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  1. 1. MARYAM ADEL June 2013
  2. 2. OUTLINE  Geomatic Umbrella  Remote Sensing; Introduction and Application  GPS Introduction and Applications  Mapping; Introduction and Applications  Surveying; Introduction and Applications  GIS; Introduction and Applications  ArcGIS Demo Project  Q&A
  3. 3. GEOMATIC UMBRELLA Geospatial Technology GIS RS GPS Geographic Information System Remote Sensing Global Positioning System Mapping Surveying
  4. 4. Remote Sensing Obtain data from distance Platforms Platforms Airplanes up to 50 m up to 50 m Fixed Ground-Based Hand-held Helicopters High-altitude Aircraft Airborne Balloons UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Active Sensors 100 km to 36000 km Airbore Sensors Space borne rockets, satellites, shuttle Earth Satellites Communication Satellites Sensors Space Borne Sensors LiDAR Microwave Radiometer RADAR Infrared Optical RADAR Aerial Photography Vehicle Mount Passive Ground-Based Sensors CropCircle, Green Seeker LIDAR, Microwave Visible/Near Infrared Thermal
  5. 5. Remote Sensing Obtain data from distance Products Imagery Products Airbore Products LiDAR data and LiDAR Images RADAR Images Aerial Photo Remote Sensing Software: Preprocessors: ERDAS, ENVI, PCI GEOMATICA, GIS Extension: ArcGIS Image Analysis Extension Space Borne Products Ground-Based Products Infrared Images LIDAR Data Optical Images Optical Images RADAR Images Thermal Images Image Processing Techniques Spatial Information
  6. 6. Example of Remotely Sensed Data Aerial Camera Multispectral Satellite Landsat/Ikonos/Quickbard Radar Satellite Hyperspectral Sensor Hyperion 6
  7. 7. Satellite Images Advantages • • • • • • • • Covers large areas Cost effective Time efficient Multi-temporal Multi-sensor Multi-spectral Overcomes inaccessibility Faster extraction of GISready data Disadvantages • Needs ground verification • Doesn’t offer details • Not the best tool for small areas • Needs expert system to extract data 7
  8. 8. Application of Remote Sensing Agriculture Analysis include: Climate, weather; the quality, quantity, and location of arable land; population dynamics, energy production and environmental quality issues. Most Common: - Crop-Type identification - Crop condition assessment - Crop yield forecasting - Historic planting patterns - Soil vitality
  9. 9. Agriculture Crop Type Identification Is based on : - Spectral Characteristics - Image texture - Knowledge of crop development over time
  10. 10. Agriculture Crop Condition Assessment - Health and vigor of the crop Is based on : - Detection of drought, pests, flooding, and disease
  11. 11.  Forestry The most important forest information obtained from remotely sensed data is: - Detailed forest inventory data (Counting Trees) - Broad area monitoring of forest health (Fire Forest) - Assessment of forest structure in support of sustainable forest management
  12. 12. Counting Trees a close-up view of oil palm trees in an Ikonos image. Trees detected are marked with white dots and overlaid on the original image.
  13. 13.  Forestry Forest Health Fire Forest - Real-Time - Firefighter GPS - AVHRR, SPOT & MODIS - hot spot information - Post-processing - Change Detection - prediction for future hot spots Map of burnt forested areas and frequency of wildfires in Catalonia during the period 1975-1993.
  15. 15. GPS GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM SURVEY GRADE GPS EQUIPMENT 29 active satellites located in 6 orbital planes Transmitting precise time and position signals Advanced GPS Equipment TO GPS Receivers Basic GPS Equipment GPS EQUIPMENT (Receivers) Recreational GPS Equipment
  16. 16. GPS APPLICATION Fleet Management Surveying Mobile App Waze
  17. 17. MAPPING (Cartography) Map-Making  Mapping Definition  A Map is a visual representation of an area  Mapping term in fact refers to MAP that is created through some cartographic works.  scale/level of detail  content of geographic / cartographic database  symbol specification for geospatial objects  generalization  layout design
  18. 18. Examples:  Road maps Modern maps  Google Maps  Just MAP  No Tabular Data  No Analysis Tools (Basic)
  19. 19. Surveying/Land Surveying Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them.  Surveying Application: Transport, Building /construction, Communications, Mapping,
  20. 20. Application of Surveying in Cadastral Surveys A cadastral map is a map that shows the boundaries and ownership of land parcels.
