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Agriculture transformation .pdf

  1. Agricultural transformationand Ruraldevelopmentin Egypt Under Supervision of Prof : Mohammad AbdelAzeem Teleb Prepared by Mohammad Gamal Helmy Faculty of Commerce English progress
  2. ⊷ Problems before 1952 ⊷ Before the 1952 coup that installed Muhammad Naguib as President, lessthan six percent of Egypt's population owned more than 65% of the land in the country, and less than 0.5% of Egyptiansowned more than one-third of all fertile land. ⊷ These major owners had almost autocratic control over the land theyowned and charged highrents which averaged 75% of the income generated bythe rented land. ⊷ These highrents coupled withthe high interest rates charged by banks plunged many small farmers and peasants into debt. ⊷ These highrents coupled withthe high interest rates charged by banks plunged many small farmers and peasants into debt. ⊷ The combination of these circumstances led historian Anouar Abdel Malekto call the pre-reformEgyptian peasantry"an exploited mass surrounded by hunger, disease and death". 2 Introduction
  3. Lawof landReform ⊷ Law number 178 ⊷ Land owners were prohibited to possess more than 200 feddans of land. However, fathers with more than 2 children were allowed to own 300 feddans. ⊷ A limit on the rental rate for land was set at seven times the land tax value of the plot of land. ⊷ All land leases were given a minimum duration of threeyears . 3 ⊷ Modifications to land reform ⊷ The interest on the bonds the government used to repay owners of seized land was lowered to 1.5%. ⊷ People who purchased land from the government were given forty years(in place of thirty) to complete repayment. ⊷ The government surcharge to be paid by purchasers was lowered to 10%. ⊷ Results ⊷ However, it onlyresulted in the redistribution of about 15% of Egypt's land undercultivation, and by the early 1980s, the effects of land reformin Egypt drew to a halt as the population of Egypt moved away from agriculture
  4. 1. Relation between Agriculture and Economy of Egypt
  5. 5 ⊷ Nature of Egypt ⊷ Egypt is the third most populous countryin Africa, with 99. 2 million people (CAPMAS 2019) concentrated in aribbon stretching 1,000 kmfromnorthto southalong the Nile Valley. ⊷ An uprising in 2011was followed bypolitical instability, and more recentlysome economicliberalization and pro-poor initiatives ⊷ The present government, sworn-in in 2014, initiated aseries of reforms to spur the economyEgypt’s economic growth has been healthy, averaging 5.3 percent in FY2017/18, driven by an expansion in the gas extractives, tourism, manufacturing, construction and ICT sectors. ⊷ The present government, sworn-in in 2014, initiated aseries of reforms to spur the economyEgypt’s economic growth has been healthy, averaging 5.3 percent in FY2017/18, driven by an expansion in the gas extractives, tourism, manufacturing, construction and ICT sectors.
  6. ⊷ GDP and Labour Force ⊷ Agriculture is a key sectorin the Egyptian economy, providing livelihoods for 57 per cent of the population and directlyemploying about 26 per cent of the labour force. Though its share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to about 11 percent, farming is a vital source of exports and foreign exchange accounting for 20 percent of export revenue. ⊷ Yet the unemployment rate reached 11.4 per cent in 2018, while youth unemployment increased to 32.5 per cent compared to 24.4 percent in 2010. Poverty has fallen from 40.5 percent in 2004 to 28 percent in 2015, before rising to 32.5 percentin 2019 (CAPMAS) and remains a major challenge, especiallyin rural Upper Egypt, where poverty rates are more than 60 per cent. 6
  7. ⊷ GDP from Agriculture in Egypt increased to 112071.20 EGP Million in the second quarter of 2022 from 110343.20 EGP Million in the first quarter of 2022. 7
  8. ⊷ Egypt: Distribution of gross domestic product (GDP) across economic sectors from 2011 to 2021 8
  9. 2. Technology Development in Agriculture of Egypt .
