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133. Writing techniques

  1. Writing Techniques S. LAKSHMANAN, M.Phil(Psy), M.A.(Psy), PGDBA., DCL., Psychologist (Govt. Regd)
  2. What is writing? • Writing is an important form of communication • If you are unable to write well, you will miss many opportunities in your life.
  3. Purpose of Writing • Through writing we express our  Feelings Hopes Dreams Joys Ideas Plans Fears Angers Frustrations commitments values recommendations
  5. Descriptive writing
  6. Descriptive writing • Descriptive writing is a literary device in which the author uses details to paint a picture with their words. This process will provide readers with descriptions of people, places, objects, and events through the use of suitable details. • It helps the reader use the senses of feeling, seeing, hearing, smelling, and tasting to experience what the writer experiences.
  7. Descriptive writing Contin… • Descriptive writing immerses the reader into a story by creating a vivid picture of characters, settings and events in their mind. Writers who use a descriptive writing style often use literary tools like similes and metaphors in their writing. The purpose of the descriptive writing style is to make the reader feel like they are experiencing the events for themselves. Most descriptive writing isn’t very long. Examples include poems, personal journals and lyrics.
  8. Descriptive writing Contin… • You can use descriptive writing in the workplace when you want to bring a story to life, such as a brief biography or autobiography written to introduce a new employee to the company.
  9. Examples of Descriptive Writing • Her last smile to me wasn't a sunset. It was an eclipse, the last eclipse, noon dying away to darkness where there would be no dawn. My Car driver looked like a deflating airbag and sounded like talk radio on repeat.
  10. Good Descriptive Writing Good descriptive writing creates an impression in the reader's mind of an event, a place, a person, or a thing. The writing will be such that it will set a mood or describe something in such detail that if the reader saw it, they would recognize it. To be good, descriptive writing has to be concrete, evocative and plausible.
  11. Good Descriptive Writing Contin.. • To be concrete, descriptive writing has to offer specifics the reader can envision. Rather than “Her eyes were the color of blue rocks” (Light blue? Dark blue? Marble? Slate?), try instead, “Her eyes sparkled like sapphires in the dark.”
  12. Good Descriptive Writing cont.. • To be evocative, descriptive writing has to unite the concrete image with phrasing that evokes the impression the writer wants the reader to have. Consider “her eyes shone like sapphires, warming my night” versus “the woman’s eyes had a light like sapphires, bright and hard.” Each phrase uses the same concrete image, then employs evocative language to create different impressions.
  13. Good Descriptive Writing cont.. • To be plausible, the descriptive writer has to constrain the concrete, evocative image to suit the reader’s knowledge and attention span. “Her eyes were brighter than the sapphires in the armrests of the Tipu Sultan’s golden throne, yet sharper than the tulwars of his cruelest executioners” will have the reader checking their phone halfway through. “Her eyes were sapphires, bright and hard” creates the same effect in a fraction of the reading time. As always in the craft of writing: when in doubt, write less.
  14. Narrative writing • Narrative Writing tells a personal or fictional experience or tells a story based on a real or imagined event. • A Narrative writing style tells a story. The writer introduce different character and a setting to the readers, while keeping his or her own voice silent. Narrative stories present a problem that is played out and eventually solved. One of the most common examples of a narrative is a movie script, but narratives are also frequently used in short stories as well.
  15. Types of Narrative Writing  Personal Narrative  Imaginative Narrative Writing  Narrative Essay
  16. Personal Narrative • A personal narrative essay is about a personal experience, so you should write it in the first person. A personal narrative is a story about yourself, and great personal narrative essay topics include experiences you've had, people you know, your reactions to books or other writing, and many other options. • When using a first-person writing technique, the writer is able to incorporate his own ideas into the story. Instead of just presenting the facts, the writer can left his own opinions come out in the writing. For example, a story written in a first-person technique would have the word “I” worked in throughout the text.