  21. 21. WHAT IS GIS? GeoGraphic Information System or GeoSpatial Information System
  22. 22. GIS Geographic Information System
  23. 23. GIS Geographic Information System Hardware • PC (RAM, CPU, Hard Disk,...) • Digitizer • Scanner • Plotter Data Software • ESRI Products • ArcGIS, ArcInfo, ArcView • AutoCAD Map • Mapinfo • ILWIS • ERDAS • PCI Geomatica • • • • • • • Personnel Survey Photogrammetry Image Interpretation GPS Project CADD files Existing maps Internet-other websites Procedure • • • • • • • **Data - the most expensive and most important part of a GIS! Without the right data in the right format, you cannot perform the right analysis. You cannot ask questions of the data that your data cannot answer! retrieved input into the system stored managed transformed Analyzed present
  24. 24. GIS Layer GIS links spatial information (location) with descriptive information (attributes) and creates a map (layer)
  25. 25. Benefits of GIS  Geospatial data are better maintained in a standard format.  Revision and updating are easier.  Geospatial data and information are easier to search, analysis and represent.  More value added product.  Geospatial data can be shared and exchanged freely.  Productivity of the staff improved and more efficient.  Time and money are saved.  Better decision can be made. 25
  26. 26. GIS USE  Locations - What is at….?  Objects - Where is…?  Models - What if…? • Trends - What has changed since…?  Patterns - Which things are related…? 26
  27. 27. Basic Functions of GIS Data Acquisition and prepossessing Graphic output and Visualization Database Management and Retrieval Spatial Measurement and Analysis 27
  28. 28. GIS SYSTEM Input Process Data from different sources: Output Platform: ESRI Survey relational database management system Photogrammetry RDBMS Image Interpretation GIS Process GPS Project CADD files Existing maps • • Maps Cartograms Charts Directions Customer lists 3D diagrams and movies Define problem Tabular data Direct Output: Define GIS (Business Data) Ancillary Data criteria • Indirect Output: Import or Decision Support System DSS spatial decision support system SDSS build datasets • GIS analysis
  29. 29. GIS APPLICATION Mapping and Charting Transportation Aid and Development Public Safety Government Business Education Natural Resources Defense and Intelligence Utilities and Communications Health and Human Services
  30. 30.  GIS for Petroleum Management     where to drill a well route a pipeline build a refinery reclaim a site Manage their location -based information • • Wells • Pipelines • Environmental sites • SOLUTIONS Leases Facilities • Retail outlets
  31. 31. Petroleum Business Lifecycle Support • Many Petroleum business functions are inherently spatial in character, thus leveraging GIS can: – Increase efficiency – Improve decision making – Generate greater revenue
  32. 32.  Basin Analysis Exploration Visualization – Display surface geology Data (Visualization) Management • Displaying Oil and Gas business Objects •Structures – Seismic Lines – Wellpath depth labels (Anticlines, domes, etc..) Business – Production bubble maps •Stratigraphy • 3D Display • Interoperability •Traps – What kinds? – Landmark / Schlumberger •Source Volant – OpenSpirit /Rock Analysis •Petroleum Environmental Migration •Geological Play Assessment Retail Production Transportation Distribution Facilities Management
  33. 33. Uses of GIS in Emergency Management GIS layers can provide a wide array of data for emergency managers, including:            Storm track and damage prediction. Wind damage prediction. Earthquake damage prediction. Counties that have been declared major disasters. Demographic information for an identified area. Road, rail, and utility locations. Essential facility, shelters, and other critical locations. Repetitive losses. Superfund locations. Shelter locations. Critical facility locations.
