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GOLDEN RICE; The genetically modified crop in India

GOLDEN RICE, the genetically modified crop of Oryza sativa. Major role in the protection from vitamin A deficiency and malnutrition.

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GOLDEN RICE; The genetically modified crop in India

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Golden rice is a variety of Oryza sativa rice produced from genetic engineering • The creation of plants that make or accumulate micronutrients • Main purpose is to provide pro-vitamin A to third world, developing, countries where malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency are common • Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can negatively affect growth and development, cause blindness, interfere with the growth of epithelial cells, and suppress the immune system • Vitamin A can be synthesized from the β- carotene found in green leafy vegetables and yellow fruits or vegetables, and it can be obtained from certain animal products (liver, egg yolk, etc. ).
  3. 3. Effects of malnutrition; • Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) include; night blindness, increased susceptibility to infection and cancer, anemia (lack of red blood cells or hemoglobin), deterioration of the eye tissue, and cardiovascular disease • Nearly 9 million children die from malnutrition each year. A large proportion of those children die from common illnesses that could have been avoided through adequate nutrition • The reduced immune competence increases the morbidity and mortality rates of children
  4. 4. In a major feat of genetic engineering, scientists inserted a complete functioning β-carotene biosynthetic pathway into the rice plant. They did this by inserting genes from daffodil to produce functioning versions of the first and last enzymes of the pathway. In addition, a single bacterial gene that provides the same function as the second and third enzymes of the pathway, was also introduced. With a functioning pathway, the transgenic rice is able to produce the vitamin A precursor β-carotene. It is this product that gives "Golden Rice" its characteristic yellow color. The solution is “GOLDEN RICE”
  5. 5. The Golden Rice story One of the major plant biotechnology product is more recent and was developed to address the vitamin A deficiency problems prevalent throughout the world. This vitamin deficiency is very critical because it can cause blindness and affects the severity of many diseases including diarrhea and measles. This is a severe problem that affects more than 100 million children worldwide. A simple solution would be to distribute vitamins to the affected children. Unfortunately, many countries where the deficiency is chronic do not have the necessary infrastructure to deliver the vitamin tablets to the most needed. The solution that is currently being promoted is to improve the vitamin content in widely-consumed, and readily available to the consumer. Transgenic rice plants were developed that contain elevated levels of the precursor to vitamin A. This GMO is called “Golden Rice” because of its color: it is yellow rather than white. It is yellow because β- carotene, a yellow precursor to vitamin A is abundant in the seed.
  6. 6. Who started The Golden Rice Project? • Started in 1982 by Ingo Potrykus-Professor emeritus of the Institute for Plant Sciences • Peter Beyer-Professor of Centre for Applied Biosciences, Uni. Of Freiburg, Germany • Funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and Syngenta, a crop protection company. • Golden Rice Humanitarian Board-responsible for the global development, introduction and free distribution of Golden Rice to target countries.
  7. 7. How dose it works? • The addition of 2 genes in the rice genome will complete the biosynthetic pathway – 1. Phytoene synthase (psy) – derived from daffodils – 2. Lycopene cyclase (crt1) – from soil bacteria Erwinia uredovora • Produces enzymes and catalysts for the biosynthesis of carotenoids (β- carotene) in the endosperm
  8. 8. • Rice is a staple food in many developing regions of the world. Unfortunately, it contains no β-carotene in its milled grain, and is therefore not a source of vitamin A. Rice can be genetically engineered to boost its nutritional content. It is possible to transfer the genes for β-carotene from a plant that produces it into rice DNA. • Rice provides as much as 80 percent or more of the daily caloric intake of 3 billion people, which is half the world’s population • Other plants, such as sweet potatoes have varieties that are either rich (orange-fleshed) or poor (white fleshed) in pro-vitamin A • Carrots were originally white or purple in the 1600’s. A Dutch horticulturist mutated the carrot to produce carotenes to symbolize the color of the Dutch Royal House of Orange WHY RICE?
  9. 9. Modification of plant nutrition content : increasing the vitamin a content in plants • 124 million children worldwide are deficient in vitamin A, which leads to death and blindness. • Mammals make vitamin A from B- carotene a common carotenoid pigment normally found in plant photosynthetic membranes • Here, the idea was to engineer the B- carotene pathway into rice • The transgenic rice is yellow on golden in colour and is called “golden rice”.
  10. 10. β - carotene pathway problem in plants IPP Geranylgeranyl diphoshate phytoene synthase Phytoene Phytoene desaturase ξ-carotene desaturase Lycopene Lycopenz-beta-cyclase B- carotene Vitamin A precursor Normal Vitamin A “Deficient” Rice Problem: Rice lacks these enzymes
  11. 11. The solution is GOLDEN RICE -Carotene Pathway Genes Added IPP Geranylgeranyl diphosphate Phytoene Lycopene  -carotene (vitamin A precursor) Phytoene synthase Phytoene desaturase Lycopene-beta-cyclase ξ-carotene desaturase Daffodil gene Single bacterial gene; performs both functions Daffodil gene Vitamin A Pathway is complete and functional Golden Rice
  12. 12. Controversy Against “Golden Rice” • Health – May cause allergies or fail to perform desired effect – Supply does not provide a substantial quantity as the recommended daily intake • Environment – Loss of Biodiversity. May become a gregarious weed and endanger the existence of natural rice plants – Genetic contamination of natural, global staple foods • Culture – Some people prefer to cultivate and eat only white rice based on traditional values and spiritual beliefs