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© 2016 MariaDB Foundation1 * *
Forking in Open Source:
Case Study of MySQL/MariaDB
Otto Kekäläinen
October 17th 2016
Mindt...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation2 * *
The MariaDB Foundation
Ensuring continuity and open collaboration
in the MariaDB ecosystem
...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation3 * *
Definition of open source
1.Freedom to use
2.Freedom to study
3.Freedom to improve
4.Freedo...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation4 * *
Definition of open source
Open source
=
Free (as in freedom) software
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation5 * *
Definition of open source
Open source ≠ closed source
Commercial ≠ non-commercial
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation6 * *
free software ≠ free software
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation7 * *
Definition of open source
Longer definition at
https://opensource.org/osd
List of licenses ...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation8 * *
Forking?
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation9 * *
Forking
FreeBSD
MacOS X (Darwin)
NetBSD
OpenBSD
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation10 * *
Open source
=
License to fork
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation11 * *
Permissive license = forks can become closed source
Copyleft license = forks must stay ope...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation12 * *
Forks do happen
●
EGCC → GCC
●
OpenOffice → LibreOffice
●
Hudson → Jenkins
●
NCSA HTTPd → ...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation13 * *
Open source
governance
=
Behave, or get forked!
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation14
Benefits of widely used
open source software
● Quality: The bigger the community is, the faste...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation15
”Given enough eyeballs all
bugs are shallow” – Linus's law
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation16 * *
Two types of forks
●
Competitive fork
– Users become alienated, turn to the rescuer
●
Non-...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation17 * *
What is a fork and
what is not?
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation18 * *
Definition of fork
●
Linus Nyman, 2015:
Any instance in which
the code of a program
is cop...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation19 * *
Definition of fork
●
Melwin Conway 1963: fork()
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation20 * *
Definition of fork
●
Melwin Conway 1963: fork()
●
Linus Torvalds, 2005: git clone
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation21 * *
Definition of fork
●
Melwin Conway 1963: fork()
●
Linus Torvalds, 2005: git clone
●
Tom Pr...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation22 * *
Definition of fork
●
Does forking require that the fork is
incompatible with the original ...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation23 * *
The history of MySQL
and MariaDB
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation24 * *
MySQL history
●
Development started in 1994, release 1995
●
MySQL AB founded by David Axma...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation25 * *
MySQL hugely popular since year ~2000
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation26 * *
MySQL AB history
●
Acquired by Sun Microsystems for
approximately $1 billion in 2008
●
Sun...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation27 * *
”Save MySQL”
●
Public pledge by Monty
●
European Commission investigation on the
implicati...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation28 * *
”Save MySQL”
●
EU Competition Commissioner Neelie Kroes
announced approval of the deal in ...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation29 * *
MariaDB history
●
Anticipating the ill fate of MySQL it was forked
●
Goal to keep the open...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation30 * *
The power of the fork?
●
...but Oracle didn't kill MySQL
– MySQL 5.5 in 2010
– MySQL 5.6 i...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation31 * *
Open source principles at MariaDB
●
Publish code in real time, not just at release time.
●...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation32 * *
Other MySQL forks
●
Drizzle (MySQL 6.0 branch)
●
WebScaleSQL by Facebook, Google etc
●
MyS...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation33 * *
MariaDB success
●
Steady cadence in releases: 5.5, 10.0, 10.1..
●
Ported to ARM, AIX, Syst...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation34 * *
MariaDB success
Steadily increasing LOC
(10.1 branch / Ohloh.net)
DB-Engines.com
ranking o...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation35 * *
MariaDB success
●
Large community and adoption
– Wikipedia
– WordPress.com
– Debian: from ...
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation36 * *
MariaDB success
Google Trends
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation37 * *
MariaDB community grows
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation38 * *
MariaDB community grows
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation39 * *
Towards the best solution in the world
Using the open source software development model
© 2016 MariaDB Foundation40
Thanks!
mariadb.org
@ottokekalainen
otto@mariadb.org
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Otto Kekäläinen - Forking in Open Source: Case Study of MySQL/MariaDB - Mindtrek 2016

Otto Kekäläinen
Forking in Open Source: Case Study of MySQL/MariaDB

Mindtrek 2016

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Otto Kekäläinen - Forking in Open Source: Case Study of MySQL/MariaDB - Mindtrek 2016