  34. 34. Using GIS for Mitigation Mitigation activities seek to: • Reduce the effects of a future disaster. • Lessen the likelihood of experiencing damaging effects from an incident. • Eliminate the possibility of being affected. GIS Uses for Planning, Training, and Exercising • Developing and conducting training and exercise programs for GIS Unit staff. • Developing lists of detailed GIS data and resource requirements to support emergency management needs. • Developing secure and redundant GIS layers of local, city, or county critical infrastructure data, including a DVD set of critical data with integrated data viewing and printing application. Using GIS for Response Of all the preparedness phases, GIS is especially valuable during response. During response GIS helps emergency managers and responders by: • Mapping incident location to help assess the incident scope, magnitude, and extent of damage. • Coordinating resource management. • Mapping critical infrastructure to support response efforts. • Fulfilling real-time incident map requests to support response information needs.
  35. 35. Using GIS in Recovery Recovery includes all tasks necessary to return to predisaster function. GIS uses during recovery include developing maps to: • Implement demobilization procedures, coordinate recovery, and restore unused resources. • Provide required documentation for cost recovery to the Federal and State governments. • Support after-action reporting and subsequent planning efforts. Other Emergency Management Uses of GIS GIS also can support detailed operations-level planning, implementation, training, and resources-related tasks necessary to prepare for, respond to, recover from, and mitigate any disaster. Some GIS action items include: • Developing and maintaining lists of GIS emergency support manpower with personnel location information, contact information, and specialized skills. • Developing lists of detailed GIS data and resource requirements to support emergency management needs. • Developing secure, redundant GIS layers of local city/county critical infrastructure data, including a DVD set of critical data with integrated data viewing and printing
  36. 36. GIS for Facilities Management
  37. 37. GIS for Environmental and Natural Resources Management Disaster Management Environmental impact analysis and Mitigation
  38. 38. GIS for Site Selection  Military Operations      Helicopter Landing Zones Amphibious Assault (Water Depth) Buffer Zones Flight Planning Battlefield Visualization
  39. 39. Helicopter Landing Zones HLZ sites
  40. 40. Amphibious Assault Planning
  41. 41. Spatial Analysis Proximity Analysis (Buffers) 1000 Meter Buffer of Railroads
  42. 42. Flight Planning
  43. 43. Flight Planning/Fly through
  44. 44. Battlefield Visualization and/or Situation Awareness
  45. 45. Other GIS Applications  Cross country movement  Route planning  Intervisibility study      Airfield assessment Road network analysis (convoys) Antenna propagation coverage Observation post siting analysis Perspective views
  46. 46. Cross Country Movement (CCM) Analysis
  47. 47. CCM & Viewshed
  48. 48. Airfields Assessment
  49. 49. Road Network Analysis
  50. 50. Antenna Propagation Coverages
  51. 51. Observation Post Siting Analysis
  52. 52. Perspective Views
  53. 53.  GIS for Business  Business Intelligence (BI)  Marketing  Banking and Financial Services  Insurance  Media and Press  Real Estate  Retail
  54. 54. GIS for Business Intelligence (BI) Value proposition “System(s) to organize, disseminate, and analyze information produced within an organization” • Querying, Reporting, OLAP • Single version of the truth • Separation of roles • For everyone in the organization • Historical, current, predictive • Available everywhere • Rich Data Visualization and Interactivity • Secure, auditable, scalable
  55. 55. WHAT BI DO? Business Intelligence BI Eliminate Barriers Between Workflows and Disciplines
  56. 56. WHAT GIS DO? Provides Mapping and GIS Across the Entire Organization
  57. 57. WHAT DOES GIS BRING TO BI? Location Analytics & Business Intelligence • Map data • Map-driven analytics • Work Together • World atlas of geographic content • Enterprise-class solution
  58. 58. GIS is the Platform for Location Analytics Geo-enablement of business systems A geo-enabled business system enjoys the ‘geo-advantage over other business systems’
  59. 59. Brief comparison between various Technologies Technology Company Software Products Application GIS ESRI, MAPINFO ArcGIS, ArcView, Mapinfo Urban Planning, Plantation, Flood Mitigation RS Intergraph/Geomatica ERDAS/PCI Geomatics Tree counting in Plantation GPS Garmin X, Y, Z Data Waze LI Bizod
  60. 60. GIS DEMO  Modeling Application  Spatial Analysis Modeling in Geomorphometric Mapping (DEM, SLOPE, ASPECT)  3D analysis Modeling in Urban Planning  Statistical Application  Statistical Analysis on population grow  Chart extraction from analyzed layer and add to the final map in output Layout
  61. 61. Any Question?

