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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.[13] With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi),[14] Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest,[15] flattest,[16] and driest inhabited continent,[17][18] with the least fertile soils.[19][20] It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

The ancestors of Aboriginal Australians began arriving from south east Asia approximately 65,000 years ago, during the last ice age.[21][22] Arriving by sea, they settled the continent and had formed approximately 250 distinct language groups by the time of European settlement, maintaining some of the longest known continuing artistic and religious traditions in the world.[21] Australia's written history commenced with the European maritime exploration of Australia. The Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon was the first known European to reach Australia, in 1606. In 1770, the British explorer James Cook mapped and claimed the east coast of Australia for Great Britain, and the First Fleet of British ships arrived at Sydney in 1788 to establish the penal colony of New South Wales. The European population grew in subsequent decades, and by the end of the 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored by European settlers and an additional five self-governing British colonies established. Democratic parliaments were gradually established through the 19th century, culminating with a vote for the federation of the six colonies and foundation of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system and wealthy market economy.

Politically, Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Australia's population of nearly 26 million[7] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[23] Canberra is the nation's capital, while its most populous city and financial centre is Sydney. The next four largest cities are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. Australia's demography has been shaped by centuries of immigration: immigrants account for 30% of the country's population,[24] and almost half of Australians have at least one parent born overseas.[25] Australia's abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade relations are crucial to the country's economy, which generates its income from various sources including services, mining exports, banking, manufacturing, agriculture and international education.[26][27][28]

Australia is a highly developed country with a high-income economy. As of 2022, it was the world's fourteenth-larges

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.[13] With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi),[14] Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest,[15] flattest,[16] and driest inhabited continent,[17][18] with the least fertile soils.[19][20] It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

The ancestors of Aboriginal Australians began arriving from south east Asia approximately 65,000 years ago, during the last ice age.[21][22] Arriving by sea, they settled the continent and had formed approximately 250 distinct language groups by the time of European settlement, maintaining some of the longest known continuing artistic and religious traditions in the world.[21] Australia's written history commenced with the European maritime exploration of Australia. The Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon was the first known European to reach Australia, in 1606. In 1770, the British explorer James Cook mapped and claimed the east coast of Australia for Great Britain, and the First Fleet of British ships arrived at Sydney in 1788 to establish the penal colony of New South Wales. The European population grew in subsequent decades, and by the end of the 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored by European settlers and an additional five self-governing British colonies established. Democratic parliaments were gradually established through the 19th century, culminating with a vote for the federation of the six colonies and foundation of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system and wealthy market economy.

Politically, Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Australia's population of nearly 26 million[7] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[23] Canberra is the nation's capital, while its most populous city and financial centre is Sydney. The next four largest cities are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. Australia's demography has been shaped by centuries of immigration: immigrants account for 30% of the country's population,[24] and almost half of Australians have at least one parent born overseas.[25] Australia's abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade relations are crucial to the country's economy, which generates its income from various sources including services, mining exports, banking, manufacturing, agriculture and international education.[26][27][28]

Australia is a highly developed country with a high-income economy. As of 2022, it was the world's fourteenth-larges

