Report on project “Youth view at quarry nature” 
Authors: T. Trofimova (Baltic fund for nature, St. Petersburg), E. Grigor...
Introduction 
Quarry "Pechurki" - one of the numerous mining places in Slantsy and in whole Russia. Practically every fami...
Background description 
Quarry "Pechurki" was a resource base of "Slantsevsky cement plant" CESLA ", but in 2014 productio...
In the study of biofoulers of limestone methods of visual assessment, binocular and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) ana...
botany, zoology, entomology, geology and paleontology, where pupils’ teams answered our questions and performing tasks (An...
carried out several times within the team, and the final version tested on the employees of the Russian-German bureau of e...
To the beginning of research on the planting site of the 1970s in plant cover typical forest vegetation has already formed...
be divided for two zones, one of which will be inaccessible to man, and the second - allocated under human needs. The most...
willing to conduct their own research in the quarry, and then they will be able to use our data or assistance. The library...
establishment of information boards, nature trails and observation towers for the purpose of raising public awareness of t...
Annex to report on the project “Youth view at quarry nature” 
Picture 1. Satellite image of the quarry “Pechurki”. 
Pictur...
а 
b 
c 
а - profile № А1-13 (litostrat, on the site restored 4 years ago by putting layer of waste sandy rock; 
b - profi...
Picture 4. Ecological game-quest: school students try to recognize the bird voices, station 
“Zoology”. 
1. Паук 
2. Стрек...
Picture 6. One of the winners of our drawings competition and her picture. 
Picture 7. One of illustration from competitio...
Picture 8. The photo exhibition “Towards nature” in Slantsy. 
Picture 9. The article in a newspaper “Znamja truda” about p...
Picture 10. Destroyed limestone surface with hypha and spores of fungi. Scanning electron microscopy.
Picture 1. Distribution of pH and CaCO3 content in the soil litostratah and gray humus soil on the 
quarry "Pechurki." 
Ли...
Picture2. Profile distribution of carbon organic compounds at the site remediated 4 years ago and 
gray humus soil. 
Литос...
Table 1. Floristic list of plant species on the territory of the quarry “Pechurki”. 
Notes in columns: 1 – pine planting o...
Vicia sp. 
Lathyrus pratensis 
Lathyrus sp. Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Melilotus albus 
Family Aceraceae 
Acer pl...
Picture 3. Hydrostatic pressure on the quarry "Pechurki" after switching off water disposal systems. 
List of macrophytes ...
Family IRIDACEAE 
6. Iris pseudacorus 
Family JUNCACEAE 
7. Juncus effusus 
Family HYDROCHARITACEAE 
8. Elodea canadiensis...
10. Ischnura elegans (Vanderlinden, 1823) 
Fam. LESTIDAE 
11. Lestes sponsa Hansemann, 1823 
Order HEMIPTERA 
Fam. GERRIDA...
Picture 5. Illustration of camping on the shore of future pond.
Table 2. Fauna list of vertebrates on the quarry “Pechurki”. 
Kingdom 
Phylum 
Subphylum 
Class 
Order 
Family 
Species 
A...
Bullfinch 
Pyrrhula pyrrhula 
Mammals Mammalia 
Insectivores Insectivora 
Moles 
Talpidae 
Common mole 
Talpa eutopaca 
Сa...
Board game on quarry recultivation «Ecoquarry» 
Play elements: 
Play board, 56 of task cards, 57 of answer (methods of res...
the arrival of a specialist will help you solve the next task card, and then you go only for one cell forward. 
6) The pla...
2 In your careers dumps contain toxic substances. Carry out neutralization of soil or isolation +1 drainage water treatmen...
2 It is necessary to increase public participation Find out public opinion at quarry reclamation +1 meetings with local co...
3 For fast quarry restoration applying of advanced technologies are suitable +1 ecological research +1 hydroseeding +1 int...
3 Organise work of technological transport to reduce fuel consumption +2 reduction of harmful emissions 2 To accelerate th...
2 You are in the initial stage of quarry reclamation and you need to form a relief. Carry out leveling of dumps +1 formati...
3 For successful restoration of the quarry organize ecological management in company +1 EIA +1 ecological certification +1...
EVENT CARDS 
-1 – make one move back 
+1 – make one move forward 
0 / -1 – if you have the answer card, stay. If you do no...
ANSWERS CARDS (METHODS OF RECULTIVATION) 3 Hydroseeding putting the mixture of water, soil, sawdust, seeds, fertilizers fo...
1 Entering of bacterial cultures One of advanced technologies for increase soil productivity and speed up of territory ove...
3 Ecological management is focused on maintaining and enhancing the natural values of land to conserve biological diversit...
1 Planting of small-leaved forest Small-leaved species (birch, aspen, alder) is not demanding to soil, moreover they are g...
3 Ecological certification assessment of compliance of all phases of recultivation and use of the territory with environme...
Print in 2 copies the following answers 2 Formation of relief (subgrading) Includes leveling of dump slopes with heavy veh...
3 EIA environment impact assessment of recultivation activity 2 Variants of use * For applying this card you have to call ...
Play board 
 It is better to print play desk in A3 format
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Youth view at quarry nature by Tatiana Trofimova (Russia)

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The project’s aim is to promote the ecological education among school students and local people of Slatsy settlement by attracting them to the territory of the quarry. To make the process both interesting and useful they will be involved into a quest around the territory of the quarry. The main idea is to get people to learn more on biodiversity by playing and by arranging social activity like a photo exhibition, picture contest, designing of the ecology board game. The “Pechurki” quarry is going to be flooded as a part of the recultivation process; we propose to divide the area into two zones, one of which will be unavailable for humans to provide the place for mammals, birds, fish and other species common for the region. The other zone will be a good place to watch the animals from arranged watching stations.

