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  1. AGRICULTURE LO Identify the different types of farming system practiced in India. Understand the various types of crops grown in India. Discuss the reforms introduced by the government to increase the agricultural production.
  2. Primitive Subsistence Farming: • This type of farming is practiced on small patches of land. Primitive tools and family/community labour are used in this type of farming. • The farming mainly depends on monsoon and natural fertility of soil. • Crops are grown as per the suitability of the environmental condition. • This is also called ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. • A patch of land is cleared by slashing the vegetation and then the slashed plants are burnt. • The ash; thus obtained is mixed with the soil and crops are grown. • This type of farming produces just enough crops to sustain the family. • After a couple of seasons, the patch is left fallow and a new patch of land is prepared for farming. • This allows the earlier patch of land to replenish its fertility through the natural process.
  3. Different Names of Slash and Burn Farming Slash and Burn Farming in India Name Regions Jhumming Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland Pamlou Manipur Dipa Bastar (Chhattisgarh) and Andaman & Nicobar Islands Bewar or Dahiya Madhya Pradesh Podu or Penda Andhra Pradesh Pama Dabi or Koman or Bringa Orissa Kumara Western Ghats Valre or Waltre South eastern Rajasthan Khi Himalayan belt Kuruwa Jharkhand Although there are different names for slash and burn farming in different regions of India, the name 'Jhum Cultivation' or Jhuming is commonly used in this context
  4. Intensive Subsistence Farming • This type of farming is practiced in densely populated areas. This involves high degree of use of biochemical inputs and irrigation. • There is huge pressure of population on this type of farming. • Problems of Intensive Farming: Division of land through successive generation leads to plot size getting smaller and smaller. • This makes it impossible to properly manage the farm inputs. Moreover, large-scale farming is not possible in that case.
  5. Commercial Farming • This type of farming is done with the sole purpose of selling the farm produce Various modern inputs are used in this type of farming, e.g. HYV(High Yielding Variety) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides. • Punjab, Haryana, Western UP and some parts of Maharashtra are the areas where commercial farming is done on large scale. • However, this type of farming is also done in many other states; like Bihar, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, etc.
  6. • Plantation: In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area. • Plantation requires intensive capital and a large number of workers. • Most of the produce from a plantation is used in various industries. tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc. are important plantation crops. • Tea is mainly produced in the tea gardens of Assam and North Bengal, coffee is produced in Tamil Nadu, and banana is produced in Bihar and Maharashtra. • Plantation requires a well developed network of transport and communication, processing industries and a good market.
  7. CROPPING PATTERN • India has three cropping seasons — rabi, kharif and zaid. 1 Rabi: Rabi crops are also known as winter crops. They are sown from October to December and harvested from April to June. Wheat, barley, pea, gram and mustard are the important rabi crops. Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhan and Uttar Pradesh are the important producers of rabi crops. 2 Kharif: Kharif crops are also known as summer crops. They are sown at the beginning of monosoon and harvested in September-October. Paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean are important kharif crops. Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are important rice growing states. In Assam, West Bengal and Orissa; three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are called Aus, Aman and Boro. 3 Zaid: The zaid season falls in between the rabi and kharif seasons. Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops are some of the crops grown in this season. Sugarcane is planted in this season but takes almost a year to grow.
  8. Major Crops Rice: India is the second largest producer of rice; after China. It requires high temperature (above 25°C), high humidity and annual rainfall above 100 cm. However, it can be grown with the help of suitable irrigation in areas of less rainfall. Rice is grown in the northern plains, northeast India, coastal areas and deltaic regions Now-a-days, rice is also grown in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and in parts of Rajasthan. This has been possible because of development of a dense network of canals.
  9. Wheat: Wheat is the main food crop in north and north-western parts of India. Wheat needs 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall which should be evenly distributed over the growing season. The Ganga-Sutlej plains in the northwest and black soil region of Deccan are the two important wheat- growing zones in India. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh are the important wheat producing regions.
