetti may be small, but using it can have big consequences. Traditional confetti—the kind you'll find at most stores and online—is made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other plastics. According to experts, it can take 1000 YEARS to breakdown meaning that quick burst of fun can leave an impact on the planet for a really long time.  Confetti isn't just polluting the environment—it's also harming wildlife. Animals may be attracted to the shine that comes off the plastic pieces and wind up eating it. It can also end up in rivers and oceans, putting fish and other marine life at risk. According to National Geographic, when these little pieces of plastic collect in an animal's stomach, it can cause them to die of starvation.  So every time someone is using traditional confetti at an event, they're really just throwing microplastics into the environment. 25
  • 26. BIODEGRADABLE CONFETTI  Flower petals: Either dried or fresh, these are especially lovely options for pictures. Unless you choose white petals, the dried variety will likely be preferred by the venue if the walkway is paved, in order to avoid the risk of stains.  Lavender or other herbs: Lavender blooms have the benefit of being both small and plentiful, making it very similar to confetti. This will also smell wonderful as you take your newlywed recessional, and in the future the scent may bring back that memory.  Birdseed: If you worry about rice or chunks of glitter being harmful to birds, this is a safe bet. As an added benefit, cleanup is unlikely to be an issue because it will be eaten up!  Leaves: You can use full-sized leaves, whether small or large, like Gwyneth Paltrow and Brad Falchuk did at their wedding, or get a hole puncher and make your own organic confetti.  Seed paper or biodegradable confetti: Dissolvable “paper” (often made with corn starch) makes it less of a problem if not every little piece is picked up. Natural paper filled with seeds will grow new flowers when planted.  Coconut flakes. The snow-like visual makes this especially popular for winter weddings, and as with herbs, it smells great! However, you’ll want to make sure no guests (or staff!) have any coconut allergies, as that applies to skin contact as well as ingestion 26
  • 27. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY  they are eco-friendly and quickly biodegrade. We can even leave them lying around after we’re done with them and not worry about it causing any adverse effect on the environment.  Paper confetti, however, will decompose in about 2-4 months.  Flower confetti is natural. And so, it’s biodegradable. It’ll typically take about 1-3 months to degrade completely. However, it can decompose within a few weeks under suitable weather and temperature conditions 27
  • 29. SYNTHETIC SPONGES  People use artificial and natural sponges are for many purposes. Common uses include dishwashing, bathing, home cleaning, car washing and arts & crafts. Either product can often be used with similar results  Synthetic sponges, on the contrary, are made of cellulose polymers (plastic). The synthetic sponges are processed from materials such as nylon or rubber, which generate as much pollution in their processing as in their residues.  One of the concerns surrounding Synthetic sponges is that they contribute to the degradation of the environment. The main ingredient in many sponges is cellulose--a raw material obtained from trees. Polyurethane, a petroleum byproduct, is also frequently used. Deforestation tends to leave soil vulnerable to erosion, and petroleum is a non-renewable resource. In addition, the manufacturing processes used to create artificial sponges can release pollutants into the atmosphere  Many of the classic, cheap synthetic poufs can take over 100 years to decompose. Nylon synthetic pouf’s can take 30-40 years to decompose.  It’s also recommended when using synthetic poufs, to replace them roughly every 8 weeks. That adds up to about 6 synthetic poufs a year. 29
  • 30. NATURAL SPONGES(SEA SPONGES)  Natural sea sponges are one of the best tools for cleansing the body. Not only are they great for your skin, but they are a better choice for the environment  Sea sponges are more durable and last longer than synthetic sponges because they are more resistant to abrasion. In addition, natural sea sponges are better for bathing and cleaning because they soak up and hold more water without dripping. 30
  • 31. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY  Natural sponges last longer and are a healthier option for our skin.we may not know that with proper care, a natural sea sponge can last up to 2-6 YEARS. At this rate, buying a sea sponge is going to save more money in the long run. If a sea sponge lasts someone 6 years, another person would have bought 36 synthetic poufs or more in this amount of time.  At the very end of their use life, they can be cut up and composted or buried in the soil to natural biodegrade. Compare this to synthetic sponges, made from polyurethane, which can take 20 years to break down into plastic microfibers which pollute the planet and enter our food chain. 31
  • 33. AIR CONDITIONER  Air conditioning generally cools recirculated indoor air to avoid extra energy use needed to cool and dehumidify incoming outdoor air  Mechanical cooling systems require 1 kWh of electricity to produce only 2 to 4 kW of cooling power  The hotter the outside temperatures, the more energy is needed for conventional air conditioners to achieve the desired indoor temperature. With the global temperature increase, the window for conventional air conditioning to function energy-efficiently is becoming smaller  Air conditioning dehumidifies the air. Deep cooling causes the moisture in the air to condense on the cold evaporator. The cooled air then contains less moisture. Comfortable in terms of temperature and humidity, but not always healthy. Our immune system cannot defend itself against viruses in dry air while the pathogens thrive. In addition, dry air can also cause discomforts such as an itchy throat or irritated eyes  By 2100, many cities across the world could've warmed up as much as 4°C if GHG emissions (CO2) continue at high levels. Air conditioners, additionally, release high temperatures from their condenser, negatively impacting the build-up of urban heating.  Nowadays, air conditioning uses "less" damaging chlorine-free refrigerants like hydrofluorocarbons as its cooling agents. These refrigerants are continuously evaporated and condensed in a closed system to achieve the desired cooling. Also, regular refill has to be taken into account to avoid reduced efficiency, as some of the refrigerants will escape into the open air. It should not be forgotten that water is also required to generate electricity. Most of the electricity is produced by power plants using oil or coal and at least 10 liters of freshwater per kWh is needed for steam to run the turbines.  Air conditioning allows for comfort in all climates. In terms of relative humidity, AC systems are not affected in their efficiency. However, the higher the outside temperatures, the more energy is needed to provide the required cooling capacity. 33