The project won the International contest of the Quarry Life Award 2014 in the category “Biodiversity and Education”

Read more: http://www.quarrylifeaward.com/project/youth-view-quarry-nature

Publié dans : Environnement
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Youth view at quarry nature by Tatiana Trofimova (Russia)

  1. 1. Report on project “Youth view at quarry nature” Authors: T. Trofimova (Baltic fund for nature, St. Petersburg), E. Grigor’eva, S. Bobir, Ju. Fattakhova (St. Petersburg State University, Faculty for biology), D. Prischepenko, V. Kondakova (St. Petersburg State University, Faculty for geology), A. Ivanov (Russian State Pedagogical University A. I. Gertsen). Abstract The project "Youth view at quarry nature” was carried out on the basis of quarry "Pechurki" in Slantsy city of Leningrad region of the Russian Federation. The main goal of the project - the development of environmental education and awareness of the local population based on self-developed games and ecological research, and proposal of own vision of the future use of quarry after the flooding. During whole project we also tried to receive opinions of population to quarry nature and their ideas for pit restoration. The project includes three main blocks, which are interconnected with each other. The first block consists of the ecological game-quest and drawing competition that were held with local school children, and of the wildlife exhibition in Slantsy of photos made by the project team during visits to the quarry. This block also includes development of own board game on the theme of quarry recovery, aimed for teaching players of land recultivation methods and attracting their attention to the importance of the restoration of biological diversity on mining sites. Ecological research for assessment the state of biological diversity in the quarry is important stage of the project, which forms the basis for the development of educational methods and recommendations for remediation and organization of sustainable recreation at the quarry after the flooding. Investigations were carried out to study the diversity of soils, hydrogeological conditions of the mining sites, colonization of limestone by microscopic fungi and its biodegradation processes, the composition of flora and fauna and hydrobiology characteristics of existing water body in the open pit. The third block of the project includes project of area zoning, organization of protected areas and places for rest of the population with the less impact on the environment and for eco-tourists acquaintance with the local biodiversity. The results of these studies could form the basis of methodical materials for educational lessons for local students studying biodiversity of damaged areas, as well as serve as a basis for the organization of nature trails and installation of information boards for the development of ecotourism in the area. Assessment of biodiversity in the quarry confirmed conservation value of area: 14 rare species of plants and animals included into Red Data Book of Leningrad region live here, the area lies in the path of migratory birds that can stay for rest and feeding on the future pond. The project team proposal to organize here zones with varying degrees of human impact meets the concept of conservation value of the territory.
  2. 2. Introduction Quarry "Pechurki" - one of the numerous mining places in Slantsy and in whole Russia. Practically every family living in Slantsy district have a member who is in any way involved in the mining industry. But very few people of them are familiar with the biological diversity occurring on the worked land and the process of its restoration. However, among them there are plenty of people who love the nature of his native land and interested in learning environment, and who care about the development of local areas. But frequently access to career closed to the public for security reasons, and, unfortunately, they are not allowed to participate in decision making about the future use of these areas. In the case of the quarry "Pechurki", where mining of limestone was carried out until 2014, restoration plan has already been approved, and the territory (except of previously recovered areas) will be flooded. It is not difficult to predict that the local population will be happy to spend time on the shores of this huge pond with area about 200 hectares, with clear water and surrounded by a pine forest. Perhaps, as is often happens, this rest will affect in negative way to local biota, which already hardly inhabits ruined territory. In this project we wanted to know the opinion of the younger generation on the development of such areas, and also to show our view of how natural systems are restored at the quarry and how we can contribute to this. Aim of project: development of environmental education and rising public awareness of the Slantsy city on biological diversity of the quarry "Pechurki" by means of acquaintance with wild flora and fauna, and the presentation of plan for recreation with less human impact to the nature in the quarry. Objectives: 1. Ecological education for youth and rising public awareness of quarry environment 1. Excursion and ecological game with school students on the quarry 2. Photo exhibition of wild nature at Slantsy settlement 3. Drawings competition among children of local school 4. Creation of board game about quarry restoration 2. Ecological surveys at the territory of the quarry as a base for education and recreation planning 1. Study of biofoulers 2. Study of soils 3. Study of quarry flora 4. Zoological study 5. Hydrobiological survey 6. Hydrogeological survey 3. Recommendations for organisation of sustainable recreation on the restored territory of the quarry.
  3. 3. Background description Quarry "Pechurki" was a resource base of "Slantsevsky cement plant" CESLA ", but in 2014 production of limestone was stopped (Annex, Fig. 1). Project of the quarry recultivation provides the creation of pond over most of area of mining. The rest of the territory that was restored in previous years and planted by pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) will be obstructed from the flooded part by a small dam, and one of the three pumping stations will continue to work. The scheme of the future reservoir is given in Annex (Fig. 2). The quarry is situated in Slantsy town in Leningrad region, the population of city is 33 thousand people. The area is economically developed, has a wide industrial and transport network. 5 secondary schools located in the city of Slantsy. The territory of the study area is rolling interfluvial plains. The climate is Atlantic- continental with moderately cold winters and warm summers. The climate characteristics are caused by the proximity to the sea, the presence of large water basins and excessive moisture. The dominant soils in the area are podzolic soils, the main type of vegetation - southern taiga. In the open pit there is a small pond with a depth up to 8 m (former quarry site worked out in the early 70-ies). The bottom of the pond is composed of strip mining of limestone. In the north- eastern coastline recreation area was established and shore was covered by sand. Methods 1. Methods of work with publicity These methods included development and conduction of ecological game-quest at the quarry with local school students, drawing competition on the theme “Children view of future use of the quarry”, preparation and organization of wildlife photo exhibition, design of board game dedicated to mining sites restoration. Organisation the game-quest on the quarry territory included preparation activities, such us choosing place, interaction with local schools and company, creation of tasks. In September 2014 we announced competition of drawings among school students of Slantsy and Ecological- biological center of St. Petersburg on Krestovskiy island. The theme and picture type could be various but reflect the children opinion and ideas. For development of ecological board game play technique and concept were thought over, information on mining sites recultivation was analysed and collected. There were numerous meetings, discussions with participants of project, specialist of play creation and ecologists. 1. Research methods Soil studies were carried out by 4th course student Anna Bulysheva from department of soil sciences of St. Petersburg State University and they have lied in the base of her bachelor graduation work. During trip to the quarry at May 2014 three soil profiles were dug on sites with different degree of vegetation growing (Annex, Fig. 3). In studies there were applied methods for the determination of the basic physical characteristics of the soil, from which to our project we used the following: pH, carbon content of organic compounds by wet combustion, the content of soil carbonates by acidimetry method, the analysis of the humus content.
