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Perception

  1. 1. “ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.” PERCEPTION Purshottam, SRF, Department of Social Work, KUK
  2. 2. Perception “ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.” “ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge.
  3. 3. PERCEPTION Meaning : Perception refers to the way we try to understand the world around us. Definition: It is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
  4. 4. PERCEPTION  The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.  Perception is the process of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli (sensitivity) or information . (feeling cold, hot, horror seen)  Think of all the ways in which you experience the world around you. For example, you recognize your favorite food by its aroma and the way it looks. You recognize an orange by its round shape, citrus flavor, and its color. You recognize a song by listening to its melody and the singer's voice. It is through these sensory experiences that we interact with and interpret things in our world. Recognizing and interpreting sensory information, such as sound and smells, are all a part of perception.
  5. 5.  Perception - recognition and interpretation of sensory information. Perception also includes how we respond to the information.  Perception as a process where we take in sensory information from our environment and use that information in order to interact with our environment. Perception allows us to take the sensory information in and make it into something meaningful.  Without sensory information, we would not be able to judge which food was too hot or when the appropriate time to cross the street would be, which could put us and our children in danger.
  6. 6. THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF PERCEPTION  Perception, is a unique interpretation of the situation, not an exact recording of it.  It is a very complex cognitive process that yields a unique picture of the world, a picture that may be quite different from reality.
  7. 7. SENSATION VS PERCEPTION  All the physical senses are vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste.  Sensations are the first stages in the functioning of senses to represent stimuli from the environment, and perception is a higher brain function about interpreting events and objects in the world.  Perception is more complex and more broader than Sensation. It is a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation.  Though perception largely depends upon the senses for raw data, the cognitive process may filter, modify or completely change these data. (E.g. Tree looked at from one side and then from the other).
  8. 8.  The Purchasing agent buys a part which she thinks best and not the part which the engineer says is best.  A subordinates answer to a question is based on what he heard the boss say, not on what the boss actually said.  The same worker may be good for one supervisor, and bad for another.  The same item may be high quality for one inspector and low quality for a customer.
  9. 9. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS 1. Sensation  An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. 2. Selection  The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. 3. Organization  The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.” 4. Translation  The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.
  10. 10. PARALLEL LINES?
  11. 11. EMBEDDED IMAGES
  12. 12. SHIMMER
  13. 13. ANY MOVEMENT YOU SEE IS AN ILLUSION!
  14. 14. PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION  It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable and identifiable patterns.  Perceptual organization is the ability to take in visual, auditory and sensory information and use that information effectively to accomplish a task.  Without perceptual organization, we would not be able to distinguish a circle from a square.  Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human brain. These are
  15. 15. GESTALT LAWS OF PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION  Gestalt psychology was founded by German thinkers Max Wertheimer, W. Kohler and Kurt Koffka and focused on how people interpret the world.  According to Gestalt psychology, the whole is different than the sum of its parts.  Based upon this belief, Gestalt psychologists developed a set of principles to explain perceptual organization, or how smaller objects are grouped to form larger ones. These principles are often referred to as the "laws of perceptual organization."
  16. 16.  Figure is a typical textbook example of the principle of similarity, whereby we see the circles and triangles as forming four horizontal rows (or at least some configuration where triangles and circles are grouped depending on their shape).Objects similar to each other thus tend to be seen as a unit.
  17. 17.  The logo of visitnorway.com can be viewed as both three separate elements of blue, green and navy colour. It may, however, also be viewed as a person stretching his/her arms into the air.
  18. 18.  We perceive the MTV logo and the logo for the Europe Music Awards as forming a group in the top left corner and the logos of the sponsors as forming a group in the bottom right corner. The white space separating the two groups of logos is used to indicate 'grouping', and the proximity of the logos of each groups is thus used to this end. Thus, a semantic separation of 'organizers' from 'sponsors' is achieved via structuring the graphical layout in accordance with this simple principle of perceptual organization.
  19. 19.  The law of closure posits that we perceptually close up, or complete, objects that are not, in fact, complete. In the above, we perceive the letters 'I', 'B', and 'M' although the shapes we see, in fact, are only lines of white space of differing length hovering above each other.  The typical textbook example of the law of closure; we perceive a circle and not 8 individual circles.
  20. 20. Chapter-5 32

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