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  1. 1. “COMBO.” NO. 5 THE EFFECTS OF GLUTEN FREE COMBINATION FLOURS COMPARED TO ALL-PURPOSE FLOUR ON CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIES Rachel Ehrensberger
  2. 2. Introduction  Celiac Disease  Autoimmune Disease-Intestinal inflammation followed by villus atrophy upon ingestion of gluten  GI distress-Pain, bloating, fatigue  Some asymptomatic  1% of U.S. Population  Only treatment is lifelong adherence to gluten free diet  About 0.63% (1.6 million people) of Americans follow a gluten free diet (diagnosed and undiagnosed individuals)
  3. 3. Why?  Celiac Disease  Growing amount of people diagnosed  Food allergies  Chocolate Chip Cookies  Many baked goods contain gluten  Improve the gluten free cookie
  4. 4. Independent Variables  All-Purpose Flour  Combination flours consisting of various amounts of buckwheat flour, almond flour, tapioca starch, and xanthan gum  Primarily Buckwheat flour (20g buckwheat flour, 12g almond flour, 5g tapioca starch, 4g xanthan gum)  Primarily Almond Flour (15g buckwheat flour, 20g almond flour, 3g tapioca starch, 3g xanthan gum)  Equal Parts Buckwheat and Almond Flour (12g buckwheat flour, 12g almond flour, 10g tapioca starch, 7g xanthan gum)
  5. 5. Dependent Variables  Subjective  Crispiness  Texture  Aftertaste  Objective  Volume (volumeter)  Crispiness (shortometer)
  6. 6. Sensory Scorecard Characteristi c 331 814 783 295 Crispiness a Texture b Aftertaste c Figure 1. Sensory Scorecard a Crispiness 1________ 2_______ __3_____ ____4________ _5 Moist Slightly-Crisp Crisp b Texture 1________ 2_______ __3_____ ____4________ _5 Soft Semi-Gritty Gritty c Aftertaste 1________ 2_______ __3_____ ____4________ _5 Bitter Semi-Sweet Sweet
  7. 7. Hypotheses H1: By substituting primarily buckwheat flour for all- purpose flour in chocolate chip cookies, the objective crispiness will significantly change.  Reject H1: By substituting equal parts buckwheat and almond flour for all-purpose flour in chocolate chip cookies, the texture of the cookies will significantly change.  Reject H1: By substituting equal parts buckwheat and almond flour for all-purpose flour in chocolate chip cookies, the aftertaste will significantly change.  Fail to Reject
  8. 8. Results/Discussion  Judges were consistent in rating crispiness (p=0.246), texture (p=0.110) and aftertaste (p=0.721)  Crispiness- No significant differences  Primarily almond flour (p=0.833) closest to control  Texture- No significant differences  Equal parts buckwheat and almond flour (p=0.929) closest to control  Aftertaste- Significant differences between all variables and control  Equal parts buckwheat and almond flour (p=0.011) closest to control
  9. 9. Table 2. Table of Means* for Dependent Variables: Sensory Evaluation Dependent Variable Condition Mean P-significance Crispiness Control 1.80 ----------- Primarily Buckwheat 2.10 0.721 Primarily Almond 2.10 0.833 Equal Parts 1.40 0.597 Texture Control 1.80 ----------- Primarily Buckwheat 2.50 0.159 Primarily Almond 2.60 0.112 Equal Parts 2.00 0.929 Aftertaste Control 4.40 ----------- Primarily Buckwheat 3.40 0.006 Primarily Almond 3.30 0.002 Equal Parts 3.50 0.011 *SPSS was used to create averages from three consecutive weeks of data for each sensory evaluation. Significance considered p<0.05. Control being compared to the three variables.
  10. 10. Results/Discussion con’t  Volume- No significant differences  Primarily buckwheat flour (p=1.000) closest to control  Crispiness- No significant differences  Primarily almond flour (p=1.000) and equal parts buckwheat and almond flour (p=1.000) closest to control
  11. 11. Limitations  Ovens  Brand of buckwheat flour used changed from Bob’s Red Mill to Hodgson Mill  Small tasting panel
  12. 12. Conclusion  All three variables would be good substitutions for all-purpose flour  Equal parts buckwheat and almond flour would be best-closest to control  More research on almond flour and tapioca starch
  13. 13. References  Digiacomo DV, Tennyson CA, Green PH, Demmer RT. Prevalence of gluten-free diet adherence among individuals without celiac disease in the USA: results from the continuous national health and nutrition examination survey 2009-2010. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. May 2013; 48:921- 925.  Lee AR, Ng DL, Dave E, Ciaccio EJ, Green PHR. The effect of substituting alternative grains in the diet on the nutritional profile of the gluten-free diet. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2009; 22:359-363.  Rubio-Tapia A, MD, Ludvigsson JF, MD, PhD, Brantner TL, Murray JA, Everhart JE, MD, MPH. The prevalence of celiac disease in the united states. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. October 2012; 107:1538-1544.  Sumnu G, Koksel F, et al. The effects of xanthan and guar gums on staling of gluten-free rice cakes baked in different ovens. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2010; 45:87-93.  Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR. Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet in both recently-diagnosed and long-term patients with coeliac disease. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2012; 26:349-358.  Casper JL, Atwell WA.  Dapcevic Hadnadev TR, Torbica AM, Hadnadev MS. Influence of buckwheat flour and carboxymethyl cellulose on rheological behavior and baking performance of gluten-free cookie dough. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2013; 6:1770-1781.  Milde LB, Ramallo LA, Puppo MC. Gluten-free bread based on tapioca starch: texture and sensory studies. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2012; 5:888- 896.  Simurina O, et al. Cookies produced from wholegrain buckwheat flour. Institute for Food Technology, University of Novi Sad. 2009: 84-91.  Filipcev B, et al. Feasibility of use of buckwheat flour as an ingredient in ginger nut biscuit formation. Food Chemistry. 2011; 125:164-170.  Jia C, Huang W, et al. Dough rheological, mixolab mixing, and nutritional characteristics of almond cookies without xylanase. Journal of Food Engineering. 2011; 105:227-232.  Pineli L, et al. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce flour and cookies. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2015; 60:50-5

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