3. Architecture As Linked To Various Parameters Of Designing
Building Layout & Orientation
Passive Design Strategies
4. Climatic features
Situation in cold and cloudy
Typical landscape & vegetation
these are generally highland regions
having abundant vegetation in summer.
The solar radiation is generally intense with a very
low percentage of diffuse radiation. In summer, (day-
20-30°C )and(17-27°C at night). In winter(4-8°C during
the day) and (-3-4°C at night). Winters thus, are
In summer- 20-30 at day time
17-27 at night time
In winter- 4-8 in day
-3-4 in night
Mean relative humidity 70 – 80%
Annual rainfall 1000 mm
winds Experiences cold winds most of the times
The sky is overcast for most part of the year except
during the brief summer.
8. • Landform : generally high altitude / hills. South faced sloped prefreed.
• . Built form and open spaces : Open spaces to be small but allow south sun.
• Plan form : Minimum Perimeter to Area ratio for reduce heat loss
9. • Water bodies - When enclosed can store heat and control heat loss. For Cold Dry add humidity to air.
• Street widths and orientation : Narrow to prevent cold drafts (E-W Oriented).
10. • Ground character : Paved, dark and smooth to increase absorptivity and avoiding Glare.
• Vegetation :
• Dense Forest. Evergreen trees cut cold winds but shade may block sun.
• Cold Desert. Scanty vegetation.
• Plan form : Minimum Perimeter to Area ratio for reduce heat loss.
• Building orientation : Oriented for maximum sun, preferably South.
• s/v ratio (amount of surface a structure has relative to its size ) : minimum S/V ratio
• Fenestration Pattern & Configuration - Large glazed areas,unshaded but well sealed.
• Fenestration orientation : South facing .
• Fenestration Controls : Optimum glazing, well-sealed, unshaded
• Roof type : Flat roofs to minimize heat loss.
11. • Plan elements intergrated : Sun spaces, Green- h o u s e , t r o m b e wall, light wells, light shelves, thermal
chimney, water walls.
12. • Walls : Wall to have low U value. Thermal mass for heat storage. Trombe walls, Trombe wall with vents, Solar
wall, Water wall.
• Roof materials : Low U value roofs, adobe, stone roof with high thermal mass.
• Trombe wall : it is system of indirect solar gain.
• It consists of dark coloured wall of high thermal mass facing sun with glazed placed in front to leave small air
space. The glazing traps solar radiation like small green house.
• A successful trombe wall optimize heat gain and minimize heat loss during cold times and avoid heat gain
during hot times.
13. • External colours and textures : Dark Colours & flat surface.
• Internal Materials & Finishes : Dark Colours and heavy furniture to promote heat absorption.
14. PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES
• SUNSPACE : Sunspaces can be used to collect the suns heat, store it centrally, and distribute it to other
rooms. The wind is preheated in the sunspace before entering the building. A sunspace, unlike direct gain
and trombe wall systems, adds a room to the building.
• Winter section: Two openings are provided on the wall dividing the sunspace and room. The air in the
sunspace riseswhen heated by radiation, and is drawn inside the room andcool air in the room which is at a
lower level is let back in sunspace. This forms a cycle of passive heating air flow.
• Summer section: Low inlets and high outlets can be used in a
• "stack effect" which can be in the form of wind catchers.
• Since warn air will rise.
15. • EARTH BERM : Earth sheltering is the architectural practice of using earth against building walls for external
thermal mass, to reduce heat loss, and to easily maintain a steady indoor air temperature.
• Earth sheltering reduces heat loss in two ways: -
• by increasing the resistance to heat flow of the walls, roof, and floor and by reducing the temperature
difference between inside and outside.
16. • ROCK BED : Rock beds are a means of enlarging the thermal mass of the building and thereby increasing the
ability to store energy. Air is drawn from the sunspace and through bed of rocks. Heat is given off to the
rocks and air is re-circulated to a location in the hot space to collect more heat.
17. • BUILDING ORIENTATION : Long east-west plan arrangements increase winter sun-facing skin available to
collect radiation. Generally, building oriented along an east-west axis is more efficient for both winter and
summer cooling. This orientation allows for maximum solar glazing (windows) to the south for solar capture
• This orientation is also advantageous for summer cooling conditions since it minimizes east-west exposure to
morning and afternoon summer sun light.
• Interior space should be arranged in such a way that rooms with high heating
• And lighting requirements are arrayed along south wall.