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BUILDING MATERIALS.pptx

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BUILDING MATERIALS.pptx

  1. 1. BUILDING MATERIALS
  2. 2. BUILDING MATERIALS 1.CONCRETE 2.CEMENT 3.SAND 4.BRICKS 5.STEEL 6.WOOD 7.GLASS 8.TILES 9.PVC & UPVC
  3. 3. STEEL UNIT 5
  4. 4. CONTENETS • Steel & Other metal alloys • Properties & Uses • Steel used for furniture • Making • Sizes • Availability of steels , functions & shapes • Construction • Floors • Roofs • Walls
  5. 5. What is steel? • Alloy of Iron & Carbon • Less than 2% carbon & 1% manganese • Silicon , phosphorus , Sulphur & Oxygen • Most important in Engineering & Construction Material
  6. 6. What is Aluminium? • Aluminium is a silvery-white metal • chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13 • approximately one third that of steel • affinity towards oxygen, and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air.
  7. 7. What is alloys ? • Metallic substance composed of two or more elements, as either a compound or a solution. • The components of alloys are ordinarily themselves metals, though carbon, a nonmetal, is an essential constituent of steel
  8. 8. What are all the alloys ? • Bronze • Steel • Brass • Alnico • Solder • Cast iron • Sterling silver • White gold
  9. 9. Properties & Uses of Steel Properties • Hardness • Toughness • Durability • Ductility • Tensile Uses • Cars • Construction material • Refrigerators • Washing machines • Cargo ships • Office furniture • Steel wool , tool • armour
  10. 10. Properties & Uses of Aluminium Properties • Hardness • Malleability • Conductivity • Ductility • ability to form alloys • qualities of appearance Uses • Power lines. ... • High-rise buildings. ... • Window frames. ... • Consumer electronics. ... • Household and industrial appliances. ... • Aircraft components. ... • Spacecraft components. ... • Ships
  11. 11. Hardness • Ability to withstand friction and abrasion • It is worth noting that, while it may mean the same as strength and toughness in colloquial language. • Commercially pure aluminum is soft. • It is strengthened when alloyed and tempered.
  12. 12. Toughness • ability to absorb energy without fracturing or rupturing • defined as a material’s resistance to fracture when stressed • Aluminium has a low density, measured by gravity in comparison to water, of 2.70. Compare this to the density of iron/steel which has a density of 7.87 • Aluminium is corrosive resistant due to a self- protecting oxide layer
  13. 13. Durability • strength is a measurement of the force required to start the deformation of the material • Commercially pure aluminium has a melting point of approximately 1220°F and a boiling point of approximately 4,478°F. These change once aluminum is alloyed.
  14. 14. Ductility • The “Degree” to which the material can be stretched or compressed before it breaks • what percent does the material bend before breaking • High ductility. Aluminum can be beaten very thin • High malleability. Aluminum is very capable of being shaped or bent.
  15. 15. Tensile • strength is a measurement of the force required to break the material • Aluminium has a thermal expansion coefficient of 23.2. This is between zinc—which expands more—and steel, which expands half the range of aluminum.
  16. 16. Steel Used For furniture • Stainless Steel is used very extensively for most modern interior furnishings involving metal. • Durability is the main advantage of metal furniture. For example, not many types of non-metal furniture can remain outside during winter and still look good when spring arrives. • If cared for properly, metal furniture can last up to 30 years. Because most metal furniture is treated for rust and heat resistance, it doesn't need much maintenance.
  17. 17. Making of steel furniture
  18. 18. Making of steel furniture • Aluminum alloys. • aluminum blended with a different metal to achieve improved strength • making lightweight furniture like outdoor or office furniture • against rust and other effects of weather such as warping • Wrought iron. • durability that can span decades if well cared for • prone to rust, treated and all parts covered in paint • outdoor furniture and pieces that do not require much movement because it is heavy.
  19. 19. Making of steel furniture • Stainless steel. • solution for manufacturing furniture for areas that need to be kept sterile like kitchens and hospitals. • It is relatively lightweight, rust-proof, and easy to clean • CNC (Computer Numerical Control) • cut metal into shapes and dimensions • designer creates a Computer-Aided Design sketch • upload it to the CNC machine's reader • reads the CAD design and controls the power tool to cut the sheets • high accuracy and high tolerances because its tools are all controlled by a computer system
