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  1. 1. Environmental Science
  2. 2. What is Environmental Science? The study of how humans interact with their environment. Our environment is everything that surrounds us, both natural and man-made. Environmental science is an interdisciplinary field that includes both scientific and social aspects of human impact on the world.
  3. 3. LIFE SCIENCES Biology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Biotechnology Environmental Science Mathematics, Statistics, Computer Science Economics, Sociology, Law, Education, Management, Mass Communication PHYSICAL SCIENCES Physics, Chemistry, Earth Science, Atmospheric Science, Oceanography, Geography Civil Engg, Chemical Engg, Mechanical Engg., Hydraulics etc Basic & Applied studies Technology Modelling Management & Awareness Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Studies
  4. 4. Environmental Science
  5. 5. Environment: the total of our surroundings • All the things around us with which we interact: • Living things  Animals, plants, forests, fungi, etc. • Nonliving things  Continents, oceans, clouds, soil, rocks • Our built environment  Buildings, human-created living centers • Social relationships and institutions
  6. 6. Classification of Environment
  7. 7. Components of Environment  The two major Components of environment are : Biotic components: All living organisms around us viz. plants, animals, and microorganisms Abiotic components : Air, Water, and Land etc.
  8. 8. Natural resources: vital to human survival • Renewable resources:  Perpetually available: sunlight, wind, wave energy  Renew themselves over short periods: timber, water, soil  These can be destroyed • Nonrenewable resources: can be depleted  Oil, coal, minerals
  9. 9. Objectives of Environmental science: According to UNESCO (1971), the objectives of environmental studies are: (a) Creating the awareness about environmental problems among people. (b) Imparting basic knowledge about the environment and its allied problems. (c) Developing an attitude of concern for the environment. (d) Motivating public to participate in environment protection and environment improvement. (e) Acquiring skills to help the concerned individuals in identifying and solving environmental problems. (f) Striving to attain harmony with Nature.
  10. 10. Scope of Environmental Studies: Environmental Science: Environmental Engineering: Environmental Management scientific study of environmental system (air, water, soil and land), the inherent or induced changes on organisms and the environmental damages incurred as a result of human interaction with the environment. the study of technical processes involved in the protection of environment from the potentially deleterious effects of human activity and improving the environmental quality for the health and well beings of humans promotes due regard for physical, social and economic environment of the enterprise or projects. It encourages planned investment at the start of the production chain rather than forced investment in cleaning up at the end Environment impact assessment, economics of pollution, prevention, environmental management standards
  11. 11. What are the challenges we face?  What are the environmental issues we are facing today?
  14. 14. We face challenges in agriculture • Expanded food production led to increased population and consumption • It’s one of humanity’s greatest achievements, but at an enormous environmental cost • Nearly half of the planet’s land surface is used for agriculture • Chemical fertilizers • Pesticides • Erosion • Changed natural systems
  15. 15. We face challenges in climate • Scientists have firmly concluded that humans are changing the composition of the atmosphere • The Earth’s surface is warming • Melting glaciers • Rising sea levels • Impacted wildlife and crops • Increasingly destructive weather Since the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have risen by 37%, to the highest level in 650,000 years
  16. 16. We face challenges in biodiversity • Human actions have driven many species extinct, and biodiversity is declining dramatically Biodiversity loss may be our biggest environmental problem; once a species is extinct, it is gone forever
  17. 17. Asiatic
  18. 18. Other environmental Issues Heavy rainfall across globe----FLOODS!!
  19. 19. Our energy choices will affect our future • The lives we live today are due to fossil fuels • Machines • Chemicals • Transportation • Products • Fossil fuels are a one-time bonanza; supplies will certainly decline We have used up ½ of the world’s oil supplies; how will we handle this imminent fossil fuel shortage?
  20. 20. Man and Environment  Activities: Hunting, mining,agriculture  We are dependent on environment for food (plants,animals) and shelter (mud ,brick,stones).  Goods manufacturing  Trade and transport
  21. 21. Traditional Method of Farming  Traditional Use  Planting were coordinated with the movement of plant and stars  Harmony with the local Environment and Seasons  Cultivate large no of Crops varieties.  Rotation of crop and Soil fertility  Mixing sand, Slit and clay in right proportion.  Modern Use  Heavy use of chemical and pesticides  Local biodiversity affected  Use of Vehicles.  Threats  Food security  GMO Food  Pesticides
  22. 22. Effect of agriculture on Environment  Grazing and agriculture: Oldest economic activities by human  New methods of agriculture, new seed, new fertilizers– Bring changes in natural environment ILL EFFECTS OF FARMING:  Multiple cropping makes soil less productive  Over watering makes soil saline  Fertilizers usage: makes soil and water polluted  Pesticides usage: kills microorganisms in the soil  Extension in agriculture may cause deforestation
  23. 23. Housing and its impacts on Environment 1) Rural housing  No system for waste management  Poor sanitation facilities  Domestic animals (cows, buffalows) create unhealthy conditions  Drinking water often contaminated 2) Urban housing  Over crowding: puts pressure on land and natural resources  Slums(unauthorized settlements): disease-prone  More pollution because of industries  Dumping of solid waste a problem
  24. 24. Traditional method of fishing  Traditional  Fishers have extensive knowledge of oceans and fisheries  Mesh size of the nets was designed to catch only a particular species, and among them only the adult fish  Modern  Mechanized boats and later big trawlers.  Outsiders entered in the business with the aim of cating as much fish as possible  Threats  No regards for conservation of resource.