  18. Characteristic of Imaginative writing 1. Clarity: The writing does not confuse your audience. (This sounds so obvious, but you’d be surprised at the number of writers who think they have to be clever or coy or literary which simply leaves the reader in the dark.)
  19. 2. Form: It has a beginning, a middle and an ending. The beginning draws readers in and the ending is satisfying. This holds true for fiction, memoir, personal essays, autobiographies, and stories for children. Occasionally a genius writer ignores this, however most do not. Characteristic of Imaginative writing
  20. Form: * Short stories * Poems * Letters to self (future/past) * Letters to others * Scripts * Diary entries * Interior monologues * Prologues/Epilogues * Speeches * Autobiography, etc. Characteristic of Imaginative writing
  21. 3. Emotion: The text is emotionally charged and the reader cares what happens to the protagonist. We either cry or laugh or are scared or feel something. Characteristic of Imaginative writing
  22. 4. Meaning and connection: Recognize that it is all about people or situations that the reader can connect to. Do we entre into a story with the author for : entertainment, a subject/topic , or emotion that we too are dealing with or want to learn about, or are we looking for humour. In some way the writing connects to the rest of the world. Characteristic of Imaginative writing
  23. 5. Language: The author cares deeply about words and their power. No overblown adjectives or adverbs (and only those absolutely necessary for information.)No flabby clichés. Does the author love language ? Is there evidence of how the words and sentences are honed and rewritten? Characteristic of Imaginative writing
  24. Narrative Essay
  25. Narrative Essay • A narrative essay tells a story. In most cases, this is a story about a personal experience you had. This type of essay, along with the descriptive essay, allows you to get personal and creative, unlike most academic writing. • Narrative essays test your ability to express your experiences in a creative and compelling way, and to follow an appropriate narrative structure. They are often assigned in high school or in composition classes at university. You can also use these techniques when writing a personal statement for an application.
  26. Narrative Essay Samples • Meeting Famous People. Meeting a famous person is almost always a shock and/or surprise. ... • Playground Memory. ... • Travelling to India for the First Time. ... • Memorable Experience. ... • My First Job. ... • Studying Abroad in India. ... • Best Summer Memory of My Childhood. ... • The Ultimate Chess Game.
  27. Conventions of Narrative Writing • Narrative Writing should have a concrete theme, settings and characters, a climax and a good ending. • In narrative writing, the writer has to create a unified and dominant impression on the reader.
  28. Examples • Fiction • Non Fiction • Biography • Autobiography • Fairy tales • Short Stories • Novel Writing
  29. Expository Writing • Exposition is a type of oral or written discourse that is used to explain, describe, give information or inform. • The creator of an expository text can not assume that the reader or listener has prior knowledge or prior understanding of the topic that is being discussed.
  30. Expository Writing • This is the type of writing that explains, elucidates or simplifies. Newspaper articles, journals, even essays can demonstrate this type of writing, and it is a very common form of writing.
  31. Expository Writing Contin.. • Writing an expository article is like answering the questions of a preschooler, who is inquisitive about everything and wants to know how and why things happen. In this type of writing too, you have to assume that you are teaching them from scratch. So, they are detailed and as the name suggests, explanatory.
  32. Expository Writing Contin.. • Most of us have written some form of expository writing in school or college, or have read it somewhere. This type of writing includes but is not limited to essays like: Paragliding, Global Village, The Value Triad, etc.
  33. Types of Expository Writing • Problem and Solution. • Cause and Effect. • Compare and Contrast. • Definitions and Classification. • How-to/Process.
  34. Types of Expository Writing • Problem and Solution: These writings are exactly what one might expect: identifying an issue, giving details about it and suggesting solutions or one solution that is best from many. For example, someone may choose to write about a problem such as population explosion. After explaining the problem in detail, he or she would explore the solutions. Needless to say, the writer also has to justify the solutions proposed and how they can be implemented, if they are actually feasible or not.