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6415707.ppt

  1. 1. Australia and New Zealand  Background – basic kinship between Australia and New Zealand – similarities of population, cultural heritage, and type of economy – products of British colonization – speak English, live under parliamentary forms of government, schools patterns after British model – both have aboriginal minorities surviving from prewhite times – close political and economic relations with US, Japan, and Europe
  2. 2. – both prosperous nations with per capital incomes comparable to those of the small states of Europe – Commonwealth ties with UK  Australia’s Physical and Climatic Characteristics – Australia is country and island continent – sparsely populated – very arid climate with high temperatures and rapid evaporation
  3. 3. – Only 6% of Australia if cultivated today – 14% classified as forests or woodlands – 50% suitable for grazing – 20% total wasteland in the interior – despite small proportion of arable land, ratio of crop-producing land to total population is favorable – Australia is the size of the continental US but only has 19 million people, fewer than live in California – distribution of population follows arable land – most Australians live in humid eastern highlands and coastal plains and humid grasslands
  4. 4.  Natural Regions of Australia – humid eastern highlands  only major highlands on east coast from Cape York to Tasmania  elevation under 3,000 feet  only part of country with no drought  Pacific winds bring much rain but rugged relief prevents much agriculture  south of Sydney has marine west coast climate  north of Sydney has humid subtropical climate
  5. 5. – tropical savannas of north Australia  north Australia receives heavy rainfall in summer with dry conditions in winter  monsoon winds blow onshore in summer and offshore in winter  produces savanna vegetation with coarse grasses, scattered trees, and patches of woodlands  arid conditions, poor soils, and lack of rivers make agriculture difficult
  6. 6. – Mediterranean lands of southwest and south  southwest corner of Australia and land around the Spencer Gulf have a Mediterranean climate  winter rain and summer drought  Mediterranean crops do well here  lack of highlands to catch moisture  limited irrigation
  7. 7. – dry interior  huge interior of Australia is desert surrounded by a fringe of semi arid grassland (steppe)  covers half of the continent  general elevation between 1,000 and 1,500 feet  few mountain ranges too low to influence climate  lowest part of interior around Lake Eyre Basin is driest part of the country  Murry-Darling Basin only area of river systems with some irrigation possible
  8. 8. Australia: Physical Map
  9. 9.  Australian Economy – Country’s leading exports are mining, grazing, and agriculture – large and dependable markets for Australian primary products in Japan, US, and Europe – cheap and efficient transportation by sea – sheep and cattle raising important  penal colony near Sydney in 1788  difficult to grow crops but sheep did well  by 19th C Australia was largest supplier or wool
  10. 10.  sheep industry concentrated on western slop of eastern highlands, border of New South Wales, and western border of Victoria  exports of wool have declined due to synthetics  cattle ranching in north around Queensland  exports of meat to Japan, US, and Europe  construction of rural roads to coast aided exports – wheat farming  wheat is major export of Australia  originally developed to help feed population around Sydney  State of South Australia now most important wheat area
  11. 11.  Adelaide is major port for wheat exports  mechanization, railroads, scientific plant breeding, and new markets helped wheat exports  wheat and sheep often occupy same areas  southwest corner near Perth second area of growth  small labor force, large acreage, good yields per worker make this an efficient industry for Australia – dairy farming  largest industry in terms of employment  humid coastal plains of Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria
  12. 12. – sugar production  sugar industry begun on coastal plain of Queensland in 19th C  laborers imported from Melanesia to work fields  formation of Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 led to repatriation of imported black labor in the interests of preserving a “white Australia.”  high protective tariffs on sugar preserved the industry  large estates divided up into family farms producing sugar
  13. 13.  Urbanization and Industrialization – most Australians are city dwellers – Sydney 3.7 million; Melbourne 3.1 million; Brisbane 1.3 million; Perth 1.2 million and Adelaide 1 million – 40% of Australian population live in two largest cities – 85% of total Australian population live in urban areas – largest cities are all seaports
  14. 14. – much of Australian internal trade moves by coastal steamer – problems with internal rail system because each state built it own system with different gauge tracks – work underway to standardize rail gauge – Australian government has encouraged industrial development to diversify economy – concern about national security, adequate defense, self-sufficiency in case of war
  15. 15.  Mineral Wealth – mineral resources of continent relatively rich – adequate supply of minerals for internal development and export – ample supply of coal in New South Wales and Queensland – steel plants near coal mines at Newcastle north of Sydney and Wollongong to south – coal is major export to Japan – iron ore deposits close to coast facilitating exports
  16. 16. – Major reserves of bauxite near north Queensland coast, Darling Range near Perth, and on coast of Amhem Land – Australia is world’s leading producer of bauxite for aluminum production – processed alumina exported overseas – gold mining played large role in Australia’s history as it did in California in 1849. – Australia also source of copper, lead, titanium, zinc, tin, silver, manganese, nickel, tungsten, uranium, and diamonds.
  17. 17. – Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Australia’s largest private company, began as a mining company now produces steel and other related businesses – deficiency in petroleum and natural gas though small fields were developed in the 60’s and 70’s – Australia dependent on overseas manufactured products from Japan and US – domestic manufacturers dependent on government protection – manufacturing encouraged to provide jobs and security for Australian people
  18. 18. – Government has encouraged immigration of white, skilled, English-speaking people – discriminatory policies against blacks and Asians criticized by world community – immigration more dependent on education and English speaking ability since 1973  New Zealand – located 1,000 miles southeast of Australia – New Zealand consists of two large islands- North Island and South Island separated by the Cook Strait with a combined population of 4 million – North Island smaller with larger population
  19. 19. New Zealand: Physical Map
  20. 20. – population of New Zealand 4 million – rugged terrain characterizes much of New Zealand – mountains of South Island dominated by the imposing Southern Alps with many glaciated summits above 10,000 feet – mountains of North Island less imposing with some peaks over 5,000 – lowland areas received more than 30 inches of rain per year, evenly distributed throughout the year.
  21. 21. – rain shadow east of Southern Alps – moderate temperatures with pervasive maritime influence – temperatures average 60-70 in summer and 40- 50 in winter  New Zealand Economy – climate idea for growing grass and raising livestock – pastures and meadows support a thriving sheep and cattle industry
  22. 22. – meat, wool, dairy products and hides account for half of New Zealand’s exports – pastoral exports have provides New Zealander’s with a comfortable life with per capital incomes equivalent to smaller European countries – UK used to be the main market for NZ products – UK decision to join the EEC hurt New Zealand – NZ has tried to open new markets in Asia, US, and Australia – 1983 Agreement with Australia opened these markets to NZ products
  23. 23. – industrial and urban development growing as the NZ government has tried to diversify the economy – modest reserves of coals, iron, and other minerals. – excellent hydroelectric potential – good forest product exports – urbanization somewhat smaller than in Australia – six urban populations with more than 100,000 people including Auckland 890,000; Wellington 375,000; and Christchurch 335,000
  24. 24. – 1840 Treaty of Waitangi- supposed to protect indigenous Maori people from land grabs – Different interpretation of this treaty have worked against Maori tribes who were deprived of their historic territories – NZ government set up the Waitangi Tribunal to investigate land claims. Some compensation provided to the Maoris, but not much. – “Whale Rider”- NZ Maori girl seeks to learn her traditions.

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