Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqw
ertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwert
yuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui
opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopa
sdf...
1
2
Analysis of Hanif Kureishi’s “My Son the Fanatic” and “My
Beautiful Laundrette” from Postmodern Perspective
3
Table of Contents
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Introduction to Postmodernism ……………………………………………………………. 3
...
4
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify and describe postmodernist themes in two short stories
written by Hani...
5
Introduction to Postmodernism
The postmodern world is less a world of facts and figures and more a world of story and
pe...
6
Both the characters are the apostles of fragmented worlds and contrary ideas. According to self-
perception Parvez is th...
7
At last he went upstairs and paced up and down outside Ali's room. When, finally, he opened the
door, Ali was praying. T...
8
Bettina. 'That's the answer. You must tell him what your philosophy of life is. Then he will
understand that there are o...
9
Minimalism
Literary minimalism can be characterized as a focus on surface description where readers to take
an active ro...
10
When Omer’s papa calls Naseer for some sort of job for Omer he also explains the position of
his son in these words:
“T...
11
debatable topic at that exact moment (it was released in the mid-80’s and set in the 80’s). I
suggest that everyone wat...
12
Conclusion
Postmodernists themes such as Fragmentation: Pseudo Culture, Paranoia, Minimalism, Identity
and its Relation...
13
References:
1. Bergquist, W. (1993). The postmodern organization: Mastering the art of irreversible
change. San Francis...
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

Analysis of hanif kureishi’s “my son the fanatic” and “my beautiful laundrette” from postmodern perspective

The purpose of this study is to identify and describe postmodernist themes in two short stories written by Hanif Kureishi, My Son the Fanatic and My Beautiful Launderette. As postmodern era embodies some distinctive themes and techniques for instance fragmentation, pastiche, metafiction, minimalism, tecnoculture, hyperreality and intertextuality etc this paper will explore such themes and techniques in above mentioned literary works.

Livres associés

Gratuit avec un essai de 30 jours de Scribd

Tout voir
  • Soyez le premier à commenter

Analysis of hanif kureishi’s “my son the fanatic” and “my beautiful laundrette” from postmodern perspective