  10. Firstthebenefitsfrom Technology ⊷ Modern farms and agricultural operations workfar differently than those a few decades ago, primarily because of advancements in technology, including sensors, devices, machines, and information technology. Today’s agriculture routinelyuses sophisticated technologies suchas robots, temperature and moisture sensors, aerial images, and GPS technology. These advanced devices and precision agriclture and robotic systemallow businesses to be more profitable, efficient, safer, and more environmentallyfriendly. Importance of Agricultural Technology ⊷ Farmers no longerhave to apply water, fertilizers, and pesticides uniformlyacross entire fields. Instead, theycan use the minimum quantities required and target very specific areas, or even treat individual plants differently. Benefits include: 10
  11. 1. Highercrop productivity . 2. Decreased use of water, fertilizer, and pesticides, whichin turn keeps food prices down . 3. Reduced impact on natural ecosystems . 4. Less runoff of chemicals into rivers and groundwater. 5. Increased workersafety. ⊷ In addition, robotic technologiesenable more reliable monitoring and management of natural resources, such as air and water quality. It also gives producers greater control overplant and animal production, processing, distribution, and storage, whichresults in: 1. Greater efficienciesand lowerprices 2. Safer growing conditions and safer foods. 3. Reduced environmental and ecological impact 11
  12. ⊷ Relationship between agriculture research and development (internal and external) with production values. 12
  13. ⊷ First Case ⊷ In 2013, the Egyptian ministry of agriculture and land reclamation (MALR) togetherwiththe World Food Programme with funding fromthe adaptation fund, initiated the building resilient food security systems to benefit the southern Egypt Region. ⊷ Witha mobile app, available on Play Store, this program equips farmers with weather predictions forup to five days and issues irrigation, fertilization,and otherclimate change adaptation guidelines based on the crop type, location,and cultivation date. ⊷ The project team goes around villages, introducing theirapp and services to farmers. 13 Technology Development in Egypt
  14. ⊷ Sustainable Agriculture Investments and Livelihoods Project ⊷ This project is designed to enable smallholderfarmers to increase their incomes and profitability, and diversify theirlivelihoods. The project aims to strengthen smallholderinstitutions, improve agricultural production and marketing, and build capacities foremployment and enterprise development. It has four components: 1. Communityand livelihood development 2. Agricultural development and diversification 3. Rural financial services 4. Project management. ⊷ The project area covers sites the government has allocated for settlement and rehabilitation overthe last15 to 20 years in Upper, Middle, and Lower Egypt. Activities will target farmers and rural workers engaged in casual labour – particularly young people – who are poor, vulnerable and facing food and nutrition insecurity. SecondCase 14
  15. . 15
  16. 3. Egypt exports in Agriculture sector
  17. ⊷ Egypt’s exports of agricultural crops totalled $123.52 million during the first eight months (8M) of 2022, Akhbar El-Yomcited a report from the Central Agencyfor Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS). ⊷ In the January-August 2022 period, Egypt’s exports of grapes stood at $29.57, followed by exports of freshgreen beans and onions with $11.77 million and $10.16 million, respectively. ⊷ The Arab world’s most populous nation exported oranges and mangos at $6.35 million and $4.86 million, respectively. Moreover, exports of frozen vegetables reached $3.85million, while exports of lemon registered $1.82million. 17 Egypt's major agricultural exports to theworld are potatoes, cotton, and freshfruit, primarily citrus. Most of Egypt'sexports are destined for theEU, Russia, NorthAfrica and
  18. Resourses 1. https://www.ifad.org/en/-/document/arab-republic- of-egypt-country-strategic-opportunities- programme-2019-2024. 2. https://www.nifa.usda.gov/topics/agriculture- technology 3. https://qz.com/technology-is-changing-the-face-of- farming-in-egypt-1849504460 4. https://sis.gov.eg/Story/172343/Egypt%E2%80%99 s-agricultural-exports-up-to-5-mln-tons-this-year- %E2%80%93-Agriculture-Mininstry?lang=en-us 18
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