  4. 4. In the study of biofoulers of limestone methods of visual assessment, binocular and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used on the basis of the resource center of cell and molecular techniques and Mycology Laboratory of Biology Faculty of St. Petersburg State University. Geobotanical studies were conducted in June-July 2014. Method of burial plots was implemented: 4 plots with area of 25x25 m and 10x10 m were studied. Four sites of the quarry were observed: pine forest planting of 1970s and 1987, self-seeded site of limestone worked out at 2004 and slope of 4 years old mine dump that was only covered by clay layer. For zoological study following methods were used: method of direct observation, method of linear bird count, method of study of footprints, food remains, scraps of fur, manure, living constructions, and fix of direct meetings with representatives of various groups of animals. Zoological studies were conducted in the period from May to August 2014. Hydrobiological studies were conducted at July 9, 2014. Zoobenthos samples were taken using a net scraper with a blade length of 20 cm at a depth of 0.5 m in the coastal zone. Three habitats were selected for sampling: sandy, limestone substrate and higher aquatic vegetation (macrophytes). Description of coastal aquatic vegetation was carried out visually; the species were determined by key guide of wild plants (Illustrated .., 2006). To assess the water quality we used saprobity index based on formula of Pantle-Buck in modification Sladechek (Shitikov et al., 2003). Rate of species diversity in the pond was analyzed according to the calculations of the Shannon index. In reference to reports on the implementation of the geological survey in the district Slantsy provided to us by the Russian State Geological Fund (Report .., 2006), geology and hydrogeological conditions of the area was studied. The current methods of dewatering applied at the quarry "Pechurki" were observed. For modeling of quarry flooding process computer software Processing MODFLOW 5.3 was used. 3. Methods for compilation of recommendations for the quarry restoration For compilation of recommendations for arrangement of sustainable recreation on the quarry territory we carried out meetings with marksheider of quarry and advised with administration of “CESLA” company. Based on schemes of area and flood plan we made zoning of territory and approximate position of eco-tourism objects. For more visibility we demonstrated our proposal on pictures. Results Ecological game – quest Since the aim of our project is to promote environmental education, the greatest attention was paid to work with the school students of Slantsy settlement. May 26, 2014 for 6th grade students of school № 6 excursion in the territory of the quarry was conducted during which they were familiarized with the process of limestone mining, the geological history of the area and have visited the reclaimed land. The most important task - to interest children in the natural environment and to attract their attention to the fate of the quarry - was solved by means of developed by us the game-quest in the open pit. 5 thematic stations were organized with tasks in
  5. 5. botany, zoology, entomology, geology and paleontology, where pupils’ teams answered our questions and performing tasks (Annex, Fig. 4, 5). The tasks were developed on the base of our knowledge of local flora and fauna. Birds sounds, animal footprints, identifying of insects under the binocular, searching for fossil organisms and other activities were the most interesting part of game. Drawings competition 10 fascinating illustrations have expressed opinion of the young generation on the nature of the quarry. Rewarding of best drawings authors was held on September 19, 2014 in the school № 6 of Slantsy and on September 20, 2014 in St. Petersburg Ecological-biological center (Annex, Fig. 6, 7). Photo exhibition “Towards nature” At the September 5, 2014 the presentation of exhibition of our photos from the quarry was held in Slantsy. 15 photos were placed on show-windows of city library during whole September and every passerby could see it (Annex, Fig. 8). The title of exhibition is “Towards nature”. The aim of the exhibition is to make local people familiar with diversity of animal and plant species that were met on the quarry territory. By means of beautiful photos of wild nature we wanted to attract attention of Slantsy residents to issues of biodiversity restoration on mining sites. At the opening of the exhibition high school students who are interested in ecology and biology, as well as representatives from television and newspapers have come. There were also local residents who were interested in future of the quarry. We briefly presented our project and photographs, and representatives of the company HeidelbergCement – told about the quarry and the international competition “The Quarry Life Award”. There were a lot of photo exhibitions in Slantsy, but the exposure of photos devoted to our theme have not been yet here. Guests of presentation drew a lot of attention to the image of wild flora and fauna at the quarry, and students were interested in the research part of our project. Video report was released afterwards at the local regional television (http://oreol-info.ru/item/v- slancevskoie-biblioteke-sostoyalos-otkritie-fotovistavki-navstrechu-prirode.html), and the article was published in the newspaper of the Leningrad region "Znamya Truda" (Annex, Fig. 9). Creation of board game “Ecoquarry” Development of a board game was started in the very beginning of the project and after a lot of meetings and revisions, in the end of August we came to the final variant. It can be played by 2-6 players: children from 12 years and adults. The meaning of the game is that the player has to reclaim abstract quarry using various methods of restoration of land and biological diversity, also using methods of environmental management and even involving society. Players are actively cooperating in the game, exchanging cards and ideas, taking joint decisions. At the same time in the game point of competition and predicting of moves are significantly developed. Players do not need to be already familiar with the methods of land restoration or constantly to refer to the background information as all the concepts and tasks in accessible language described on the game cards. Game consists of playground, 120 unique cards with tasks and answers and short description of game rules (Annex, board game). Testing of the game was
  6. 6. carried out several times within the team, and the final version tested on the employees of the Russian-German bureau of ecological information, and the team that created the board game "Ecologic". Approximate time of the game - 1.5 hours, in the end, even people far from the mining industry, will know what isolation or earthing are. Results of ecological surveys on the quarry “Pechurki” In order to create informative database on biodiversity for subsequent ecological education of society of Slantsy the big attention in our project was devoted to study of plants and animal communities of the quarry, and also to investigation of soils and hydrogeological conditions. Study of biofoulers on limestone solid Limestone cannot be directly inhabited by organisms that were lived here before the mining. Colonization of limestone like any other solid by living organisms starts with the smallest of them. One of the surveys conducted on this quarry was to study litobiont community on site of quarry reclaimed 4 years ago. Using SEM analysis, the images of samples were obtained of limestone in the range of magnification from 100x to 10000x (Appendix, Fig. 10). The picture shows the structure of microscopic fungi and crustose lichens, they fill all cavities and cracks of stone (Annex, Fig. 10). Fungal hyphae makes through limestone, starts to grow and create pressure under the influence of which rock is broken. Microscopic fungi related to soil and dark colored anamorphic fungi have been identified. All identified species of fungi are typical representatives of mycoflora of St. Petersburg and Leningrad region (Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces variotii, Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma viride and light-colored and dark-colored form of mycelium). It was impossible to determine lichen species because structures by which they can be determined to genus were not found. Soil investigation Following stage - soil formation. Soil studies have shown that soil formed in the area is strongly influenced by the presence of carbonates. Pedogenesis processes are at an early stage and expressed mainly in the accumulation of humus. Humus content (an important criterion in the evaluation of productivity) in soils of quarry depends on the age of the soil. At the site remediated 4 years ago (litostrat), humus content is low, a significant accumulation of humus is noted in the gray humus soil under the 30-year-old pine plantations. There is a decrease in the content of calcium carbonate, which is associated with the decomposition of the acid coniferous litter (Appendix, Fig. 11 12). Study of quarry flora To assess the biological diversity on the quarry, as well as compiling floristic list geobothanical description was made on 4 quarry sites restored at different times. The list contains 57 plant species (Appendix, Table. 1). Study of plant communities has shown that on the sites of pine plantations of the 1970s pine-strawberry forest have formed; on the site of pine plantations from 1987 - pine-sedge wood vegetation; on the place where the recovery measures were not carried out (2004 worked out dump) - birch-reed wood; the slope recultivated 4 years ago – grassland vegetation.
