12. Only God can Judge
• No preformed notion of ‘Good’ or ‘Bad’
• Evaluate the situation but never judge
• Evaluate behavior objectively not subjectively
• Objective = Impartial – the whole picture
• Subjective = one’s own feeling
• Empathy not Sympathy
• Open Mindedness
26. “Feelings are like waves, you can’t stop them
from coming but you can choose which ones to
• Therapeutic communication between a client and the therapist
wherein the therapist help them resolve emotional,
psychological and relationship issues.
• Therapist will listen, encourage, empathize and challenge to
help them see their issues more clearly and in a different way.
• Not a friendly chat, Not about giving advice or opinions.
• Helps the clients to understand themselves better, to find their
own solutions to cope with their situations
28. “Are you Okay?” Helps
more lives than CPR
• Capacities for responding to demands of life is strained.
• Desired growth seems unattainable.
• Natural support systems are unavailable or in sufficient.
• Urged by third party – parent, spouse, teacher, etc – who
believes the individual is failing to manage important aspect of
• Trauma, mental illness, conflict-ridden relationship.
30. Individual Counselling =
• Individual – the whole session is devoted
to the single person’s concerns and goals.
• Helpful in coexisting issues (addiction
and mental disorders that requires
• Sound History taking is a must.
31. Always Consent to taking Notes. - “Do you mind if I write this down so I can review it later”
32. Group Counselling
Support Group – group members help
• Group of people with mutual problems.
• structured, cover a particular topic of lesson or
activity followed by discussion.
• emphasis on the relationship between group
members with some goals for learning.
• Benefits - Provides support, motivation, promotes
self awareness & social skills.
33. Group Counselling
• Can do it for any disease by forming a group in
• Always use like minded people
• Be supportive to their sharings
• Always remind them not to discuss other person’s
sharing’s outside the room
• Can assign topics or games
Process Group Therapy – When two or more group therapist talk to a group of
5-10 individuals by discussing issues
Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) – where individuals are asked to address
issues or topics which they avoid; encouragement is
provided by group members
Universality - An individual gains understanding that the problems is universal in
the group and gain insight by group effort
34. Family Therapy
• Used to treat a family system or parties in relationship.
• Enables family members to express, explore difficult thoughts &
emotions, understand troublesome differences safely.
• To understand & appreciate each others views and needs.
• Set Rules
• Draw Boundaries on what is acceptable behaviour
• Set plan on how to deal with unacceptable behaviour
• To build strength, make useful changes in their relationships and
• Family, friends and relatives are brought together where they talk
about the damage the person’s addictive behavior is causing in their
lives to convince their loved one to undergo treatment.
36. How to do an Intervention
• Make a plan. A family member or friend
proposes an intervention and forms a
• Try to use an Specialist/Interventionist to
train all members
• Gather information on current job,
financial, relationship situations
• Form the intervention team.
• Decide on specific treatment options
• Make notes on what to say.
• Hold the intervention meeting
• Follow up.
• Based on the view that what people think about their
situation / experience determines how they feel about the
experience and their response towards the situation.
• Undesirable behavior can be changed by restructuring
• Focuses in current problem than past issues.
• Aims to change the way the client thinks to bring change in
behavior and help them to deal with problems in a positive
43. • Based on similar view as CBT – negative emotions and self
defeating behavior are the result of irrational thoughts & beliefs.
• ABC Theory – A =activating event, B = thought about he event, C
= emotional & behavioral reaction.
• Helps to identify these irrational thoughts and replace them with
rational ones to promote change in behavior and well being.
• Focus is on “rational & irrational thoughts” and specific life
59. - Questionnaires are simple
- have strong validity – Person has less chances of cheating
- can have grading scale to measure severity
60. Pre Test and Post
Test show if the
therapy is working
or needs change
61. Ethics of Counseling
Principles to be followed by counselors to maintain the standard ,
reputation of profession and to avoid actions that could be harmful to
• Empathetic and non judgmental attitude.
• Maintain confidentiality.
• Follow non advisory approach and autonomy.
• Engage in self care , seek support & supervision to maintain the standard of
• Competence – maintain & update professional skills.
• Ability to examine ones thoughts, values & understand one’s limitations.
• Unconditional positive regard and respect for others.
• Maintain neutral professional relationship with the client.
Shakespeare provides us with this inspirational quote. What may we be? We could be anything. We know our identitynow but we could become whatever we want to be. The interesting feature of this quote is that Ophelia provides these encouraging words in a lengthy speech preceding her decision to end her life over the despair she experienced as a result of what she perceives as Hamlet's , unjust condemnation of her