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Geomatics is a relatively new scientific term. It includes the tools and techniques used in land surveying, remote sensing, cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), global navigation satellite systems (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Compass) and related forms of earth mapping. Before going through GIS definition and related topics, I want to make you familiar with some other technologies that are commonly used in conjunction with GIS and commonly referred to as GIS-related technologies. Examples include remote sensing, global positioning system (GPS) surveying, mapping and so on.
  • Lets start with Remote Sensing, one of the most successful GIS-related-technologies:Remote sensing is the technology for collection of information about an object without being in direct physical contact with the object.In the other hand RSallows obtaining data of a process from a location far away fromthe user.Another definition can be : Remote sensing is the process of detection, identification, and analysis of objects through the use of sensors located remotely from the object. Digital pictures of the Earth are taken by satellites from 400 to 500 mi above the ground compared with aerial photographs that are taken by aircraft from 1 mi above the ground (for low-altitude photography) to 7 to 8 mi above the ground (for high-altitude photography). Satellite imagery is stored in a pixel (raster) format that makes it ideally suited for incorporation into a GISThus, satellite imagery can be treated as raster-type GIS data. Image processing equipment and methods can be used to extract useful information from hard copy and digital images and combine it with other data layers in a GIS.Remote Sensing SoftwarePreprocessors: These programs help to preprocess raster data for GIS applications.GISExtensions: These programs add image processing capability to a GIS soft-ware. For example, Image Analysis is an extension that adds image processing capability to ArcGIS software
  • Ground-Based Sensors:Measurement FunctionCalibrate airborne and orbital sensorsSupply parameters for growth/physical ModelsDirect input for management decisions
  • Remote sensing applications have proved to be very useful in forestry and supports foresters with more accurate and cost-effective information and can allow directly to observe a large area or region with a quick turnaround for managing forestfires, foresthealth, and forestconservation.Due to the versatility and scale of remote sensing, it is invaluable in all stages of forest management. Remote sensing is useful in many applications of forestry including terrain analysis, recultivation, updating of existing forest inventories, forest cover type discrimination, the delineation of burned areas, and mapping of cleared areas.
  • Counting TreesTo monitor production and assess plantation value, (oil palm plantation) managers must know how many trees are on their plantations, which range in size from less than 40 hectares to as much as 75,000 hectares. Currently, workers are deployed to the plantations to count trees manually. The cost of manual counting is low, but accuracy is doubtful. One-meter IKONOS imagery offers an attractive census alternative because individual tree crowns are visible, so trees can be counted accurately. CRISP developed an automated technique for detecting and counting trees in IKONOS images based on differential geometry concepts of edge and curvature. A tree crown�s intensity profile normally assumes a dome shape after some degree of smoothing. The curvatures and edges at various resolution scales are computed and used to locate the trees.
  • Figure displays delineation of burned areas andthe fire-history map of Catalonia and the frequencies of fire obtained by using one of the employed methods (the more restrictive) during the period 1975-1993. This method discriminated 53.36 % of fires greater or equal than 30 ha , notably more than the 43.60 % of fires detected by the other applied method. The degree of detection improved as the size of fires increased, reaching 78 % for fires of 200 ha. Some preliminary results about characterising fire spatial patterns showed that the 80% of the total area burned in Catalonia comes from small fires.
  • GPS is a satellite navigation system used to determine ground position (coordinates) a worldwide satellite navigational system formed by 29 satellites orbiting the earth and their corresponding receivers on the earth.