  7. 7. To the beginning of research on the planting site of the 1970s in plant cover typical forest vegetation has already formed. At the site of the later planting (1987) vegetation with forest species was represented by rather large number of typical meadow species, indicating ongoing process of the formation of a mixed forest ecosystems. Of the 28 species of orchids found in the North-West Russia we observed four species, three of which are listed in the Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region (lady's slipper Cypripedium calceolus, the Early Marsh Orchid Dactylorhiza incarnata and the Heath spotted orchid Dactylorhiza maculata). In the study we investigated the aquatic flora species composition and distribution of macrophytes in the main pond. There are 12 species (list in the Annex). Study of fauna In addition to description of the vegetation during the research attention was also focused on species of terrestrial and aquatic fauna that live in the quarry in order to compile faunistic list and approximate evaluation of the animals’ number. Vertebrates in the quarry are mainly represented by birds, mammals and amphibians (20 species were counted) (Annex, Table. 2). Obvious fact is that the species composition will increase gradually over the years. At the present moment benthic and fish fauna is poor and communities have low rate of productivity, which corresponds to the natural stage of development of water bodies at the site of flooded quarries. Basically on the pond in the quarry "Pechurki" 16 species of aquatic invertebrates were noted (list in annex), and one species of fish - Crucian carp Carassius carassius. Saprobity index which indicates the degree of water saturation with oxygen and organic content showed that the pond is a beta-mesosaprobic that corresponds to a moderate productivity of the reservoir. Hydrogeological survey In the future, the developed space of the quarry is planned to flood due to a change in the career mode of drainage systems. Using software program Processing MODFLOW 5.3. change in groundwater levels after complete termination of activity of dewatering was simulated. It was found that the groundwater level will rise, which will lead to flooding not only worked-out part of the quarry, but also the surrounding area. According to the model, the flooding is expected in the South and West of the quarry (Annex, Fig. 13). Recommendations for organization of sustainable recreation on the restored territory of the quarry To get acquainted with the history of quarry and plans for its further use, we have consulted with the quarry management. The staff kindly shared with us information that after mining activities flooding of the quarry is supposed. Nowadays on the mining territory there are many uplands (dumps) formed during the extraction of limestone with height of approximately 10-15 meters with already established vegetation on them, and after the flooding these dumps will become an islands in the pond (Annex, Fig. 2, 14). We carried out a small analysis of the socio-economic conditions of area and developed recommendations on the organization of sustainable recreation in the open pit after flooding. How to meet the needs of the population in the possibility of arriving to the quarry as a place of rest, without harming the environment? In our opinion the territory of the quarry should
  8. 8. be divided for two zones, one of which will be inaccessible to man, and the second - allocated under human needs. The most remote section from the road will also be allotted for "protected area." On the untouched areas by humans sites for rest and nesting for birds will be situated to facilitate development of new species communities. Island distribution type of land among a large pond will create the preconditions for increasing biodiversity by raising the number of different habitats. It should be noted that it is necessary to consider each island separately, maybe some of them will be subjected to changes (subgrading, saw cut / planting trees). The pond should have an embayed coastline with gently sloping coasts planted with shrubs and aquatic vegetation on the water edge that all will create new habitats for the species and will contribute to strengthen the coast and provide water purification. To accelerate the process of colonization of the territory by birds and mammals feeders and birdhouses can be installed in the forest. The other part of the quarry will be reserved for eco-tourism and recreation. It is expected to create on the shore camping sites (wooden platforms for tents, specially equipped bonfire, toilets) (Annex, Fig. 15). Camping will be represented by a small place for 8-15 tents, consisting of a wooden platform under tents and 2-3common arbors. There will be possible to organize ecological lessons with students, conduct various workshops on environmental protection. For camping creation especially reserved place under the garbage is needed. Agreement with the local authorities on the regular removal of garbage from the open pit is necessary for this purpose. For ecological education of tourists eco-trail will be constructed linking the shore and surrounding islands by wooden bridges. Along the eco-trail’s route information boards with photographs and descriptions of plant and animal species will be installed. It is planned to install two observation towers, one of which will be on an island, and the second at the highest point of the quarry. These towers will be also part of the ecological trail, they will allow for tourists to feel ornithologists, watching the birds through binoculars. We are not supposed introduction of juvenile fish in the newly created water body, as the staff told about channel that will connect existing and future water bodies. Through the channel migration of aquatic organisms is supposed to the new pond. Consequently, already at the present moment it is necessary to carry out measures to maintain and increase biodiversity in a small pond. Discussion The objectives of this project were various activities on the interaction with the children and the local population of Slantsy. Designed game-quest in the quarry was tested on 18 school students from Slantsy. Later we continued to work with these children (in new educational year quantity of them has already become 28 people) by conducting a drawing competition. It was important to find out the ideas of children, who have visited quarry. For comparison, we announced a similar competition among the pupils of one study group of Ecological and Biological Center of St. Petersburg. As a result, we were able to cover about 40 students at age of 10-11 years. Important result of interaction with school children is building of communication for future activities. We are ready to develop work with local schools on environment issues. Presentation of the photo exhibition was attended by about 20 people, mostly high school students interested in ecology and biology from the local schools. Perhaps, some of them will be