  10. Millets: Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India. Millets are known as coarse grains, but they have very high nutritional value. Jowar: Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar; followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Jowar grows in moist areas and hardly needs irrigation. Bajra: Bajra grows well on sandy soil and shallow black soil. Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra; followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana. Ragi: Ragi grows in dry regions on red, black, sandy loamy and shallow black soils. Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi; follower by Tamil Nadu.
  11. • Maize: Maize is used both as food and fodder. It grows well in old alluvial soil and requires a temperature range of 21°-27°C. Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh are the major maize-producing states. • Pulses: India is the largest producer of pulses in the world. It is also the largest consumer of pulses. • Pulses are usually produced in rotation with other crops. UP, MP, Rajasthan and Karnataka are the major pulse-producing states.
  12. Food crops other than grains • Sugarcane: Sugarcane needs hot and humid climate. It requires temperature range of 21°-27°C and rainfall of 75 cm to 100 cm. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane, while Brazil is the number one. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana are major sugar producing states. • Oilseeds: India is the largest producer of oilseeds. Groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesame, soyabean, castor, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower are the main oilseeds grown in India. • Groundnut: Groundnut accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country. • Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of groundnut; followed by Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra. • Groundnut is a kharif crop. Linseed and mustard are rabi crops. Sesame is a kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south. Castor is grown both as rabi and kharif crops.
  13. • Tea: Tea plants grow well in tropical and sub-tropical climates; in deep and fertile well drained soil. • The soil should be rich in humus and organic matter. Tea is a labour intensive industry. • Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala are major tea- producing states. • The hills of Darjeeling are famous for the unique quality of tea produced there. India is the leading producer of tea in the world. • Coffee: Coffee is also grown in plantations. • Initially, the Arabica variety was brought from Yemen and produced in India. The cultivation of coffee was initially introduced on the Baba Budan Hills.
  14. • Others: India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits. Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya), bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, lichi and guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, pineapples of Meghalaya, grapes of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are in great demand the world over. • Horticulture Crops: India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. India produces about 13 per cent of the world’s vegetables. • It is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.
  15. Non-Food Crops Rubber: Rubber is a crop of equatorial region but it is also grown tropical and subtropical regions. It needs moist and humid climate with rainfall more than 200 cm. A temperature range above 25°C is required for rubber plantation. In India, rubber is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar islands and also in the Garo hills of Meghalaya. India is the fifth largest rubber producer in the world. Cotton: India is the third-largest producer of cotton. Cotton grows in dry pats of black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau. High temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine are required for the growth of cotton. The crop requires 6 to 8 months to mature. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are the main cotton producing states.
  16. Jute: It is known as the golden fibre. Jute grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year. High temperature is required during the time of growth. West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya are the major jute producing states. It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts. Due to its high cost, it is losing market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylon.
  17. Bhoodan – Gramdan & Land Reforms • Land reform was the main focus of the First Five Year Plan. Vinoba Bhave started the Bhoodan Andolan to encourage big landlords to donate a part of their land to the landless farmers. Many people came out in support of Vinoba Bhave and donated land. • Small plot size hampers proper farm management. To improve the condition, the government brought certain measures for land reform. In some states, land was redistributed so that all of the land owned by a farmer could come on a single plot. The reform was successful in some states (like Punjab and UP) but could not be implemented throughout the country, because of poor response by farmers.
  18. Technological and Institutional Reforms • It was mentioned in the previous pages that agriculture has been practised in India for thousands of years. • Sustained uses of land without compatible techno-institutional changes have hindered the pace of agricultural development. Inspite of development of sources of irrigation most of the farmers in large parts of the country still depend upon monsoon and natural fertility in order to carry on their agriculture. • For a growing population, this poses a serious challenge. • Agriculture which provides livelihood for more than 60 per cent of its population, needs some serious technical and institutional reforms. • Thus, collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc. were given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after Independence.
  19. • Land reform’ was the main focus of our First Five Year Plan. • The right of inheritance had already lead to fragmentation of land holdings necessitating consolidation of holdings. • The laws of land reforms were enacted but the implementation was lacking or lukewarm. • The Government of India embarked upon introducing agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s. • The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve the lot of Indian agriculture.
