Disclosure to Promote the Right To Information
Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to
information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities,
in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority,
and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest
to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of
education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the
timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public.
“!ान $ एक न' भारत का +नम-ण”
Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda
“Invent a New India Using Knowledge”
“प0रा1 को छोड न' 5 तरफ”
“Step Out From the Old to the New”
“जान1 का अ+धकार, जी1 का अ+धकार”
Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan
“The Right to Information, The Right to Live”
“!ान एक ऐसा खजाना > जो कभी च0राया नहB जा सकता है”
“Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen”
“Invent a New India Using Knowledge”
IS 1076-1 (1985): Preferred Numbers, Part 1: Series of
Preferred Numbers [PGD 1: Basic Standards]
PART 1 SERIES OF PREFERRED NUMBERS
( Second Revision )
( IS0 Title : Preferred Numbers - Series of
Preferred Numbers )
This Indian Standard ( Part 1 ) (Second Revision ) is identical with ISO 3 - 1973 ‘Prefer
red numbers-Series of preferred numbers’ issued by the international Organization for Standardizatior
( IS0 ), was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on the recommendation of Engineerint
Standards Sectional Committee and approval of the Mechanical Engineering Division Council.
Originally published in 1957, this standard was intended:
a) ta give authoritative status to preferred numbers for application where appropriate,
b) to provide readily accessible information on the numbers themselves for those who have
occasion’(l! use them, and
c) to give guidance to the use of preferred numbers ( and of series of preferred numbers ).
The main object of first revision of the standard in 1967 was to give guidance in the use of rr)orr
rounded values and to set out the dangers and disadvantages of using them as compared with the
sdvantages of using the preferred numbers themselves.
In the presant revision, the standard has been split in parts to bring it in line with ISC
rtandards, by adoption of the relevant IS0 standards.
ln the adopted standard certain terminology and convention are not identical with those used ir
Indian Standards; attention is specially drawn to the following:
Comma ( ,) has been used as a decimal marker while in Indian Standards the current practice is
to use full point ( . ) as the decimal marker.
Wherever the words ‘International Standard’ appear, referring to this standard, they should be
read as ‘Indian Standard’.
This Indian Standard is issued in several parts, each part being identical with the corresponding
SO standards indicated within brackets.
IS : 1076 Preferred numbers:
Part 1 Series of preferred numbers ( IS0 3 1
Part 2 Guide to the use of preferred numbers and of series of preferred numbers ( IS0 17 )
Part 3 Guide of the choice of series of preferred numbers and of series containing more
rounded values of preferred numbers ( IS0 497 ).
Adopted 30 July 1986 Q December 1987, BIS Gr3
BUREAU OF IND’lqN STANDARDS
MANAK BHAVAN, 0 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 1100M
( Reaffirmed 2005 )
IS : 1076 ( Part 1 ) - 1985
1 SCOPE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION
This International Standard specifies series of preferred numbers.
IS0 3 - 1973
3 EXCEPTIONAL R 80 SERIES 4.3 Designation of series
All series of preferred numbers have a designation
commencing with the letter R.
lB0 3.15 5.60
1.65 3.25 6.60
19 3.35 6,OO
1*= 3.45 6.15
1.12 2.w 3.55 5,30
1.15 2.w 3.65 69
1.16 2,12 3.75 6.70
1.22 2,lS 3.67 69
1.25 2.24 4,OO 7.10
1.26 2.30 4.12 730
1.32 2.36 4.25 760
136 2.43 4.37 7.75
lcI0 2.60 4.50 6.06
1.45 2b6 4.62 6.25
150 2.65 4.75 6e50
1#55 2.72 4.67 6.75
1.60 2.60 5,OO 6pO
1*65 2.90 5.15 6.25
1.70 3.06 6.30 6.50
1.75 3.07 5.45 6.75
4.4 Basic series
The series figuring in section 2 are those which shall be
normally used. They are distinguished by the symbols :
R5 - RlO - R20 - R40
The values of the R 5 series are to be given preference over
those of the R 10 series, these latter over the values of the
R 20 series and finally these last over those of the R 40
The above symbols suffice if the series is not limited in
either direction. If this is not so, the following method of
expression is used to indicate the limits :
R 10 (1.25 . . . ) series limited to the term value 1.25
(inclusive) as the low limit.
R 20 (... 45) series limited to the term value 45
(inclusive) as the high limit.
R 40 (75 _. . 300) series limited between the term values
75 and 300 (both values inclusive).
4.1 Definition of preferred numbers
Preferred numbers are the conventionally rounded off term
values of geometrical series, including the integral powers
of 10 and having as ratios the following factors :
4.5 Exoeptional R 80 series
This is set out in section 3. The terms of the basic series
shall be given preference over the terms of the R 80 series.
in accordance with the tables in sections 2 and 3 set out for
the 1 to 10 range. The series of preferred numbers being
unlimited in both directions, the values of the terms in
other decimal ranges are obtained by multiplying the values
in the tables by positive or negative integral powers of 10.
4.2.1 theoretical values : The extended term value of
(*)“, (‘G)“, etc.
4.22 calculated values (see section 2, column 7) : Values
approximating to the theoretical values, expressed to 5
significant figures (the relative error in comparison with the
theoretical’values is lessthan l/20 000).
4.2.3 preferred numbers : Values rounded off in
accordance with columns R 5, R 10, R 20, R 40 and R 80
(see section 2, columns 1 to 4, and section 3).
4.2.4 serial numbers : An arithmetic series of consecutive
numbers indicating the preferred numbers starting with 0
for the preferred number 1,OO.
4.8 Derived series
4.6.1 Series obtained by taking every second, third, fourth
orp * term of a basic series
These are distinguished by the symbol of the corresponding
basic series followed by the solidus division sign and the
number 2, 3, 4 . . . or p. If the series is limited, the symbol
shall include an indication of the limiting terms to be
considered; if it is not limited, mention shall be made of at
least one of the terms.
R 5/2 (1 . . . 1 000 000) - Series limited by the terms 1
and 1 000 000 and including both these terms.
R 10/3 (... 80...) - Series unlimited in both
directions and including the term 60.
R 20/4(112... ) - Series limited in the lowr direction
to 112 inclusive.
R 4015 ( . . . 60) - Series limited in the upper direction
to 60 inclusive.
NOTE - The derived series R 10/3 (1 . . . 1, which is obtained,
from 1, by taking every third term of thg serfes R 10, comprises the
following terms : 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 31.5, ;. . Its ratio is about 2.
IS0 3 - 1973
4.6.2In general, if and the derived series is designated by
r is the index of the basic series r = 5, 10, 20 or 40, Rr/p(...10N’40...)
p is the pitch of the derived series, i.e. the number of Lastly, if x is any integral number, positive, zero or
steps in the basic se:ies required to build up the derived negative, any term of the derived series is
the ratio of the derived series is
On the other hand, if N is a positive integral number, the
term of identification of the derived series is
10N140X ,() (p/r) x = ,O (ii +-Y)
Reprography Unit, BIS, New Delhi, India
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