  9. 9. willing to conduct their own research in the quarry, and then they will be able to use our data or assistance. The library where the photos were presented is in the center of Slantsy and thousand people pass by show-windows every day. One important outcome of this project is the fact that the presentation of the photo exhibition was covered by the regional news and newspaper and its’ audience is about 300 thousand people. Developed in the frame of the project board game can serve as a tool for environmental education of school and university students, and it is appropriate for an adult audience as well (for example, employees of HeidelbergCement). The game is designed in a pilot form, without the bright design, but further development of it is possible. Our version considers mostly mining sites of moderate European nature zone, but can be transformed for specific bioms of whole world. At the present version, the game can easily be printed on regular paper and cut out by your own. Studies of biofoulers have shown how natural stone, being unfavorable habitat is colonized by microorganisms and gives rise to soil formation. Parameters of humus concentration in soils and ground are indicators of the ecosystems recovery activities effectiveness through recultivation, and they should be discussed in the further restoration of damaged land. We observed comparatively low species number of plants and animals relative to background biodiversity rates of region. Poor plant species diversity linked to the fact that the soil in most part of the quarry had not formed yet, and in some places the substrate under the plants is represented by limestone. On the territory where vegetation was formed by self-seeding, restore of the environment is slower. Limestone is a good substrate for vegetation of orchids. But for normal growing of pine forest soil with a high content of lime is not suitable because pine trees prefer more acidic soil with a pH about 4.5-5.5. At the same time pine is a powerful edaphic factor, it acidifies substrate on which grows due to decomposition of needles. Thus, according to our research, in soils under 30 years pine forest calcium carbonate content is significantly reduced in comparison with other soil profiles, indicating process of decarbonisation. Also at this site humus formation and humus accumulation processes are expressed more strongly than in the other profiles. Thereby, forming vegetation communities on the worked out areas man contributes to quick formation of soils and increases their productivity. The small number of detected animal species is explained by disturbance factor in area where extraction works only recently have stopped. Also forage base has not yet been formed to supply the lives of many species of birds and aquatic invertebrates. Results of hydrogeological studies show that for rational resources management on the territory (creating recreation), it is necessary to prevent partially flooding on adjacent to the quarry area, for what one of the pump stations should stay active. According to our research, such measures contribute to the creation of a favorable hydrogeological regime and sustainable development of the area. In our studies we discovered regional Red Data and rare species. The presence of such species in the quarry and surrounding areas confirms its conservation value, and that is why we offer such project of development - the creation of sustainable recreation. Our project of sustainable recreation assumes the division of the quarry territory to conditionally "protected zone" and eco-tourism zone. Environmental education is planned for the local population, which in the near future after the flooding of the quarry will visit new reservoir, by means of
  10. 10. establishment of information boards, nature trails and observation towers for the purpose of raising public awareness of the fragility of wildlife and a good example of rest, which is not harmful to nature. The main principle of sustainable development - the mutually beneficial development of main spheres of our lives: economy, ecology and society. The results of our project contribute to the rising of public environmental awareness and then people will have more careful attitude to the nature, and this will affect favorably to the state of biological diversity. Also taking part in the competition "The Quarry Life Award", we have promoted company’s environmental initiatives among the population. Our proposal of environmentally friendly recreation will satisfy the interests of all these major sectors of sustainable development, because eco-tourism may be economically profitable and ecologically friendly activity of people. Financing of implementation of our recommendations may be obtained from receiving grants, searching for investors and local authorities co-funding. Conclusion As a result of works under the project during the spring and autumn of 2014 we have accumulated a great material on scientific studies which can be used as training information for the subsequent excursions to the quarry, which can be organized in conjunction with local schools. Designed environmental outdoor games and the board version of "Ecoquarry" can also be applied for future meetings with children from Slantsy and other cities. We are ready to develop board game and actively represent it at various events. After spending biological research in the quarry, we got the idea for further separate project of evaluating the degree and rates of occupation quarry by species. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out a more detailed study of biodiversity on quarry sites and outside area. Our recommendations for the territory after recultivation do not require much extra costs when implementing and fit well with the socio-economic context of the area. Literature cited 1. Illustrated key to plants of Leningrad Region / Ed. A.L. Budantsev and G.P .Yakovlev - M .: KMK Scientific Press Ltd., 2006 – 799 pp. 2. Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region / Ed. G.A. Noskov. Volume 2, 3. SPb. ANO NGO "Peace and Life", 2002. - 480 pp., ill., In Russian., Eng. 3. Plan of mining operations on the quarry of the "Pechurki" of Slantsy deposits of limestone in 2012. JSC "Slantsevsky cement plant CESLA. Slantsy, 2011 4. Progress Report: "Evaluation of operational reserves of underground drinking quality water at existing water intakes of JSC "Slantsevskiy cement plant "CESLA" in Slantsy of Leningrad region/ JSC "Slantsevsky cement plant CESLA", North-Western State Geological Enterprise "Sevzapgeologiya." St. Petersburg. 2006 // Rosgeolfond in the Northwest Federal District. Units. 27534. 5. Shitikov V.K., Rosenberg G.S., Zinchenko T.D. Quantitative hydroecology: methods of system identification. – Tol’yatti: IEWB RAS, 2003.
  11. 11. Annex to report on the project “Youth view at quarry nature” Picture 1. Satellite image of the quarry “Pechurki”. Picture 2. Flooding scheme of the quarry and layout of recultivation and recreation objects. Blue lines designate future and existing pond borders.
  12. 12. а b c а - profile № А1-13 (litostrat, on the site restored 4 years ago by putting layer of waste sandy rock; b - profile № А2-13 (litostrat, 4 years ago 4 years ago waste rock were applied (moraine loam, mixed with fragments of limestone), after which the area was planted with Ordinary Pine Pinus sylvestris); c - profile № А3-13 (grey humus loamy soil underlain with sand on the site of pine planting of 1970s). Picture 3. Photos of soil profiles.
  13. 13. Picture 4. Ecological game-quest: school students try to recognize the bird voices, station “Zoology”. 1. Паук 2. Стрекоза 3. Клещ 4. Скорпион 5. Жук Кто из предложенных беспозвоночных насекомые? Picture 5. Ecological game-quest: task card of “Entomology”.
  14. 14. Picture 6. One of the winners of our drawings competition and her picture. Picture 7. One of illustration from competition (Saint-Petersburg).
  15. 15. Picture 8. The photo exhibition “Towards nature” in Slantsy. Picture 9. The article in a newspaper “Znamja truda” about photo exhibition presentation.
  16. 16. Picture 10. Destroyed limestone surface with hypha and spores of fungi. Scanning electron microscopy.
  17. 17. Picture 1. Distribution of pH and CaCO3 content in the soil litostratah and gray humus soil on the quarry "Pechurki." Литострат (А1-13) 8,15 8,20 8,25 8,30 8,35 8,40 13 - 59 0 - 13 Глубины, см рН Литострат (А1-13) 11,80 12,00 12,20 12,40 12,60 12,80 13,00 13 - 59 0 - 13 Глубины, см Содержание CaCO3, % Литострат (А2-13) 8,2 8,25 8,3 8,35 8,4 14 - 20 0 - 14 Глубины, см рН Литострат (А2-13) 16 16,5 17 17,5 18 14 - 20 0 - 14 Глубины, см Содержание CaCO3, % Серогумусовая почва (А3-13) 7,40 7,60 7,80 8,00 8,20 D AC AY2 AY1 Горизонты рН Серогумусовая почва (А3-13) 0,00 5,00 10,00 15,00 20,00 D AC AY2 AY1 Горизонты Сoдержание CaCO3, %
