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Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

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Its all about acne vulgaris, its causes, treatment method, prevention and care.

Publié dans : Santé & Médecine
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Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

  1. 1. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Acne vulgaris Pradeep Paudel Third Semester, B Pharm Roll no:18 School of Health and Allied Sciences Pokhara University, Dhungepatan, Lekhnath, Kaski , Nepal
  2. 2. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Topics Under Discussion • Introduction • Causes • Types • Effects • Treatments • Precautions • Conclusion • References 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 2
  3. 3. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Introduction • Acne vulgaris is a common human skin disease, characterized by pimples, comedones (blackheads and whiteheads), papules, nodules, cysts as a result of obstruction of pilosebaceous gland. • Hence, acne is a disorder of the pilosebaceous unit caused primarily by increased sebum secretion and follicular plugging. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 3
  4. 4. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Contd… • Overproduction of a normal oil on the skin called sebum increases under the influence of hormones and plugs hair follicle. • The plugged follicle become inflammed and have increased growth of normal skin and results in acne. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 4
  5. 5. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 5
  6. 6. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Contd… • Acne can affect people of all age groups but is most prevalent in adolescence and may persist or become more severe in adulthood. • Acne most often affects face, but it may also spread to neck, chest, back and sometimes even more extensively all over the body. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 6
  7. 7. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 7
  8. 8. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Causes Hormonal change Inflammation and infection Genetics Unhealthy life style Use of low quality and expired cosmetic products Stressful condition Abnormal sebum production 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 8
  9. 9. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Types of Acne 1. Non-inflammatory lesions  Whiteheads or closed comedones  Blackheads or open comedones 2. Inflammatory lesions  Papules  Nodules  Cysts 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 9
  10. 10. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Comedones : • A comedones is a hair follicle that has become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. • Comedones can develop into bumps called whiteheads and blackheads. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 10
  11. 11. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Whiteheads : • Comedones that stay closed at the surface of the skin are called whiteheads. • They are also termed as closed comedones. • This happen when oil and skin cells prevent a clogged hair follicle from opening. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 11
  12. 12. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Blackheads : • Blackheads are comedones that are open at the surface of the skin. • They are also called as open comedones. • They are filled with excess oil and dead cells. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 12
  13. 13. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Papules : • Papules are comedones that become inflammed, forming small red or pink bumps on the skin. • This type of pimple may be sensitive to the touch. • Picking or squeezing can make the inflammation worse and may lead to scarring. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 13
  14. 14. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Effects of Acne vulgaris Physical effects: Acne Fulminans i.e acne break and causing scarring Distortion of face Inflammation Pigmentation 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 14
  15. 15. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Contd… Psychological effects : Damage one’s self esteem and confidence Anxity and depression Social inhibition Suicidal disposition in extreme cases 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 15
  16. 16. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Treatments  Treatment for acne depends on the patient’s age and sex, the extent and the severity of the acne, how long it has been present and response to previous treatments.  Topical (or external) treatments for acne include one or more creams, washes, or gels that include: • Antibacterial agents and antibiotics such as benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin, sulfur, sodium sulfacetamide, and azelaic acid. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 16
  17. 17. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Contd…  Oral treatments may include: • Antibiotics such as tetracycline, minocycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, clindamycin, azithromycin or cephalosporins. • Oral contraceptives and spironolactone have been found to help regulate hormones. • Isotretinoin, a strong drug with many side effects, for severe acne unresponsive to the above treatments. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 17
  18. 18. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Contd… • Treatment for moderate acne include acne antibiotics such as benzoyl peroxide tetracyclines or anti- androgens. • Treatment for severe acne may require a course of oral isotretinoin. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 18
  19. 19. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Other treatment methods: Topical antibiotics: • Inflammatory papules are often treated with topical antibiotics. • Erythromycin and clindamycin are the most conventional topical antibiotics prescribed. • Clindamycin is prescribed more often than erythromycin, as it has maintained better efficacy. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 19
  20. 20. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Contd… Hormonal treatment: • Hormonal treatment of acne is appropriate for females only. It is geared toward decreasing androgen levels, the hormone implicated in stimulation of the sebaceous follicle. • Combination pills with estrogen and progesteron that have low androgenic activity should be choosen. • Response to hormonal treatment can take 3 to 6 months. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 20
  21. 21. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Contd… Acne surgery: • The term "acne surgery" refers to extracting comedones and draining pustules and cysts. • Comedones can be easily extracted with the use of a comedone extractor tool or applying pressure around the follicular opening with two cotton-tipped applicators. • Care must be taken not to cause tissue damage when performing these procedures. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 21
  22. 22. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Contd… Laser treatment and phototherapy: • The use of lasers and light therapy for the treatment of acne is still in the early stages of development. • The long-term safety and efficacy of light-based treatments is still need to be clarified. • However, these treatments are potentially helpful for individuals who cannot tolerate other acne regimens or those who have failed conventional therapeutic treatments. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 22
  23. 23. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Precautions  Do not try to break your pimples as it can make them more worse.  Do not use strong soaps and chemicals on your face.  Do not overexpose your skin to the sun.  Avoid eating too much of junk food and spicy food.  Include food containing vitamins A and E in your diet.  Better avoid choclates, fatty food, fried food, carbonated and caffeinated beverages or foods.  Drink plenty of water and fruit juice. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 23
  24. 24. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Conclusion • Acne vulargis is a significant psychological and financial burden for those affected. • Although mild acne may improve with over-the- counter treatments, more severe forms should be treated by a dermatologist. • Oral therapies are often necessary in moderate-to- severe acne cases. • Patients need to be aware that response to treatment can take several weeks to months. 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 24
  25. 25. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences References  Walker BR and Ralston SH (2010)Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine (21st Ed.), Elsevier, Edinburg, pp1267-1268  Medscape. Acne Vulgaris ( http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1069804-overvie ) (Accessed on June27, 2015) 25 October 2015 Acne vulgaris 25
  26. 26. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences “DON’T HIDE YOUR FACE, REVEAL YOUR BEAUTY WITH CONFIDENCE !” October 25, 2015 Acne vulgaris 26
  27. 27. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences October 25, 2015 Acne vulgaris 27
  28. 28. Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences October 25, 2015 Acne vulgaris 28

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