  1. 1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqw ertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwert yuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopa sdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklz xcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcv bnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwe rtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjk Postmodern Literature Analysis of Hanif Kureishi’s “My Son the Fanatic” and “My Beautiful laundrette” from Postmodern Perspective Submitted to: Pro. Mustanir Afzal Lodhi Submitted by Muhammad Aqeel Hayder Roll # 19 M.Phil English 2nd Semester Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan
  2. 2. 1
  3. 3. 2 Analysis of Hanif Kureishi’s “My Son the Fanatic” and “My Beautiful Laundrette” from Postmodern Perspective
  4. 4. 3 Table of Contents Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Introduction to Postmodernism ……………………………………………………………. 3 Postmodern Themes and Techniques ……………………………………………………… 3 References …………………………………………………………………………………… 11
  5. 5. 4 Abstract The purpose of this study is to identify and describe postmodernist themes in two short stories written by Hanif Kureishi, My Son the Fanatic and My Beautiful Launderette. As postmodern era embodies some distinctive themes and techniques for instance fragmentation, pastiche, metafiction, minimalism, tecnoculture, hyperreality and intertextuality etc this paper will explore such themes and techniques in above mentioned literary works.
  6. 6. 5 Introduction to Postmodernism The postmodern world is less a world of facts and figures and more a world of story and performance. William Bergguist (1993, p.23) Unlike other literary movements postmodernism movement is quite difficult to explain. Its origins are still unconvinced. There is arguably consensus over its peak phase in the 1960s and 1970s with the publications of Catch-22 in 1961, Lost in the Funhouse in 1968, Slaughterhouse –Five in 1969, Gravity’ Rainbow in 1973 and many others. Some critics use postmodernism term to define certain features of Post-World War II. The postmodern era was the time of recovery from World War II, which started globalization. Some critics claim that World War II started postmodernism era. Postmodern Themes and Techniques In this paper postmodern themes and techniques are discussed in accordance with two short stories written by Hanif Kureishi. These themes are given below: Fragmentation: Postmodern literature is characterized by reliance on narrative techniques such as fragmentation, paradox, and the unreliable narrator; and often is (though not exclusively) defined as a style or a trend which emerged in the post–World War II era. Fragmentation perhaps one of the most prominent elements of postmodern texts, fragmentation refers to the breakdown of plot, character, theme, and setting. Plot, for instance, is not presented in a realistic or chronological fashion, but rather, as “slabs of event and circumstance” (173). Fragmentation is a unique theme of postmodernism. Hanif Kureishi’s “My Son the Fanatic” is a story of a father and a son, both the characters entirely opposite to each other and has conflicting personifications:
  7. 7. 6 Both the characters are the apostles of fragmented worlds and contrary ideas. According to self- perception Parvez is the perfect father who is doing ceaseless efforts for providing all the luxuries of life to his family. As he says “He had explained patiently to Ali that for years he had worked more than ten hours a day that he had few enjoyments or hobbies and never went on holiday. (Line- 181) On contrary Ali has no concerns with all this. An anti-Western ideology has embedded in his mind. Both men have similarly mismatched notions of Britain and ‘Britishness’: for Parvez, Britain is both the dream of the perfect life and the constant need to satisfy that dream. For Ali, Britain is a “bottomless pit” of corruption and sin, guilty of oppressing Muslims around the world. In his narrative, Kureishi discovers issues of identity and empire and artfully creates a fractured relationship that allows for consideration and analysis of these themes on both an individual and a societal level. On contrary there is widely generational breach between father and son. Both of them think that they are ingenuous in their fragmented domains. Here are the some glimpses of fragmentation: ‘Before Parvez could speak, Ali made a face. 'Don't you know it's wrong to drink alcohol?' he said. 'He spoke to me very harshly,' Parvez said to Bettina. 'I was about to castigate the boy for being insolent, but I managed to control myself.' (Line 176-180). There is further discussion where Parvez tries to prove himself candid according to his point of view: “He had explained patiently to Ali that for years he had worked more than ten hours a day that he had few enjoyments or hobbies and never went on holiday. Surely it wasn't a crime to have a drink when he wanted one? 'But it is forbidden,' the boy said. Parvez shrugged, 'I know.' And so is gambling, isn't it?' 'Yes. But surely we are only human?' Each time Parvez took a drink; the boy winced, or made a fastidious face as an accompaniment. This made Parvez drink more quickly. The waiter, wanting to please his friend, brought another glass of whisky. Parvez knew he was getting drunk, but he couldn't stop himself. Ali had a horrible look on his face, full of disgust and censure. It was as if he hated his father” (L 181-195). The conversation between father and son shows that they are distant from each other but one thing is remarkable that both the characters consider themselves veracious according to their insight. Parvez tries to legitimize his forbidden doings and he consoles his son by saying that we are only human beings. These actions are common in a society like England. On the other hand Ali has stuck to religion and he scolds his father on his wrong doings ignoring the fact that Koran and religion forbids to humiliate one’s parents. Ali shows his hatred against his father. Ali said, 'Real morality has existed for hundreds of years. Around the world millions and millions ofpeople share my beliefs. Are you saying you are right and they are all wrong?' Ali looked at his father with such aggressive confidence that Parvez would say no more. At the end of the story due to these fragmented views both father and son had to depart. In closing scene of the tragic end of the story transpires:
  8. 8. 7 At last he went upstairs and paced up and down outside Ali's room. When, finally, he opened the door, Ali was praying. The boy didn't even glance his way. Parvez kicked him over. Then he dragged the boy up by his shirt and hit him. The boy fell back. Parvez hit him again. The boy's face was bloody. Parvez was panting. He knew that the boy was un- reachable, but he struck him nonetheless. The boy neither covered himself nor retaliated; there was no fear in his eyes. He only said, through his split lip: 'So who's the fanatic now?' Pseudo Culture: Portrayal of pseudo culture is another distinguishing theme of postmodernism. In “My Son the Fanatic” the pseudo culture has been portrayed by the writer. Here are the some previews of this theme: Ali then reminded Parvez that he had ordered his own wife to cook pork sausages, saying to her, 'You're not in the village now, and this is England. We have to fit in.'(Line 211-212) According to Ali the English society was a pseudo culture and he was eccentric to this society while according to Parvez being a religious fundamentalist is a pseudo reality. As Ali clarifies his point of view in following lines; 'The problem is this,' the boy said. He leaned across the table. For the first time that night his eyes were alive. 'You are too implicated in Western civilisation.'(Line 216-217) Parvez burped; he thought he was going to choke. 'Implicated!' he said. 'But we live here!' 'The Western materialists hate us,' Ali said. 'Papa, how can you love something which hates you?' What had finished Parvez off was that the boy had said he was giving up his accountancy. When Parvez had asked why, Ali had said sarcastically that it was obvious. 'Western education cultivates an anti-religious attitude.' (L266-270) Even Parvez himself acknowledged this fact during a conversation with Bettina as under; The previous day Parvez had been telling Bettina that he thought people in the West sometimes felt inwardly empty and that people needed a philosophy to live by. 'Yes,' said
  9. 9. 8 Bettina. 'That's the answer. You must tell him what your philosophy of life is. Then he will understand that there are other beliefs.'(L306-314) Paranoia Paranoia refers to the distrust in a system or even distrust in the self. Postmodern texts often reflect paranoia by depicting an antagonism towards immobility and stasis. In English society Ali feel distrust the system, this distrust has been shown in the following lines; “Parvez burped; he thought he was going to choke.’Implicated!' he said.’But we live here!' 'The Western materialists hate us,' Ali said. 'Papa, how can you love something which hates you?” It is clearly mentioned in above lines that Ali was biased against Western Culture and he expressed his sagacity of insecurity to his father. Further discussion on this issue he explores his feelings about the so-called Western society in these words: “Ali addressed his father fluently, as if Parvez were a rowdy crowd that had to be quelled or convinced. The Law of Islam would rule the world; the skin of the infidel would bum off again and again; the Jews and Christers would be routed. The West was a sink of hypocrites, adulterers, homosexuals, drug takers and prostitutes”. (L225-230). There was distrust in Ali’s self-personality as he inclines himself towards Islamic life. He was not satisfied with his existing life style; this change of behavior has been shown as; “Initially Parvez had been pleased: his son was outgrowing his teenage attitudes. But one day, beside the dustbin, Parvez found a torn bag which contained not only old toys, but computer disks, video tapes, new books and fashionable clothes the boy had bought just a few months before. Also without explanation, Ali had parted from the English girlfriend who used to come often to the house. His old friends had stopped ringing”.
  10. 10. 9 Minimalism Literary minimalism can be characterized as a focus on surface description where readers to take an active role in the creation of a story. The characters in minimalist stories and novels tend to unexceptional. Generally, the stories are “slice of life”. Minimalism, the opposite of maximalism, is a representation of only the most basic and necessary pieces, specific by economy with words. Minimalist authors hesitate to use adjectives, adverbs, or meaningless detail. Instead of providing every minute detail, the author provides a general context and then allows the reader’s imagination to shape the story. Literary minimalism is also used by Hanif Kureishi in his short stories. The whole story contains only 392 lines. Identity and its Relationship to Sexuality, Ethnicity, and Gender: Sexual minorities are ‘one of the world’s largest minorities’ and found around the world, across many class races and ages (Heinze, 1995, p19). Identity crises are one of the main themes of postmodernism. Different groups have different identity problem in the society. According to Heinze sexual minorities are one of the world’s largest minorities and found around the world. These sexual minorities came into prominence in postmodernist era and these groups claimed that they have their own separate identity as rest of groups has their identity in society. Identity crises regarding sexuality, ethnicity and gender have been represented in ‘My Beautiful Laundrette’. The sexual association between two main characters of the story Omar and Johnny is portrayed in an indifferent custom;this relationship shows the postmodern theme of identity of minority group i.e homosexual. Homosexuality is a common practice in postmodern era and these minority groups are trying to legitimize their rights. So, the idea has been represented in an inventive mode.