  18. 18. Picture2. Profile distribution of carbon organic compounds at the site remediated 4 years ago and gray humus soil. Литострат (А2-13) 0,00 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,30 14 - 20 0 - 14 Глубины, см Содержание С орг., % Серогумусовая почва (А3-13) 0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50 2,00 D AC AY2 AY1 Горизонты Содержание C орг., %
  19. 19. Table 1. Floristic list of plant species on the territory of the quarry “Pechurki”. Notes in columns: 1 – pine planting of 1970s, 2 - pine planting of 1987, 3 – site overgrowing by natural way (self-seeding), 4 – site of slope recultivated in 2010-2011. Species list 1 2 3 4 Phylum Equisetophyta Class Equisetopsida Family Equisetaceae Equisetum arvense Phylum Pinophyta Class Pinopsida Family Pinaceae Pínus sylvéstris Picea abies Phylum Magnoliophita Class Magnoliopsida Family Ranunculaceae Ranunculus acris Family Caryophillaceae Stellaria sp. Family Betulaceae Betula pendula Alnus sp. Family Pyrolaceae Pyrola sp. Family Vacciniaceae Vaccinium vitis-idaea Family Violaceae Viola canina Family Salicaceae Salix caprea Salix sp. Populus tremula Family Ulmaceae Ulmus laevis Ulmus glabra Family Rosaceae Filipendula ulmaria Rubus chamaemorus Potentilla anserina Potentilla erecta Fragaria vesca Geum rivale Sorbus aucuparia Family Onagraceae Chamaenerion angustifolium Family Fabaceae Anthyllis vulneraria Lotus sp. Vicia cracca + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
  20. 20. Vicia sp. Lathyrus pratensis Lathyrus sp. Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Melilotus albus Family Aceraceae Acer platanoides Family Oxalidaceae Oxalis acetosella Family Umbelliferae Aegopódium podagrária Family Caprifoliaceae Viburnum opulus Family Valerianaceae Valeriána officinális Family Scrophulariaceae Melampyrum nemorosum Veronica officinalis Family Labiatae Prunélla vulgáris Origanum vulgare Family Asteraceae Tussilago farfara Achillea millefolium Leucanthemum vulgare Solidago sp. Arctium tomentosum Taraxácum officinále Hieracium sp. Onopordum acanthium Class Liliopsida Family Convallariaceae Convallaria majalis Maianthemum bifolium Family Trilliaceae Paris quadrifolia Family Orchidaceae Cypripedium calceolus Epipactis helleborine Dactylorhiza incarnate Dactylorhiza maculate Family Juncaceae Juncus sp. Family Cyperaceae Carex sp. Family Poaceae Calamagrostis epigeios Dactylis glomerata + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
  21. 21. Picture 3. Hydrostatic pressure on the quarry "Pechurki" after switching off water disposal systems. List of macrophytes of existing pond on the quarry “Pechurki” Division CHAROPHYTA Class CHAROPHYCEAE Order CHARALES Family CHARACEAE 1. Chara foetida Division ANGIOSPERMS Class MONOCOTS Family CYPERACEAE 2. Scirpus lacustris 3. Carex nigra 4. Eriophorum vagintum Family TYPHACEAE 5. Typha latifolia
  22. 22. Family IRIDACEAE 6. Iris pseudacorus Family JUNCACEAE 7. Juncus effusus Family HYDROCHARITACEAE 8. Elodea canadiensis Family POTAMOGETONACEAE 9. Potamogeton natans 10. Potamogeton pectinatus Class DICOTS Family HALORAGACEAE 11. Myriophyllum spicatum Family CERATOPHYLLACEAE 12. Ceratophyllum demersum List of water invertebrates of pond on the quarry “Pechurki” Phylum ANNELIDA Class OLIGOCHAETA 1. Oligochaeta gen. sp. Class HIRUDINEA Order RHYNCHOBDELLIDA Fam. GLOSSIPHONIDAE 2. Helobdella stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Phylum MOLLUSCA Class GASTROPODA Subclass PROSOBRANCHIA Fam. BITHYNIIDAE 3. Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758) Class CRUSTACEA Order ISOPODA Fam. ASELLIDAE 4. Asellus aquaticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Phylum ARTHROPODA Class INSECTA Order EPHEMEROPTERA Fam. BAETIDAE 5. Baetis gr. rhodani Fam. CAENIDAE 6. Caenis macrura Stephens, 1835 Order ODONATA Sub-order ANISOPTERA Fam. AESCHIDAE 7. Aeshna grandis (Linnaeus, 1758) Sub-order ZYGOPTERA Fam. COENAGRIONIDAE 8. Coenagrion armatum (Charpentier, 1840) 9. Coenagrion hastulatum (Charpentier, 1825)
  23. 23. 10. Ischnura elegans (Vanderlinden, 1823) Fam. LESTIDAE 11. Lestes sponsa Hansemann, 1823 Order HEMIPTERA Fam. GERRIDAE Sub-order HETEROPTERA 12. Gerris lacustris (Linnaeus, 1758) Order TRICHOPTERA Fam. POLYCENTROPODIDAE 13. Polycentropus flavomaculatus (Pictet, 1834) Order COLEOPTERA Fam. DYTISCIDAE 14.Ilybius sp. Order DIPTERA Fam. CHIRONOMIDAE 15. Chironomidae gen. sp. Fam. CERATOPOGANIDAE 16. Ceratopogonidae gen. sp. Picture 4. Illustration of our view of future pond on the quarry “Pechurki”.
  24. 24. Picture 5. Illustration of camping on the shore of future pond.
  25. 25. Table 2. Fauna list of vertebrates on the quarry “Pechurki”. Kingdom Phylum Subphylum Class Order Family Species Animals Animalia Chordates Chordata Vertebrates Vertebrata Amphibians Amphibia Batrachians Anura Ranidae Rana sp. Birds Aves Birds of prey Falconiformes Falconidae Common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Wading birds Charadriiformes Laridae Black-headed gull Larus ridibundus Passerine Passeriformes Hirundinidae European swallow Hirundo rustica Common house martin Delichon urbica Corvidae Corbie crow Corvus corax Magpie Pica pica Sylviidae Сhiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita Muscicapidae Western pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca Turdidae Robin Turdus sp. Paridae Great tit Parus major Willow tit Parus montanus Sittidae European nuthatch Sitta europaea Fringillidae Warbler Fringilla coelebs
  26. 26. Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula Mammals Mammalia Insectivores Insectivora Moles Talpidae Common mole Talpa eutopaca Сarnivores Carnivora Canines Canidae Fox Vulpes vulpes Lagomorphs Lagomorpha Hares Leporidae Mountain hare Lepus timidus Artiodactyles Artiodactyla Suids Suidae Wild boar Sus scrofa Cervids Cervidae European roe deer Capreolus capreolus
  27. 27. Board game on quarry recultivation «Ecoquarry» Play elements: Play board, 56 of task cards, 57 of answer (methods of restoration), 8 cards of event cards. Individual marker for moving on the play desk every player can make by themselves (for example, folding a paper rectangle and then drawing on it) Play aim: to restore worked out quarry applying different methods of recultivation (technical, biological, methods of ecological management and public involvement). Play rules: 1) Cards of answers, tasks and events are placed in separate batches face down next to the playing board. Each player is dealt 5 answer cards that he has to put in front of him in a row, showing the contents to other players. Later the player can have a maximum of 10 answer cards. 2) Individual markers are placed on the board at the start cell. The youngest player takes a task card, and tries to reply it by matching answers cards. Pay attention to the keywords on the cards that are in bold, and look for consistency in the answers (key words there are in bold also). For each task there is a specific answer, which covers all the points (near the rhomb). Also, these points can be covered by additional answer cards (kind of answer and how much points it gives indicated below on the task card). The player can use the right to put laydown batches one of their cards and take one new answer card instead from batch of answers. You can also use the cards of the previous phase of reclamation, which give 0.5 points (for example, you have an issue with a green rhomb (i.e., from the biological stage), you can apply any answer cards from the technical stage, etc.) (check the scheme below the rules) 3) Before decision making player may ask for help another player and get (change) necessary answer card on any conditions. 4) If a player is able to cover a task card with completely appropriate response, then he moves for 2 steps forward on the board, if he can use only additional answers - then at one step. After complete the task player takes one card from the batch of answers (if the player has already reached the "shrub stage" on the board, then he have to pull 2 answer cards). If player can not or does not want to perform the task, then it goes to the laydown batch, and the player is left in the same place. Afterwards, the game moves to the next player clockwise. 5) Reaching the cells with stages of succession (change of plant communities), the player take event card and answer it. There is no indication of the keywords, and the player must decide what kind of response here is the solution, and the other players must collectively validate his action. If everyone agrees with the player’s answer decision, then he moves on board according to the instructions on the cards (numbers separated by a fraction). But there are three cards of the event on which you do not have to respond to - or take a step back, or a step forward, and