  20. 20. Sizes of steel furniture's • Steel sheets and plates are typical stocked as size 2000 mm x 3000 mm • Weight per sq. meter of hot rolled mild steel plates can be calculated as W = 7.85 t where W = weight of steel plate (kg/m2) t = plate thickness (mm)
  21. 21. Plate Thickness (mm) Weight (kg/m2) 1.6 12.6 2.0 15.7 2.5 19.6 3 23.6 3.2 25.1 4 31.4 5 39.3 6 47.1 8 62.8 10 78.5 12.5 98.1 15 118 20 157 22.5 177 25 196 30 236 32 251 35 275 40 314 45 353 50 393 55 432 60 471 65 510 70 550 75 589 80 628 90 707 100 785 110 864 120 942 130 1051 150 1178 160 1256 180 1413 200 1570 250 1963 Sizes of steel furniture’s in mm & its weight W = 7.85 t
  22. 22. Construction of floors Steel open and closed grated flooring is a cost-effective solution for large areas of flooring in industrial and commercial buildings • Different types • Short-span composite beams and composite slabs with metal decking • Slimdek floor system • Cellular composite beams with composite slabs and steel decking • Slimflor beams with precast concrete units • Long-span composite beams and composite slabs with metal decking • Composite beams with precast concrete units • Non-composite beams with precast concrete units
  23. 23. Short-span composite beams and composite slabs with metal decking • Various steel deck profiles are available and their span ranges are from 3m to 4m. • thickness of the beams ranges from 0.9 m to 1.2m; • slab thickness is 130mm • steel deck depth is about 60mm. • The span of primary beams varies between 6m and 9m secondary beam span ranges from 6m to 7.5m.
  24. 24. Long-Span Composite Beams and Composite Slabs with Metal Decking • two main beam arrangements for this floor system. • at spacing of 3 to 4m and act as secondary beams • short span secondary beams and these beams are supported by long span primary beams
  25. 25. Composite Beams with Precast Concrete Units • steel beams on which shear studs are welded • precast units is 150-160mm for hollow units and 75- 100mm for solid units • span of both beams and precast concrete units are between 6m and 9m • entire floor thickness if around 900mm
  26. 26. Slim flor Beams with Precast Concrete Units • slim beam and precast concrete slab • span ranges from 4.5m to 7.5m • 150mm for span of 6m, 200mm for span of 7.5m , 260-300 mm for span of 9m
  27. 27. Construction of Roof • the steel roof truss is becoming increasingly popular • primarily used in buildings and houses which walls are also based on a steel frame. • when a flat roof is converted into a pitched roof. • lightweight steel roof structure is used • used for large-area buildings, such as warehouses and supermarkets
  28. 28. Advantages of steel structures • it is easy and quick to erect • it has high strength • it is a relatively cheap solution • it does not require drying out or maintenance, • lighter than wooden rafter framing, • high resistance to adverse weather conditions, • steel elements are covered with special additional protective and anti-corrosive coatings.
  29. 29. Dis-Advantages of steel structures • corrosion proofing must be carried out • protective coating is scratched, it will become susceptible to corrosion • does not require regular maintenance, regular inspections are required, • low weight, heavy roofing, such as ceramic and especially cement tiles, cannot be laid on it, • Cost more than their wooden counterparts • for large or complicated roofs, steel trusses may prove to be an uneconomical solution
  30. 30. Construction of walls • Light steel framed infill walls • Light steel separating walls • Masonry infill walls • Concrete infill wall • Timber framed infill walls
  31. 31. Light steel framed infill walls • light steel components used in infill walls • C sections and U sections of 75 to 150 mm • The galvanizing (zinc layer) provides excellent durability • 400 or 600 mm spacing
  32. 32. Light steel separating walls • light steel infill walls and are used to provide acoustic separation and fire compartmentation • C sections of 55 to 90 mm depth • internal pressure of 0.5 kN/m² • (typically 0.9 mm thick)
  33. 33. Concrete infill wall • large precast concrete panels • dictated by the column spacing • bear onto the floor slab using a boot arrangement, and are bolted back to the structure on the level above or below. • Weights approximately 300 kg/m² • widths of between 3 and 9 m and height of 3.5 to 4.2 m
  34. 34. Q & A
  35. 35. Thank You

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