  20. • . But, this too led to the concentration of development in few selected areas. • Therefore, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms. Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.
  21. • Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers. • Moreover, special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television. • The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
  22. • Current Scenario: The growth in agricultural sector is going down. • Reduction in import duties on agricultural products means that farmers are facing tough competition from international markets. Investment is not coming into agriculture and hence employment opportunities are also showing de-growth in this sector. • The share of agriculture in GDP has being declining from 1951 onwards. • Yet it continues to be the largest employer. About 63% of the total workforce was employed in agriculture in 2001. • A decline agriculture can be an alarming situation because it has wider implications for the whole economy. • Government is making continuous efforts to modernize agriculture. ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), agricultural universities, veterinary services, animal breeding centres, horticulture development, R& D in the field of meteorology, etc. are given top priority with an aim to improve Indian agriculture. Government is also taking measures to improve rural infrastructure.
  23. • The GDP growth rate is increasing over the years, it is not generating sufficient employment opportunities in the country. • The growth rate in agriculture has been decelerating which is an alarming situation. • Today, Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition and reduction in the public investment in griculture sector. • Subsidy on fertilisers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production. Moreover, reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the country. • Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the employment in agriculture.
  24. Food Security • In order to ensure food security to all sections of society, the government has carefully designed a national food security system. It has two components: • Buffer Stock: Once the government procures food grains through FCI (Food Corporation of India), buffer stock is maintained at various locations. stock is utilised in case of food shortage at any place. This stock is also utilised in case of natural disasters; like flood and drought. • Public Distribution System: PDS is a programme which provides food grains and other essential commodities at subsidised prices to poor people in rural and urban areas. A person needs to get a ratio card made to avail the benefits of PDS. Separate cards are made for BPL (Below Poverty Line) and APL (Above Poverty Line) families. The PDS is also fed by the FCI.
  25. Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture • Impact of globalisation are being felt since historic times. • When European traders first came in India, black pepper and spices were the main items of export. • During British rule, India became a net exporter of raw materials; especially cotton. • Due to high demand of indigo in British textiles industry, the farmers in India were forced to grow indigo. This interferred with cereal production in India
  26. • During the British period cotton belts of India attracted the British and ultimately cotton was exported to Britain as a raw material for their textile industries. • Cotton textile industry in Manchester and Liverpool flourished due to the availability of good quality cotton from India. • You have read about the Champaran movement which started in 1917 in Bihar. • This was started because farmers of that region were forced to grow indigo on their land because it was necessary for the textile industries which were located in Britain. • They were unable to grow foodgrains to sustain their families.
  27. • Under globalisation, particularly after 1990, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges. • Despite being an important producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices our agricultural products are not able to compete with the developed countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in those countries.
  28. • In the modern context, Indian farmers are unable to compete with western farmers because of very high level of subsidies for farmers in the west. • Due to this, demand for Indian farm produce is very low in international market. • Moreover, excessive use of synthetic fertilisers, irrigation, etc. has created its own problems; which are evident by falling level of farm production. • Too many people are dependent on farm land in India and hence per capita farm production is forecasted to decrease further.
  29. • Today, Indian agriculture finds itself at the crossroads. • To make agriculture successful and profitable, proper thrust should be given to the improvement of the condition of marginal and small farmers. • The green revolution promised much. • But today it’s under controversies. • It is being alleged that it has caused land degradation due to overuse of chemicals, drying aquifers and vanishing biodiversity. • The keyword today is “gene revolution”, which includes genetic engineering.
  30. • Infact organic farming is much in vogue today because it is practised without factory made chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides. • Hence, it does not affect environment in a negative manner. • A few economists think that Indian farmers have a bleak future if they continue growing foodgrains on the holdings that grow smaller and smaller as the population rises. • India’s rural population is about 833 million (2011) which depends upon 250 million (approximate) hectares of agricultural land, an average of less than half a hectare per person. • Indian farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops. • This will increase incomes and reduce environmental degradation simultaneously. • Because fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables, bio-diesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less irrigation than rice or sugarcane. India’s diverse climate can be harnessed to grow a wide range of high-value crops.