  • 34. EVAPORATIVE COOLING  Two-stage evaporative cooling uses fresh air to cool and ventilate multiple times an hour. This air is filtered to remove any dust or allergens  Two-stage evaporative cooling uses only 10% of energy compared to conventional air conditioning. 95% of the cooling capacity is provided through the natural process of water evaporation. The motor-driven fan that regulates the adiabatic process requires 1 kWh of electricity and provides up to 40 kW of cooling power  On hot days the cooling efficiency of the two-stage evaporative cooling system increases. Warmer temperatures allow for more moisture in the air, and thus the system can evaporate more water. And the more water is evaporated, the more cooling power the system can provide without increasing its energy consumption.  Two-stage evaporative cooling will provide up to 70% less humidity. In a room, this will result in a humidity level between 40% and 60%. This humidity level helps us fend off viruses and provides comfort against dry eyes and an itchy throat  Evaporative cooling is a physical process based on water evaporation, meaning that relative humidity affects the effectiveness of the chosen system. The hotter and dryer a climate is, the higher the performance of an evaporative cooling system. In a tropical climate, though, the system might be less efficient in cooling. However, indirect/direct evaporative cooling systems hold their performance far better than direct systems in more humid regions, such as coastal areas, during humid hours. 34
  • 35.  The world’s cities are heating up at twice the global average rate due to rapid urbanization and the urban heat island effect. Evaporative cooling releases process air at low temperatures, thus having a positive impact on the growing problem of “urban heating”.  Evaporative cooling uses nature’s most potent refrigerant as its cooling agent - water! With an exceptionally high latent heat of vaporization (2501 kJ/kg at 0 °C), evaporating 1 m3 water generates as much as 695 kW of cooling power. The evaporated water will finally end up in the air and at a later stage come down as rain. Traditional air conditioning technology would demand at least 250 kWh to deliver the same cooling power. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY 35
  • 37. PLASTIC BUDS  Cotton buds are small but yet a big issue. You use it once, and it takes 400 years to go away. And because it’s plastic, it will never go away. Instead, it will become tiny micro plastics that slowly will be absorbed by nature.  Plastic cotton buds disposed of down toilets enter the sewage system  Plastic cotton buds are so small, then storm events and blockages result in the release of plastic cotton buds out to sea with untreated sewage  The physical structure of plastic cotton buds enables them to bypass the filters of many wastewater treatment works and be released to sea with treated sewage  At sea, plastic cotton buds can attract and concentrate background pollutants to toxic levels  Mistaken for food by many animals, plastic cotton buds and the toxins coating them can enter the food chain 37
  • 38. BAMBOO BUDS  It’s a much better alternative than polluting plastic cotton swabs. Bamboo cotton buds can be used for a variety of purposes  The whole product is made from organic and biodegradable bamboo and cotton,  so these cotton buds will naturally biodegrade.  After usage, dispose of it by throwing them into organic waste. 38
  • 39. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY  Made from bamboo, these cotton buds are biodegradable, compostable .  Bamboo grows incredibly fast, making deforestation not an issue with its rapid and frequent growth spurts. 39
  • 41. PLASTIC CONTAINER  Lightweight with a high strength-to-weight ratio, can be manufactured inexpensively and mass produced, water resistant, shock resistant, thermally and electrically insulating  Poor longevity as plastic degrades over time. Plastic is affected over time by scratches, being dented or cracked. ...  Absorbs flavors and smells easily. ...  Large environmental and health impact. ...  At higher risk for high levels of BPA. 41
  • 42. COPPER CONTAINER  If you see before 30 years in all our houses we used only the cooper utensils which last longer and even good for health  Copper is known to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant properties.  It can kill all the microorganisms like molds, fungi, algae and bacteria, present in the water that could be harmful for the body. It also helps maintain body's pH (acid-alkaline) balance. 42
  • 43. HOW IT IS ECO-FRIENDLY  A copper bottle is indeed the best option if you’re looking to make the switch to a reusable water bottle. It is easy to clean as well. All you need is lemon and salt to scrub the bottle clean. Not only are you using an eco-friendly bottle but you are also using ingredients easily available in your pantry to clean the bottle.  For every six bottles people buy, only one is recycles. That leads to a big problem given the fact that water bottles do not biodegrade, but rather photodegrade. This means that it takes at least up to 1000 years for every single bottle to decompose, leaking pollutants into our soil and water along the way  It takes 3 times the amount of water in a bottle of water to make it as it does to fill it.Plastic water bottles are made from a petroleum product called polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which requires giant amount of fossil to make and transport.  It takes almost 2000 times the energy to manufacture a bottle of water than it does to produce tap water. 43