  1. 1. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation1 * * Forking in Open Source: Case Study of MySQL/MariaDB Otto Kekäläinen October 17th 2016 Mindtrek Tampere, Finland
  2. 2. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation2 * * The MariaDB Foundation Ensuring continuity and open collaboration in the MariaDB ecosystem Funded by Booking.com, MariaDB.com, Visma, DBS and many others.
  3. 3. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation3 * * Definition of open source 1.Freedom to use 2.Freedom to study 3.Freedom to improve 4.Freedom to redistribute Freedoms, not obligations nor warranties
  4. 4. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation4 * * Definition of open source Open source = Free (as in freedom) software
  5. 5. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation5 * * Definition of open source Open source ≠ closed source Commercial ≠ non-commercial
  6. 6. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation6 * * free software ≠ free software
  7. 7. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation7 * * Definition of open source Longer definition at https://opensource.org/osd List of licenses at https://opensource.org/licenses
  8. 8. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation8 * * Forking?
  9. 9. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation9 * * Forking FreeBSD MacOS X (Darwin) NetBSD OpenBSD
  10. 10. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation10 * * Open source = License to fork
  11. 11. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation11 * * Permissive license = forks can become closed source Copyleft license = forks must stay open Credits: David A. Wheeler (2007)
  12. 12. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation12 * * Forks do happen ● EGCC → GCC ● OpenOffice → LibreOffice ● Hudson → Jenkins ● NCSA HTTPd → Apache HTTP Server ● ownCloud → Nextcloud ● Debian → Ubuntu, RHEL → CentOS ?
  13. 13. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation13 * * Open source governance = Behave, or get forked!
  14. 14. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation14 Benefits of widely used open source software ● Quality: The bigger the community is, the faster the software evolves. ● No lock-in: Software stays open source, ecosystem has multiple vendors. ● No dead-end: Big user base guarantees availability of software and people.
  15. 15. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation15 ”Given enough eyeballs all bugs are shallow” – Linus's law
  16. 16. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation16 * * Two types of forks ● Competitive fork – Users become alienated, turn to the rescuer ● Non-competitive fork – Needs diverge, users split into two groups
  17. 17. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation17 * * What is a fork and what is not?
  18. 18. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation18 * * Definition of fork ● Linus Nyman, 2015: Any instance in which the code of a program is copied, modified, and reused to start or develop another program.
  19. 19. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation19 * * Definition of fork ● Melwin Conway 1963: fork()
  20. 20. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation20 * * Definition of fork ● Melwin Conway 1963: fork() ● Linus Torvalds, 2005: git clone
  21. 21. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation21 * * Definition of fork ● Melwin Conway 1963: fork() ● Linus Torvalds, 2005: git clone ● Tom Preston-Werner, 2008:
  22. 22. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation22 * * Definition of fork ● Does forking require that the fork is incompatible with the original program? ● How much incompatible, 1% or 99%? ● What if the fork is temporary and later merges with the main branch again?
  23. 23. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation23 * * The history of MySQL and MariaDB
  24. 24. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation24 * * MySQL history ● Development started in 1994, release 1995 ● MySQL AB founded by David Axmark, Allan Larsson and Michael "Monty" Widenius 1995 ● Named after Monty's daughter My ● General Public License v2 (GPL) since 2000 ● Mårten Mickos elected CEO 2001 ● The M in LAMP
  25. 25. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation25 * * MySQL hugely popular since year ~2000
  26. 26. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation26 * * MySQL AB history ● Acquired by Sun Microsystems for approximately $1 billion in 2008 ● Sun Microsystems acquired by Oracle for $6 billion (net Sun's cash and debt) in 2009 ● MySQL was the disruption on a market dominated by Oracle's database
  27. 27. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation27 * * ”Save MySQL” ● Public pledge by Monty ● European Commission investigation on the implications of Oracle's control of MySQL
  28. 28. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation28 * * ”Save MySQL” ● EU Competition Commissioner Neelie Kroes announced approval of the deal in 2010
  29. 29. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation29 * * MariaDB history ● Anticipating the ill fate of MySQL it was forked ● Goal to keep the open source project going ● Named after Monty's youngest daughter ● MariaDB 5.1 released in October 2009 ● And indeed, Oracle did close down many aspects of the open source project MySQL
  30. 30. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation30 * * The power of the fork? ● ...but Oracle didn't kill MySQL – MySQL 5.5 in 2010 – MySQL 5.6 in 2013 – MySQL 5.7 in 2015 – MySQL 8.0 in 2016?
  31. 31. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation31 * * Open source principles at MariaDB ● Publish code in real time, not just at release time. ● Discuss and plan on public mailing list and IRC. ● Public bug tracker, transparent progress and priorities. ● Respond quickly to pull requests on Github and to bug reports that have patches attached. ● Keep documentation up-to-date, develop documentation alongside code and allow also contributions in documentation. ● Regular, free-to-attend developer meetups. ● True open source, not just code dumps
  32. 32. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation32 * * Other MySQL forks ● Drizzle (MySQL 6.0 branch) ● WebScaleSQL by Facebook, Google etc ● MySQL Galera Cluster ● Percona Server, XtraDB and Cluster ● AliSQL by Alibaba ● TMySQL by Tencent
  33. 33. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation33 * * MariaDB success ● Steady cadence in releases: 5.5, 10.0, 10.1.. ● Ported to ARM, AIX, System Z, Power 8 etc ● 10.2 to be released in late 2016
  34. 34. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation34 * * MariaDB success Steadily increasing LOC (10.1 branch / Ohloh.net) DB-Engines.com ranking of MariaDB 0 10 20 30 40
  35. 35. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation35 * * MariaDB success ● Large community and adoption – Wikipedia – WordPress.com – Debian: from an option to the default
  36. 36. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation36 * * MariaDB success Google Trends
  37. 37. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation37 * * MariaDB community grows
  38. 38. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation38 * * MariaDB community grows
  39. 39. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation39 * * Towards the best solution in the world Using the open source software development model
  40. 40. © 2016 MariaDB Foundation40 Thanks! mariadb.org @ottokekalainen otto@mariadb.org

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