  • GPS includes29 active satellites located in 6 orbital planes. GPS systems utilize a constellation of satellites orbiting the earth twicedaily(i.e., passing over approximately the same world location every 12 hours) and transmitting precise time and position signals. GPS receiversread signals from orbiting satellites to calculate the exact spot of the receiver on Earth as geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). The signals from at least four satellites should be available to determine the coordinates of a position. Physical obstructions such as mountains, trees, and buildings, and other factors such as satellite malfunction and rephasing operations can restrict GPS signals and degrade GPS accuracy.
  • Network fleet™ is the first commercially available aftermarket system that dynamically measures and reports the status of a vehicle's diagnostic performance. Once installed in a vehicle, patented system collects diagnostic data from a host vehicle's on-board computer and location information from a global positioning system (GPS) and transmits these data over a conventional wireless network to an Internet-based computer system. The computer system analyzes the data and posts the results on a secure web site.Surveying : GPS was rapidly adapted for surveying, as it can give a position (Latitude, Longitude and Height) directly, without the need to measure angles and distances between intermediate points.  Survey control could now be established almost anywhere and it was only necessary to have a clear view of the sky so the signal from the GPS satellites could be received clearly.Waze : is a GPS-based navigational app which uses turn-by-turn navigation, as well as user-submitted travel times and route details. It was developed as Waze Mobile and now owned by Google. In addition to turn-by-turn voice navigation, real-time traffic, and other location-specific alerts, Waze simultaneously sends anonymous information, including users' speed and location, back to its database to improve the service as a whole.
  • Mapping usually refers to map-making and often used instead of cartography. Mapping term in fact refers to MAP that is created through some cartographic works (i.e. determining the scale/level of detail and content of geographic or cartographic database, cartographic database and symbol specification for geospatial objects, generalization, layout design etc.). A map is a visual representation of an area – a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes. Many maps are statictwo-dimensional, geometrically accurate (or approximately accurate) representations of three-dimensional space, while others are dynamic or interactive, even three-dimensional. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real or imagined, without regard to context or scale.Road maps are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities, utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the BritishOrdnance Survey (now a civilian government agency internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work).
  • Road mapsare perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities, utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. Google Maps is a web mapping service application and technology provided by Google, that powers many map-based services, including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder, Google Transit,[1] and maps embedded on third-party websites via the Google Maps API.[2] It offers street maps, a route planner for traveling by foot, car, bike (beta), or with public transportation and a locator for urban businesses in numerous countries around the world. Google Maps satellite images are not updated in real time, but rather they are several months or years old.Google Maps uses a close variant of the Mercator projection, so it cannot show areas around the poles. A related product is Google Earth, a stand-alone program which offers more globe-viewing features, including showing polar areas.* Very primary use of GIS and RS. As a matter of fact, Base maps originally come from Satellite Image (RS) and GIS maps but Google Map service does not support active geospatial layer and tools (MAP+TABULAR DATA+Analysis Tools)
  • Introduction: Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (about 6,000 years ago). Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes.Land surveying can include associated services such as mapping and related dataaccumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land survey data.Surveying Application: It is required in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.Example:cadastral : It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundaries based on documents of record and historical evidence, as well as certifying surveys (as required by statute or local ordinance) of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation.
  • Cadastralis a comprehensive register of the metes-and-boundsreal property of a country. A cadastre commonly includes details of the ownership, the tenure, the precise location (some include GPS coordinates), the dimensions (and area), the cultivations if rural, and the value of individual parcels of land. Cadastres are used by many nations around the world. In addition some cadastral maps show additional details, such as survey district names, unique identifying numbers for parcels, certificate of title numbers, positions of existing structures, section or lot numbers and their respective areas, adjoining and adjacent street names, selected boundary dimensions and references to prior maps. Cadastral surveys document the boundaries of land ownership, by the production of documents, diagrams, sketches, plans,charts, and maps. They were originally used to ensure reliable facts for land valuation and taxation.
