1. Volcanism By Hans Ulrich Schmincke Presented By Mahmuda Afrin Badhan Mount Holyoke College ‘11 Volcanism By Hans Ulrich Schmincke http://www.fukubonsai.com/images3/VolcanoFlowAug2002.jpg
2. The motivation to study volcanoes comes from wanting to know what happens beneath volcanoes and why they erupt the way they do --- as well as the processes leading to it and how they behave afterwards. Details of recent eruptions are available at www.volcano.si.edu/gvp . (The Global Volcanism Network of the Smithsonian Institution and the US Geological Survey) A VOLCANO is not made on purpose to frighten superstitious people into fits of piety and devotion, nor to overwhelm devoted cities with destruction; a volcano should be considered as a spiracle to the subterranean furnace, in order to prevent the unnecessary elevation of land, and fatal effects of earthquakes; and we may rest assured, that they, in general, wisely answer the end of their intention, without being in themselves an end, for which nature had exerted such amazing power and excellent contrivance. - James Hutton, Theory of the Earth, Codicote, 1795 http://www.photopumpkin.com/wp-content/uploads/volcanoes-1.jpg
7. Also… All volcanoes emit gases, sometimes tens of thousands of tons without erupting explosively. For example, The Merapi volcano is a lava dome oozing out slowly over time and it appears to have lost most of it’s volatility by the time the magma reaches the surface. On the other hand, some volcanoes have ejecta rising as high as 40 km into the atmosphere and gases that rise even higher.