  35. Types of Expository Writing • Cause and Effect: Why did something happen and what impact it might have are the two central aspects of this type of writing. They may include environmental problem or ask for opinions about an issue and how it will affect the future or what impact does a historic event have on the lives of a nation’s citizen etc. The outcomes can be definitively true or can be based on assumptions, but either way, must be validated.
  36. Types of Expository Writing • Compare and Contrast: This type of writings has two features: comparison which works with the similarities of two contents and contrast which works with the differences of the two contents. For example, if you are told to write an essay asking if children should be playing inside or outside the home, you can compare why play is important and then create a contrast to show how one is better or worse than the other.
  37. Types of Expository Writing • Definitions and Classification: This type of writing is the one you’re reading right now. This will explain what something is and how many types of the thing can there be. For example, expository writing and its types.
  38. Types of Expository Writing • How-to/Process: This type of essays will tell you about a task and how to complete that task. For example, an essay about how to make tea. You will need to first address the problem, then give the main steps the reader will take, and the end result. You can also include substitute steps in the conclusion or beside the main steps.
  39. Descriptive Writing • A description is a picture in words that helps the reader see, hear, taste, smell, or feel something that the writer has experienced. • Descriptive writing is a literary device in which the author uses details to paint a picture with their words. This process will provide readers with descriptions of people, places, objects, and events through the use of suitable details
  40. Descriptive Writing use exact, vivid words to create a picture in the reader’s mind include important details about what you are describing
  41. Persuasive Writing
  42. Persuasive Writing DEFINITION: • “A written work in which a writer presents a case for or against a particular position. A writer's purpose is to inform, to entertain, to shape a view point ,to argue for a particular position. A writer’s purpose is to convince his audience.” • 'Persuasive writing' is a form of writing in which the writer uses words to convince the reader that the writer's opinion is correct in regards to an issue. EXAMPLE: • Writing about some news paper to persuade the readers.
  43. Example • I am forty years old, rather tall and I have blue eyes and short black hair. I wear casual clothes as I teach students in a relaxed atmosphere. I enjoy my job because I get to meet and help so many different people from all over the world. During my spare time, I like playing tennis which I play at least three times a week. I also love listening to classical music and I must admit that I spend a lot of money on buying new CDs! I live in a pretty seaside town on the Italian coast. I enjoy eating great Italian food and laughing with the likable people who live here
  44. PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES • Adjective. Describing words, often used to make the reader feel a particular way about an issue. ... • Alliteration. The repetition of words starting with the same to create emphasis. ... • Anecdotes. ... • Cliches. ... • Emotive words. ... • Evidence. ... • Inclusive language. ... • Pun.
  45. Objective Writing • Being objective suggests that you are concerned about facts and are not influenced by personal feelings or biases. Part of being objective is being fair in your work. Try to consider both sides of an argument and avoid making value judgements by using words such as wonderful or appalling • If you want to write in the objective tone, you must avoid words like 'I', 'me' and 'my', but you must also avoid evaluative words - words which express your personal feelings or emotions, like 'terrible', 'wonderful', etc.
  46. What are the objectives of writing skills? • Written Communication. The overall objective is to develop students' written expression of thought and provide learners opportunities to explore ideas and to build connections between content areas. ... • Oral Communication. ... • Critical Thinking. ... • Quantitative Analysis. ... • Research. ... • Information and Computer Literacy
  47. Objectivity Examples: Investigations • For example, if an employee complains of sexual harassment from another employee, the company would use objective methods to verify this complaint. Recognizing your biases and separating facts from feelings is essential to objectivity in investigations.
  48. Subjective Writing • A story written in a subjective writing technique displays facts from both sides of an issue or subject. The writer is able to use first- person terms such as the word “I”, but does not choose one side support. Writers simply list the pros and cons of subject so the readers can develop their own informed opinions. Newspaper articles are often written in a subjective style.
  49. Subjective Writing Contin… Likewise, subjective writing or point of view is based on the writer's own observation and experience. ... It focuses on the writer's personal point of view and not built on facts that others see or things others go through. Third person point of view can also be subjective.
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