  28. 28. the arrival of a specialist will help you solve the next task card, and then you go only for one cell forward. 6) The player who first reaches the finish line wins. But, most importantly, do not cross it. That is, if the player is standing on the previous cell before the finish, he must make decisions that will move him only for 1 cell forward. Why is credited with 0.5 points for the answer cards from the previous stage: biological phase is able to be carried out on the basis of technical restored area; ecological management allow to efficiently enhance biological diversity; public involvement appears in the game as a result of proper ecological management; and technical stage must be carried out at the preliminary approval of recultivation with public. The scheme is very simple and does not reflect the complexity of the interactions between stages of mining sites recovery. Above there is an image of the scheme, and the color-coded stages of reclamation used in rhombs on the cards. TASKS CARDS 2 Form a relief on the worked out quarry +1 strengthening of soils and dumps +1 leveling dumps 2 Strengthen soil cover +1 planting, sowing 2 Create a soil cover on the waste rock, for this purpose carry out earthing +1 strengthening of soils and dumps +1 fertilizing +1 planting, sowing
  29. 29. 2 In your careers dumps contain toxic substances. Carry out neutralization of soil or isolation +1 drainage water treatment +1 ecological monitoring 2 Company decided to flood the territory of quarry and create water pond +1 formation of shores +1 formation of relief +1 increase of pond productivity 3 It is necessary to increase the productivity of the soil at the quarry +1 earthing +1 fertilizing +1 planting, sowing 2 Under the influence of wind and rain at the quarry dumps and the soil are destroyed. Carry out measures to control erosion +1 strengthening of soils and dumps +1 planting, sowing 3 The quarry is not inhabited with animals and plants. You have to promote biodiversity +1 introduction +1 creation of forage base 3 It is necessary to plant forest on the quarry territory +1 tree planting 3 For formation of grass cover carry out sowing of grass plants +1 promotion of biodiversity +1 hydroseeding 2 * Territory of the quarry after restoration should be actively used. Offer your variants of use +1 EIA +1 public participation +1 building 2 The territory of quarry was flooded, but the pond needs measures to increase productivity +1 fertilizing +1 creation of forage base
  30. 30. 2 It is necessary to increase public participation Find out public opinion at quarry reclamation +1 meetings with local community +1 EIA 3 You are planning building on the worked out quarry territory +1 EIA +1 public participation +1 formation of relief 3 Necessary to reduce harmful emissions into atmosphere from transport and techniques operating on quarry +2 reduction of fuel consumption +1 ecological management 3 Forage base are not formed in created pond +1 fertilizing of pond +2 increase pond productivity 2 In the end you need to prepare area for agricultural use +1 fertilizing 3 Carry out assessment of biodiversity for effective management +1 ecological monitoring +2 ecological research 3 Your company needs to pass ecological certification +1 ecological management +1 ecological research +1 assessment of biodiversity 2 Tourism is significantly developed in region. Apply measures to attract tourists to the restored quarry +1 promotion of biodiversity +1 fishing development 2 On the restored quarry slopes are sloughing. Implement measures for strengthening of dump slopes +1 planting, sowing +1 control erosion +1 control of ravine
  31. 31. 3 For fast quarry restoration applying of advanced technologies are suitable +1 ecological research +1 hydroseeding +1 introduction of bacterial cultures 3 Apply advanced method – hydroseeding – for fertilizing and sowing +1 strengthening of soils and dumps +1 field experiments 2 For attraction of wild animals and support of forage base it is necessary to establish feeders +1 promotion of biodiversity 3 Put new species on the quarry (introduction) +1 promotion of biodiversity +1 stocking 1 Carry out planting of larch in the quarry. Larch is not demanding tree to soil conditions, and its planting will prevent the soil erosion 3 Carry out planting of small- leaved forest 1 Planting of Siberian cedar is appropriate for severe climate region 1 One of effective measures to prevent erosion is planting of pine 3 For strengthening soil cover and dump slopes carry out tree planting +1 strengthening of soil +3 planting
  32. 32. 3 Organise work of technological transport to reduce fuel consumption +2 reduction of harmful emissions 2 To accelerate the overgrown on quarry use advanced technological methods of plowing the soil when planting +1 introduction of bacterial cultures 3 Carry out field experiments for research of recovery process of environment on the quarry +1 advanced technologies +1 ecological research 3 For economic development of territory organize fish hatchery on the worked out quarry +1 introduction +1 stocking +1 creation of pond 2 Develop fishery sport on flooded quarry to attract tourists + 1 tourism development +1 stocking 1 To speed up soil formation processes and increase soil fertility introduce bacterial cultures 2 You have to increase soil productivity on quarry. Use mineral or organic fertilizers 2 While creation of pond form embayed coastline +1 formation of gently sloping coasts +1 formation of relief +1 water regime regulation 2 While creation of pond form gently sloping coasts +1 formation of embayed coastline +1 formation of relief
  33. 33. 2 You are in the initial stage of quarry reclamation and you need to form a relief. Carry out leveling of dumps +1 formation of relief +1 strengthening of soils and dumps 2 While formation relief make low gradient dump slopes +1 formation of relief 1 To prevent invasion of toxic substances from solid ground carry out isolation measures 2 To decrease impact on environment and toxicity of drainage waters carry out its treatment +1 biologic water purification 2 With a content toxic substances in the solid or soil at the quarry conduct their neutralization by liming +1 drainage water treatment 2 Gullying process is strengthening on the quarry, carry out measures to control ravines +1 control erosion +1 planting, sowing +1 strengthening of soils and dumps 3 In managing of biological diversity on the quarry it is necessary to assess conservation value the territory +1 ecological research +1 ecological monitoring 3 Integral part of managing the quarry reclamation and biodiversity is to hold ecological research +1 field experiments +2 ecological monitoring 3 You need constantly look after environment state. Organise ecological monitoring +1 ecological research +2 ecological management
  34. 34. 3 For successful restoration of the quarry organize ecological management in company +1 EIA +1 ecological certification +1 ecological monitoring 3 Carry out Assess human activity impact from quarry recultivation on environment (Environment impact assessment EIA) +1 ecological research +1 public participation +1 ecological management 2 It is necessary constantly to follow and regulate water regime on the quarry +1 water removal system +1 drainage net +1 hydrogeological study 2 Organise water removal system on the quarry +1 drainage net +1 hydrogeological study +1 regulation of water regime 2 Construct drainage net on the quarry +1 water removal system +1 hydrogeological study 2 You have to organize interaction with local community +1 public participation 2 Carry out stocking of pond +1 introduction 2 Apply methods of biologic water purification in pond