  • Making decisions based on geography is basic to human thinking. Where shall we go, what will it be like, and what shall we do when we get there are applied to the simple event of going to the store or to the major event of launching a bathysphere into the ocean's depths. By understanding geography and people's relationship to location, we can make informed decisions about the way we live on our planet. A geographic information system (GIS) is a technological tool for comprehending geography and making intelligent decisions.
  • Environmental Systems Research Institute ( ESRI ) ProductsArcGIS, ArcInfo, ArcViewProcedures include how the data will be retrieved, input into the system, stored, managed, transformed, analyzed, and finally presented in a final output.  The procedures are the steps taken to answer the question needs to be resolved.  The ability of a GIS to perform spatial analysis and answer these questions is what differentiates this type of system from any other information systems. 
  • Six Functions of a GISCapture dataStore dataQuery dataAnalyze dataDisplay dataProduce output
  • You know that your GIS (geographic information system) provides maps — that's its basic function and probably the reason you bought it. But a GIS offers more than maps, and the following list includes other outputs:Maps: Everyone recognizes this most common output from a GIS.Cartograms: These special maps that distort geographic features based on their output values rather than their size.Charts: GIS can produce pie charts, histograms (bar charts), line charts, and even pictures in addition to maps.Directions: Another common output, directions show you how to get from one place to another. Customer lists: Business GIS applications often produce customer lists, sometimes with printed mailing labels.3D diagrams and movies: These forms of GIS output help you see the results of your work realistically and dramatically.
  • - For years, petroleum companies have used GIS to decide where to drill a well, route a pipeline, build a refinery, and reclaim a site.- Today's GIS provides oil and gas industry solutionsthroughout the petroleum life cycle.All major oil companies in the world use GIS technology to manage their location-based information, from leases, wells, and pipelines to environmental sites, facilities, and retail outlets.An example of Petroleume Management can be found in ………… which I’m going to explain in next slides:
  • The following examples Illustrate how GIS has been used to date.
  • Since its development as an automated system, GIS has served emergency management well. GIS can provide the information needed to support decision making before a disaster. During the early response period, emergency managers use GIS as a key intelligence source for the information they need to make decisions. And as the response moves toward recovery, GIS can identify those in greatest need to manage priorities.To be successful, GIS applications do not need to be highly technical or complex. In fact, simple is better. Whenever there is a need for a diagram or map to improve communication during an incident or emergency, think GIS.
  • Environmental impact analysis, disaster management and mitigation
  • Economic slowdowns around the world are forcing organizations to rethink how they operate. Many are realizing they need to find a way to do business smarter using in-house resources. Now is the time to invest in geographic information systems (GIS), a solution that has helped many organizations overcome their operational challenges and deliver improved profitability.Retailers, realtors, insurers, asset managers, and others seeking to understand markets better than ever before find that GIS assists in many ways: marketing, optimizing business openings and closings, segmenting consumer data, and managing fleets. GIS can visualize, manage, and analyze any business asset (employees, customers, and facilities, all the way to the supply chain network) because it has a place in the world.Discover what more than 300,000 Esri customers around the world have known for years—using GIS software and data allows them to make better, more informed business decisions.
  • Business intelligence (BI) is the practice of transforming data from disparate operational units into a common environment for analysis and reporting.
  • Location Analytics : The analytics blind spot • 80% of transactional data has a location component • Charts and graphs can’t always show what data is trying to tell you
  • GIS enhances BI analytics by exposing the influence of geography on behaviors, activities and processes. Adding maps to the reporting output of BI allows decision makers to easily visualize these same geographically influenced behaviors, activities and processes. These reports are an effective means of communicating geographically influenced performance information throughout an organization. The result of a successful BI implementation is improved decision making through improved analysis, and more comprehensive and timely reporting.
  • Integration of GIS with this common environment is much more cost effective than linking GIS to multiple, disconnected, operational systems.
  • Modeling Application3D Modeling in Urban PlanningSpatial Analysis Modeling in Geomorphometric Mapping