  25. 25. Impact of Science and technology on the environment  Invention of Engines and Automobiles  Efficient machines were made on the cost of environment  Cutting down the trees  Invention of concrete building of dams, and diversion of rivers water for agriculture and power production  Chemical fertilizer and pesticides  Huge amount of ground water is extracted with pumps
  26. 26. Importance of Environmental Studies  Solving the issues related to environment  Pollution  Over exploitation of non-renewable sources  Food problem  Sustainable development  Maintain the ecological balance  Eco friendly product  Conservation of natural sources  Understand the food chain  Inculcating attitude and value  Encouraging Environment protection
  27. 27. Components of Environment Earth’s environment can be further subdivided into the following four segments: (1) Atmosphere (2) Lithosphere (3) Hydrosphere (4) Biosphere 4
  28. 28. Atmosphere  It is the gaseous envelope surrounding the earth and extends upto 500 kms above the earth’s surface. Constituent Volume %  Nitrogen 78.1  Oxygen 20.9  Water vapour 0.1–5  Argon 0.9  Carbon dioxide 0.03  Trace constituents* Balance  *The trace constituents include Helium, Neon, Krypton, xenon, SO2, NO2, Ammonia, Ozone, and  Carbon monoxide etc.  The atmosphere, which is a gaseous cover, protects the earth from cosmic radiations and provides life sustaining Oxygen, the macronutrient Nitrogen and Carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis.  The atmosphere screens the dangerous UV radiations from the sun and allows only radiations in the range of 300 nm – 2500 nm (near UV to near IR) and radio waves.  The atmosphere plays a major role in maintaining the heat balance of the earth by absorbing there-emitted radiation from the earth. 5 6
  29. 29. Five Layers of the Atmosphere Troposphere : lowest layer – extends up to 10km; contains 99% of the water vapor and 75% of the atmospheric gases • The troposphere is the first layer above the surface and contains most clouds and half of the Earth's atmosphere. • Weather occurs in this layer Stratosphere – directly above troposphere, extending from 10 km to about 50 km above Earth’s surface • Portion of the upper layer contains high levels of a gas called ozone • Many jet aircrafts fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable. Also, the ozone layer absorbs harmful rays from the Sun Mesosphere – extends from the top of the stratosphere to about 85 km above Earth • Coldest layer with little ozone • Meteors or rock fragments burn up in the mesosphere. • Ionosphere here – layer of charged particles Thermosphere – thickest atmospheric layer found between 85 km and 500 km above Earth’s surface • The thermosphere is a layer with auroras, known for its high temperatures. Warms as it filters out X-rays and gamma rays from the Sun Ionosphere here, too – help carry radio waves Exosphere - The atmosphere merges into space in the extremely thin exosphere. This is the upper limit of our atmosphere. • Outer layer where space shuttle orbits.
  30. 30. Environmental disasters : Case studies 1. Bhopal Gas Tragedy  A poisonous gas cloud escaped from the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide factory. The cloud contained 15 metric tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC), covering an area of more than 30 square miles. This event is now known as the worst industrial environmental disaster to ever have occurred.  Research showed that factory personnel neglected a number of safety procedures. There were no valves to prevent water from entering the storage tanks.
  31. 31.  On April 26, 1986 tests were conducted in nuclear reactor 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. Errors in the reactor design and errors in judgment of the personnel of the power plant caused cooling water to start boiling. This caused reactor stress, resulting in energy production increased to ten times the normal level. Temperatures reached more than 2000 °C, causing fuel rod melting and further cooling water boiling.  Radioactive particles released: plutonium, cesium, iodine, strontium 2.Chernobyl: Russian nuclear power plant explosion
  32. 32. 3. Oil spills  Many times occurred.  During Gulf War 1991,  Mumbai : In Arabic sea 2010
  33. 33. Global environmental issues

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Fossil fuels!
  • The gas leak killed at least 4.000 local residents instantly and caused health problems such as oedema for at least 50.000 to perhaps 500.000 people. These health problems killed around 15.000 more victims in the years that followed. Approximately 100.000 people still suffer from chronic disease consequential to gas exposure, today. Research conducted by the BBC in 2004 pointed out that this pollution still causes people to fall ill, and ten more die every year.