2. “ Prevention Is Better Than Cure”
This phrase fits aptly to hospital/health care associated
3. The fundamental ethic of health care is that sick persons
must receive care. This premise carries an unstated
consequence: an occupational risk to healthcare
workers who respond to the needs of contagious
6. RESULT:Total 100 mobile phones of healthcare professional were swabbed
to check microbial flora harboured on mobile phones.
|out of 100 mobile phones 79% were found to be contaminated with microbial flora.
8. • Microbes: Living organisms that cannot be seen with
the naked eye
• Pathogen: A microbe that can cause disease
• Infection: An illness caused by pathogens or germs
− Communicable infections: Infections that can spread
from one person to another
9. Ways Infections Are Transmitted
• The airborne route of transmission (Tuberculosis (TB),
measles, and chickenpox)
• The direct route of transmission (Herpes and
• The bloodborne route of transmission (HIV, Hepatitis
B, Hepatitis C)
10. Chain of Infection (cont.)
• For a person to get a communicable infection, six key
conditions must be met.
• Eliminating any one of the six key elements breaks the
chain and prevents the spread of infection.
14. The concept of Universal Health
Precautions emphasizes that all our
patients should be treated as
though they have potential blood
born infections, and can infect the
caring health care workers. ( CDC )
Why Standard Precautions
15. What is Standard Precautions
Standard precautions are a set of infection control
practices used to prevent transmission of diseases that
can be acquired by contact with blood, body fluids,
non-intact skin (including rashes) and mucous
They are indicated while handling all patients,
specimens and sharps.
16. Measures to be followed
All individuals, whether or not they appear infectious/
symptomatic or not
All specimens (blood or body fluids) whether they
appear infectious or not
All needles and sharps whether they appear infectious
17. Components of Standard Precaution
Personal protective equipments
22. Hand washing is the single most
important method of disease
Bacteria and Viruses can
be spread via dirty hands
and they are too small to be seen
with the human eye.
You must wash you hands
properly in order to
24. Personal protective Equipment
Specialized clothing or equipment worn by an
employee for protection against infectious materials.
(Occupational safety & health Administration, OSHA)
25. Types of PPE Used in Healthcare Settings
Gloves – protect hands
Gowns/aprons – protect skin and/or clothing
Masks and respirators– protect mouth/nose
Goggles – protect eyes
Face shields – protect face, mouth, nose, and eyes
Head cover – to prevent falling of hair
Surgical shoes/cover- to protect HCWs &
27. GLOVES: use when touching blood, body fluids,
secretions, excretions, contaminated items, for
touching mucus membranes & non-intact skin
GOWNS: use during procedures and patient care
activities when contact of clothing/ exposed skin with
blood/ body fliuds, secretions, or excretion is
28. STEPS TO PUT ON PPE
Remove all personal items (jewelry, watch, phone etc)
Put on scrub suit & rubber boots
Move to clean area
29. Donning of PPE
Examination gloves Disposable gown
Sterile gloves (long
Head cap/ hood Face shield/ Goggles Face mask
30. Doffing of PPE
Remove gownHand hygiene
Remove head cover/
head neck covering
Remove outer pair of
Hand hygieneRemove Apron
Hand Hygiene on gloved
33. What Type of PPE Would You Wear?
1. Suctioning oral secretions?
2. Transporting a patient in a wheel chair?
3. Responding to an emergency where blood is
4. Drawing blood from a vein?
5. Cleaning an incontinent patient with diarrhea?
6. Irrigating a wound?
7. Taking vital signs?
34. Suctioning oral
Gloves and mask/goggles
or a face shield –
Transporting a patient
in a wheel chair?
Generally none required
Responding to an
emergency where blood
gown, mask/goggles or a
Drawing blood from a
Cleaning an incontinent
patient with diarrhea?
Gloves w/wo gown
Irrigating a wound?
mask/goggles or a face
Taking vital signs?
35. PROBLEM SOLVING EXERCISE
A nurse in an ICU records pulse of a patient, records it in
case sheet and then goes back to nursing station.
While transporting the specimen, a drop of blood fell
on her palm. Then she enters the operation theater to
assist for a surgery.
Q. How many times she has to perform hand hygiene?
Q. What are the hand hygiene methods she has to
perform and for how much duration?
Q. What are the hand hygiene products to be used?
Hand rub: 5 times (70-80% alcohol for 20-40secs)
Before recording pulse
After recording pulse
Before drawing blood
After drawing blood
After recording in case sheet
Once after blood drop fell on palm (2-4% chlorhexidine
Once before assisting surgery (4% chlorhexidine for 3-
WHO defines needle stick injuries (NSI’s) as a
penetrating stab wound from a needle (or other sharp
object) that may result in exposure to blood or other
Main concern is exposure to blood or other body fluids
of person carrying infectious disease.
39. Risk of Infections
Following a needlestick injury the healthcare workers
are at a great risk of transmission of :
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis C virus
43. First aid management
Irrigate the site
vigorously with water for
Report to Medical
Do not panic
Do not place the pricked
finger into mouth
Do not squeeze blood
Do not use antiseptics
45. Respiratory hygeine & cough
Cover the nose/mouth with single-use tissue paper
when coughing, sneezing, wiping & blowing noses
If no tissues are available, cough or sneeze into the
inner elbow or hand
Follow hand hygiene after contact with respiratory
Keep contaminated hands away from mucous
membranes of eyes nose
46. In high risk areas of airborne transmission such as
pulmonary medicine OPD
Give mask to patients with cough
Sputum collection should be done in an open well
49. Evacuate the contaminated area
Wear a pair of heavy duty gloves
Mark the contaminated area with chalk
Use a pair of forceps / tongs/ pan and brush to sweep
broken glass (never pick up pieces with your hands
even if gloved)
Discard broken glass in sharps container
Use disposable paper towels/ absorbent material
(gauze piece, cotton, blotting paper etc) to absorb
50. Saturate the area with 1% hypochlorite ( freshly
Wait for 15-20mins
Discard absorbent material
Wipe area with disinfectant
Clean & disinfect forceps/tongs/brush & pan
Remove gloves & discard
Sterilisation is a process by which all living
microorganisms, including viable pores, are destroyed or
removed from an article, body surface or medium.
A process that destroys or removes most if not all
pathogenic organisms but not bacterial spores.
A process where the chemical agents ( called antiseptics)
are applied on to the body surfaces (skin), which kill or
inhibit the microorganisms present on the skin.
59. Disinfectants Uses
Ethyl Alcohol (70%) Handrubs
Isopropyl Alcohol Thermometers & small instruments
Formaldehyde Fumigation of OT, preservation of specimens
Glutaraldehyde (2%) Endoscopes, cystoscopes
Phenols ( phenol, lysol,
Povidone iodine Antiseptic for wounds, preoperative, before
Chlorine Disinfection of portable water
60. Sodium hypochlorite Household bleach. Lab
disinfectant(1%), for blood spills
(10%),disinfection of other items before
Bacillocid ( Quaternary ammonium
compund + glutaraldehyde)
Ethylene oxide Used in Central Sterile Services
For sterilisation of various equipments
Hydrogen peroxide Ventilator disinfection, plasma