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Sustainable Tourism Chapter 2

Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan

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Sustainable Tourism Chapter 2

  1. 1. DTM 6033 SUSTAINABLE TOURISM CHAPTER 2 : ENVIROMENT AND ECOTOURISM By : Aklimima & Azamrul
  2. 2. ENVIRONMENT
  3. 3. Introduction • Environment is often used in its widest concept to and includes different aspects such as cultural, economic, political, social, and physical or natural type. • Physical environment is often referred as the key element of tourism. (Theobald,1998)
  4. 4. Types Of Environment
  5. 5. Types of Environment………….. Source : John I Richardson & Martin Fluker, Understanding and Managing Tourism, 2004. Types of Environment The Natural Environment The Built Environment The Sociocultural Environment
  6. 6. Types of Environment…………..  The Natural Environment This includes the air, land, sea, lakes, rivers, climate, flora and fauna. Source : John I Richardson & Martin Fluker, Understanding and Managing Tourism, 2004.
  7. 7. Types of Environment…………..  The Built Environment This includes building, infrastructure such roads and bridge, and element of townscape. Source : John I Richardson & Martin Fluker, Understanding and Managing Tourism, 2004.
  8. 8. Types of Environment…………..  The Sociocultural Environment This includes the values, beliefs, behaviours, morals, arts and history of communities. Source : John I Richardson & Martin Fluker, Understanding and Managing Tourism, 2004.
  9. 9. Relationship Between Environment and Tourism
  10. 10. Relationship Between Environment and Tourism.... The environment is the most fundamental ingredient of the tourism product.
  11. 11. ECOTOURISM
  12. 12. Introduction  Ecotourism became popular in 1980’s.  Is one of the popular form of Alternative Tourism.  Usually use to describe tourism activities which are conducted in harmony with nature.
  13. 13. Introduction…………..  Focused on wildlife, nature or exotic culture  Ecotourism is growing faster than any other form of tourism throughout the world.
  14. 14. “Ecotourism is a purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the culture and natural history of the enviroment, taking care not to alter the integrity of the eco-system, while producing economic opportinities that make the conservation af natural resources beneficial to local people” (World Wildlife Fund,1990 /World Wide Fund For Nature)
  15. 15. “Ecotourism is environmentally responsible travel to relatively undisturbed natural areas in order to enjoy and appreciate nature, promotes conservation, has low visitor impact and provides for beneficially active socioeconomic involvement of local populations..” ( World Conservation Union )
  16. 16. “Ecotourism is an enlightening nature travel experience that contributes to conservation of ecosystem, while respecting the integrity of the host community” ( The Candian Enviroment Advisory Council )
  17. 17. CRITERIA OF ECOTOURISM
  18. 18. Criteria of Ecotourism 1 • Environmentally friendly 2 • Appreciate nature and cultural features 3 • Promotes conservation 4 • Low visitor impact 5 • Contribute to socio-economic of local communities
  19. 19. Criteria of Ecotourism 1. Environmentally friendly  Tourism activity is carried out in a relatively undisturbed natural setting 2. Appreciate nature and cultural features  Education/appreciation/interpretation must be present.  Increase awareness & protection of cultural heritage
  20. 20. Criteria of Ecotourism 3 Promotes conservation  Tourism activity assists in conserving the natural and cultural heritage 4. Low visitor impact  Negative impacts of tourism activity are minimized 5. Contribute to socio-economic of local communities  Activity involves local communities in the process, providing benefits to them, community participation.
  21. 21. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ECOTOURISM AND NATURE- BASED TOURISM
  22. 22. The Difference between Ecotourism and Nature-based Tourism.... While nature-based tourism is just travel to natural places, ecotourism provides local benefits - environmentally, culturally and economically. A nature-based tourist may just go bird watching; an eco-tourist goes bird watching with a local guide, stays in a locally operated eco- lodge and contributes to the local economy.
  23. 23. ISSUES OF ECOTOURISM INDUSTRY
  24. 24. Issues of Ecotourism.... I. Due to the large movement of people and unplanned tourism development, the environment, ecology, and the host community are greatly affected. II. Participation by local community in tourism industry is low.
  25. 25. Issues of Ecotourism.... • ‘Eco’ Products? Local Participation? • Despite the fact that ecotourism stresses the importance of strong community involvement in the tourist business, locals continue to be mere ‘objects’ or ‘products’ to be gazed by the visitors. In Taman Negara Malaysia (Malaysia National Park), visiting aboriginal villages and observing their lifestyle have been prominent features in the tourism activities in the park. Seldom, they become owners or run businesses related to tourists. But this is also due to the fact that the aborigines are not realiable (as workers, according to one park’s managers) and their academic background is relatively lower.
  26. 26. Ecotourism in Malaysia
  27. 27. • Malaysia is one of the twelve mega- biologically diverse countries in the world.  which boasts at least 15,000 species of flowering plants 300 species of mammals 150,000 species of invertebrates 4,000 species of fishes Ecotourism in Malaysia....
  28. 28. Ecotourism in Malaysia.... • Malaysia has 54 protected areas, totaling 1, 483 million ha. Or about 4.5 % of the land surface of the country. • They include 28 district nature reserve, where 90,070 ha. are not opened to tourism activity (Norizan, 2000) • Some of these national parks, wildlife reserves and sanctuaries, nature parks, birds’ sanctuaries and marine parks have been established since 1930's.
  29. 29. Role of Government • The establishment of parks and protected areas. • The Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism (MOCAT) also has taken steps to introduce tourism as a core subject in local universities as well as introducing tourism in the schools. • There are also Wildlife Department which has ecotourism division, also Forestry Department which manages the forests. Ecotourism in Malaysia....
  30. 30. Role of Government • The National Ecotourism Plan which has been prepared by the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism in 1996, consists of 25 guidelines among others things, cover the aspects of: Categorizing sites and activities Carrying capacity and limits of acceptable change Marine parks and island National parks and reserves Mangroves Use of local accommodation Accreditation of ecotourism products Visitors’ roles and responsibilities, etc Ecotourism in Malaysia....
  31. 31. Ecotourism Activities
  32. 32. SWIMMING
  33. 33. BOATING
  34. 34. TUBING
  35. 35. Mountain Climbing
  36. 36. BAMBOO RAFTING
  37. 37. WHITE WATER RAFTING
  38. 38. KAWASAN PERLINDUNGAN
  39. 39. POKOK TONGKAT ALI POKOK MAS COTEK
  40. 40. End…………

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