  11. 11. 10 When Omer’s papa calls Naseer for some sort of job for Omer he also explains the position of his son in these words: “Try and fix him with a nice girl. I’m not sure if his penis is in full working order”. His father knows about the homosexual attitude of his son so he already narrates the condition to Naseer. Postmodernism and Mass Culture According to Lyotard, the postmodern world is characterized by a spreading cynicism about ‘metanarratives’ or general belief systems, including religions, political ideologies such as Socialism or Liberalism, and even science and reason. We have become disillusioned and no longer expect to world become a better place. Metanarratives have partly been discredited because, in an era of global media in which we learn more and more about other people’s beliefs and life styles, it becomes less and less possible to regard one life style or one belief system as the ‘true one’. Mass media has great power and influence in postmodern era. Now mass media shapes our culture and the culture has become ‘Mass Culture’. Before postmodernism it was not possible to present such kind of themes i.e sexual identities etc as have been presented in “My Beautiful Laundretee’. It became possible only due to the progress of mass culture. Stephen Frears the director of the movie“My Beautiful Laundretee’ describes the homosexuality in following words: “It’s no secret that the ethical dilemma of homosexuality is an ever-growing topic of debate across the country. The movie “My Beautiful Laundrette” portrays this struggle between a Pakistani teen, Omar, and an English teen, Johnny, in London in the early 1980’s (Frears 1985). Personally, I believe that “My Beautiful Laundrette” is a perfect movie to watch for those interested in the emergence and confrontation of homosexuals with mainstream English society before the 2000’s, and for those struggling with their sexuality as well. It represents the ethical dilemma and need for secrecy surrounding homosexuality very well. Not only is it a wonderful in itself, but I feel it was created to show the social interactions that surround this
  12. 12. 11 debatable topic at that exact moment (it was released in the mid-80’s and set in the 80’s). I suggest that everyone watch this movie, but if you are uncomfortable with male intimacy, that be advised; this movie is rated R for a reason”. Frears, S (Director). (1985). My beautiful laundrette. United Kingdom: Working Title Films. Liberation Although postmodernism is sometimes accused by outsiders of promoting authoritarian tendencies, actually most postmodernists believe they are working towards a kind of liberation- liberation from the totalitarian tendencies of reason that have been discussed by the German sociologists Max Weber and Max Horkheimer. The notion of liberation is always problematic from a postmodernist perspective. Liberation is one that can only be defined from within the system, and so in some sense is already limited by the system. Hanif Kureishi also breaks the traditional style of writing and provides liberation to his writings. The themes which have been portrayed in “My Son the Fanatic” and My Beautiful Laundretee” are the essence of postmodernism. He depicts the theme of homosexuality, drugs dealings, minority’s issues and fundamentalism very openly. Homosexuality is still a taboo in this era but he unfolds these taboos with perspective of English society (Johnny and Omer). For that reason some critics claim that “My Beautiful Laundretee”as aguy story. 'My Beautiful Laundrette' predominantly rotates around Omar and his relationship with Johnny. Hanif Kureishi is famous for narrating about unusual associations and it was writer’s insight that both characters Johnny and Omer were depicted to be liberal about their personal affiliations ignoring their background, although both characters were entirely from different backgrounds. These two characters were not worried about anything that what others would think concerning their relationships. It was the liberation from traditional styles of writing by the writer that he selected such kind of subjects.
  13. 13. 12 Conclusion Postmodernists themes such as Fragmentation: Pseudo Culture, Paranoia, Minimalism, Identity and its Relationship to Sexuality, Ethnicity, Gender, Mass Culture and Liberation have elaborated in this research paper. These themes and techniques have been strengthened through text of above mentioned literary works “My Son the Fanatic” and My Beautiful Laundretee”.
  14. 14. 13 References: 1. Bergquist, W. (1993). The postmodern organization: Mastering the art of irreversible change. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. 2. Frears, S (Director). (1985). My beautiful laundrette. United Kingdom: Working Title Films. 3. http://books.google.com/books?id=vp2Sv9KO1VUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=crying+o f+lot+49&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&as_pt=ALLTYPES&ei=BN0ISsjXMIvKNdv-tYUC 4. http://www.hueber.de/shared/elka/Internet_Muster/Red7/978-3-19-109560- 4_Muster_1.pdf 5. http://www.studymode.com/subjects/my-son-the-fanatic-characterization-ali-page1.html 6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postmodern_literature 7. Kimmel, S. Plante, F. (2004) Sexualities: Identities, Behaviors, and Society. New York: Oxford University Press 8. Nagel, C. (2003) Race, Ethnicity, and Sexuality: Intimate Intersections, Forbidden Frontiers. New York: Oxford University Press. 9. : http://josullivan.org/gender-sexuality-and-postcolonial-identity-in-my-beautiful- laundrette/ 10. http://webs.wofford.edu/whisnantcj/his389/postmodernism.pdf.

×