  35. 35. EVENT CARDS -1 – make one move back +1 – make one move forward 0 / -1 – if you have the answer card, stay. If you do not have answer card, move for 1 step back Downstream the river where drainage water flow a lot of dead fish was found. Toxic substances got the river from quarry -1 Territory of the quarry is going to be checked by controlling state bodies (auditors). Are you ready to provide research data for them? 0 / -1 Local community came out with protest action in front of the quarry administration +1 / -1 Geologists observed increase of groundwater and probability of quarry flooding 0 / -1 A natural disaster. Your dumps contain toxic substances. If you have a card of "isolation", you are saved, if not - reimburse environmental damage 0 / -1 On territory of the reclaimed quarry rare species of plants was found. This testifies the success of recultivation +1 / 0 Ecological action (planting of trees) was held on quarry with participation of local people +1 You have invited lead specialist on mining sites restoration. He will assist to solve your next task +1
  36. 36. ANSWERS CARDS (METHODS OF RECULTIVATION) 3 Hydroseeding putting the mixture of water, soil, sawdust, seeds, fertilizers for the accelerated formation of vegetation 2 Leveling dumps Removal of ground from the top of dumps to slopes while creation of relief 2 Formation of low gradient dump slopes Smooth slopes are less affected of erosion and rain impact 1 Isolation Isolation of toxic solid from environment by laying of neutral ground 2 Earthing applying to the surface of dumps the fertile soil layer or potentially fertile ground while creating soil cover 2 Regulation of water regime Construction of water removal system, drainage net to prevent overmoistening on the quarry 2 Construction of drainage net Laying of drainage channels, construction of wells and water catchment ponds to prevent flooding of the territory (regulation of water regime) 2 Construction of water removal system Construction of pumping stations and drainage system to avoid flooding of the territory (regulation of water regime) 2 Creation of pond Flooding of the worked out quarry
  37. 37. 1 Entering of bacterial cultures One of advanced technologies for increase soil productivity and speed up of territory overgrowing 3 Entering of organic fertilizing to the soil (compost, peat, manure and other) for increase of soil productivity 2 Agriculture use Restored territories of quarry could be used for agriculture activities 3 Planting forest One of effective methods to control erosion 3 Sowing of grass plants Sowing of perennial grasses to strengthen soil cover and formation plant communities 3 Planting of brushes and trees to reduce soil erosion. Promotes moisture- and snow- retention 3 Promotion of biodiversity by creation of various habitats for species 3 Support of forage base for example, construction of feeders for wild animals 3 Creation of protected areas for protection of rare species Limitation of access to the territory where are rare species
  38. 38. 3 Ecological management is focused on maintaining and enhancing the natural values of land to conserve biological diversity. Control of recultivation to avoid potential risks of environmental pollution and the subsequent costs for its elimination 2 Control ravine Measures preventing increasing of ravines and gullying 3 Assessment of conservation value Total assessment of biodiversity and diversity of landscapes 2 Formation of embayed coastline during creation of water pond on the quarry 2 Liming Liming to grounds containing toxic salts to neutralize the acidity of the soil 3 Building of fish hatchery For industrial fishery 2 Drainage water treatment Transmission of drainage water through a thick layer of soil, delaying pollution and acting as a natural filter 2 Neutralization of ground, containing toxic salts to reduce the degree of harm to the environment 2 Formation of low gradient dump slopes To pond for providing its sustainability against erosion
  39. 39. 1 Planting of small-leaved forest Small-leaved species (birch, aspen, alder) is not demanding to soil, moreover they are growing quite fast, and within 5-10 years can provide protection against erosion 3 Reduction of harmful emissions Renewal of motor vehicles on ecologically safe fuel 3 Reduction of fuel consumption by working transport during technology upgrading to reduce harmful emissions into atmosphere 3 Tourism development creation of recreation objects on the quarry 2 Hydrogeological studies for survey of water regime on the quarry 2 Creation of forage base for wild animals and fish in pond 2 Arrangement of fishery sport on flooded quarry that could be good decision for attracting of people and eco-tourism development 3 Carrying out of field experiments in damaged land it is important to study environment state 2 Advanced technological methods of plowing the land for sowing crops allow more efficient use of resources such as fuel, the number of seeds and reduces the time for sowing
  40. 40. 3 Ecological certification assessment of compliance of all phases of recultivation and use of the territory with environmental standards and regulations 3 Building on quarry Worked out areas are actively involved in the economic sphere in the region. It is regular situation when various objects are built on the former mining territories 3 Increase productivity of pond Recently created water bodies on the worked out quarries consist low rate of nutrients necessary for hydrobionts 2 Stocking fish in pond putting juvenile fish into the pond, where they will grow. Stocking is carried out in order to enhance biodiversity in the ecosystem or fish farming 2 Biologic water purification Different metods for water treatment such us macrophytes planting, algies or bacteria cultures 1 Planting of cedar Cedar survives in conditions of severe winter; it can be used for the final stages of quarries recultivation in Siberia. Prevents erosion
  41. 41. Print in 2 copies the following answers 2 Formation of relief (subgrading) Includes leveling of dump slopes with heavy vehicles 2 Control erosion Complex of measures for protection of soil and dumps from erosion effects 2 Strengthening of soil and dumps for increase rate of sustainability of ground to destroying factors (water, wind) 2 Entering of fertilizers Fertilizing by minerals to increase productivity 1 Larch planting Using of larch on final stages of recultivation will enhance landscape and provide new habitats for species 1 Pine planting The pine is unpretentious to the ground fertility and can easily grow on goal sand. Like all large trees, pine trees are well fixed soil by roots, and can also serve as habitat for some species 3 Sowing of grass plants Planting of one-year-old plant for strengthening of soil cover 3 Ecological monitoring Long-term ecological study of state of the nature of quarry 3 Ecological research Study of flora and fauna on the quarry, and assessment of planned activity impact on biodiversity
  42. 42. 3 EIA environment impact assessment of recultivation activity 2 Variants of use * For applying this card you have to call three different variants of use quarry territory after finishing mining activities 3 Introduction Putting new species in ecosystem (not specific to this place) +1 to every task +1 to every task 2 Meetings with local community and administration Organizing of public hearings, gatherings for discussion of quarry exploitation 2 Public participation in making decision on future use of the quarry and quality of restoration methods
  43. 43. Play board  It is better to print play desk in A3 format

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