SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
HOW TO LEARN ENGLISH EFFECTIVELY
• SITTING AT A TABLE LOOKING AT YOUR NOTEBOOK IS
NOT THE BEST WAY TO STUDY ENGLISH. MOST OF THE
TIME, YOUR MIND IS NOT ACTIVELY USING THE
INFORMATION THAT YOU ARE STUDYING, AND
PRACTICAL LEARNING DOES NOT TAKE PLACE. HERE
ARE SOME TECHNIQUES THAT WILL HELP YOU LEARN
WRITE A JOURNAL
Writing every day lets you see your grammar clearly in front
of you, express your ideas, and use a non-oral method in
communicate in English. Then read the corrected version out
It is a good idea to re-copy the corrected journal too, so that
you will have the experience of writing your ideas down in
READ A BOOK
• By Reading A Story, You Create A Picture In Your Imagination That
Will Connected Different Parts Of Your Brain To English. Find A
Book That Is Not Too Difficult.
• Do Not Stop Every Time You Find A New Word.
• Guess What The Word Probably Means, Continue Reading, And
Check In Your Dictionary At The End Of The Page Or Chapter.
RE-WRITE YOUR CLASS NOTES EVERY DAY.
• Writing your notes a second time will allow you to remember more strongly
what you study.
• It will also make your notebook neater, making it easier to study.
• Even if you don’t understand everything, you will still be learning.
• It is possible to understand the content even if you know only 30% of
the words that you hear!
• Your listening ability will improve day by day-and it’s fun!
WATCH TV AND MOVIES, AND LISTEN TO
• Take an active approach to learning new vocabulary.
• If you find 5 words a day, 6 days a week, you will learn about 140 new
words a month; 10 words a day would bring you over than 280 new words
• Hint – approach new words by subject: things connected to your hobies, to
your interests etc.
• Do it this way:
• Think of a word you know in your language.
• Look it up in your dictionary.
• When you find the English word, write it down on the left side of your
vocabulary note book.
KEEP A VOCABULARY NOTEBOOK IN A SEPARATE
NOTEBOOK FROM YOUR CLASS NOTES
• In the midle of the page, write down if the word is a
noun (n), verb (v), adjective (adj), etc. so that you will
know how to use the word.
• Look the word up in an English-English dictionary.
• Write the English definition on the right side of the
the page (or on the next page).
• Copy a sentence from the dictionary. This will help
you learn how to use the word correctly.
• Practice reading this sentence untll it becomes natural
• You improve your spoken English by speaking English in different
situations with people of all nationalities.
• If you want to speak English better in the future, speak it as much as
SPEAK LOTS OF ENGLISH WITH YOUR
• People who say “I can’t speak English well” are corrected.
• People who say “Every day in every way, my English is getting better
and better” are also correct.
• What you think is what you get.
• Practice saying the second sentence every day, and you will see greater
improvement in your English and in your confidence.
• Remember: the more fun you have with English,the easier it will be to
The grammar of a language is a complex of systems that may be
analyzed and studied on these three levels: (Noam Chomsky’s UG)
1. Phonology (set of sounds/ symbols)
2. Morphology (combinations of sounds that
carry single units of meaning)
3. Syntax (how single units of meaning are
combined to form words, phrases and
PARTS OF SPEECH (NOUNS)
2. Proper / common
3. Singular / plural (annex)
4. Count / non-count /abstract (annex)
(how much –how many)
5. Collectible (group nouns)
6. Units of measurement
(PROPER AND COMMON NOUNS)
• Nouns – words used to name a
person, place, thing, object, quality,
idea, concept, or an action.
• Proper Nouns- special or particular
name given to common nouns to
distinguish them from others of the
Example: common- woman
The Statue of
PROPER AND COMMON NOUNS
COMMON PROPER COMMON PROPER
day Saturday associations Members Club
month October movies Titanic
mountain El 眉山 planets Neptune
river Yangtze River city Shanghai
ocean Pacific Ocean historical periods Middle Ages
newspaper New York Times nationality Chinese
religion Muslim School course English 101
brand of product Cadillac institutions UESTC
NOUNS (SINGULAR AND PLURAL)
• Rule No. 1 (Add –s to the end of noun)
• Rule No.2 consonants before “y”
change –y to i and add –es
city -cities party- parties lady-ladies
• Rule No.3 vowels before “y”
boy –boys key –keys day -days
SINGULAR AND PLURAL
• Rule No. 4 (–f and –fe endings)
change the –f or –fe to v and –es
life –lives wife –wives thief –thieves
• Rule No. 5 (sh, ch, x, ss endings) add –es
• Rule No. 6 (consonant + o) add –es (vowel +o) –s
tomato –tomatoes radio radios
USE THE PLURAL FORM TO FILL IN THE BLANKS. (PROVIDED LIST)
• They have one girl and two ______.
• I visited many _______ last year.
• Women give birth to _______.
• She lost the _____ of the car and the house!
• _____ rides horses in Texas.
• Madrid and Paris are beautiful _______.
• We must bring ______ to the English class.
• Good evening _____ and gentleman.
• On Saturday nights, I like to go to _______.
• People carry their food on _____ at the cafeteria.
PRONUNCIATION OF PLURALS
(S / ES)
• Group A Final –s is pronounced /z/ after voiced sounds
(taxicabs, beds, dogs, balls, years, days, boys, trees, etc.)
• Group B Final –s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless sounds
(books, cups, groups, cats, students, desks, etc.)
• Group C Final –s, es is pronounced /ez/
after “s” sounds (classes, horses, boxes, faces)
after “z” sounds (sizes, roses, noises)
after “sh” sounds (dishes, bushes)
after “ch” sounds (matches, sandwiches)
after “ge/dge” sounds (pages, ages, bridges, edges)
IRREGULAR PLURAL FORMS (EXCEPTIONS)
• Child children
• Foot feet
• Man men
• Woman women
• Mouse mice
• Tooth teeth
• Fish fish
• _____ people
(is always plural) (no s)
COUNT AND NONCOUNT. NOUNS
• Count nouns
a book books
one book two books
a lot of books
a few books
• Non-count nouns
money some money
a lot of money
a little money
• Common non-count nouns
advice, furniture, love, peace,
homework, luck information, food,
mail, music, traffic, weather, work,
bread, cheese, coffee, rice, sand, meat,
milk, water, sugar, money, oil,
liquids materials (paper)
• Simple past I Worked
He, she, it Worked
• Simple future
• Another way to express
the simple future
I am going to work
She is going to work next
They are going to work on
I will work
You will work
He, she, it will work
We will work
You will work
they will work
I am working right now.
You are working.
He, she, it is working.
We are working.
You are working.
They are working.
PAST PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS)
I was working last night.
You were working yesterday.
He, she, it was working last summer.
We were working a few hours ago.
You were working last week.
They were working last Monday.
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS)
I will be working tomorrow.
You will be working this afternoon.
He, she, it will be working next weekend.
We will be working tonight.
You will be working next summer.
They will be working next semester.
• Articles as adjectives
• Order of adjectives in a series (color, size, origin,
nationalities, shape, age, etc..)
• Past participles / gerunds used as adjectives
• Comparatives and superlatives comparisons (annex-
• Adverbs of frequency (annex)
• Adverbs of time
• Adverbs of location (place)
• Adverbs of mode
• IN, ON and AT
(annex –time and
• All prepositions