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System of Rice Intensification (SRI)  An innovative technology to produce ‘ More crop per drop’  Dr. A. SATYANARAYANA Director of  Extension Acharya N. G.Ranga Agricultural University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -30
Rice in India Major food crop: Normal area: 45 million ha  Normal production: 90 million tons Rice production:  75.72 m.tons (2002-2003 (lowest in last 10 years) Reasons:    *  Irrigation water crisis *  Diminishing returns to chemical      inputs (fertilizer, agrochemicals)
RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Irrigation Status of Andhra Pradesh Total geographical area :  274.40 lakh ha Total cultivable area : 93.0 lakh ha Area under irrigation : 57.76 lakh ha 4.00 Waterlogged Area 8.00 Salt Affected Area 57.76 Total 2.54 Other sources 11.53 Other wells 14.42 Tube wells 7.19 Tanks 22.08 Canals Area (lakh ha) Source of Irrigation
WATER  PRODUCTIVITY  IN  RICE ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RICE WATER CONSUMPTION -  Irrigated rice is the leading consumer of water -  Rice is the most widely consumed staple crop -  Finding ways to reduce the demand for water to grow    irrigated rice in the necessity . -  If rice production can be increased while water consumption is reduced, this is the need of the hour
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The growth  and  performance  of  rice  are achieved with substantial reduction in water applications using SRI methods: China up to 65% Yuan Longping (2001)  achieve 16 t/ha Philippines by 67%  Lazaro et al. (2004) with yield increase 3.66 -> 7.33 t/ha China by 43.2% Li  et al. (2004) village study in Sichuan Province # of irrigations reduced Sri Lanka (IWMI)  32  ->  24 Dry season (Namara et al., 2004) 29  ->  22 Wet season 90% increase in water productivity (kg rice/water issue) 33% fewer hours spent in irrigation activity
SRI has had the disadvantage of sounding “too good to be true” – but can get: “ More crop per drop” SRI is a set of principles and insights about how rice plants can be induced to become more productive An understanding of soil ecology reinforces the idea that water application should be optimised rather than maximised.
20 th  Century Modern Agriculture ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Biological power and eco-agriculture should be the basic foundations for soil health and for 21 st  century agriculture  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The basic ideas of SRI Rice plants do best when their roots can grow large because -  young seedlings are transplanted carefully, - given wider spacing and  - grown in soil that is kept well aerated- with abundant and diverse soil microorganisms
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On-farm evaluation of SRI in A.P. ANGRAU   DOA Kharif 2003-04  200  500 Rabi 2003-04  >2000   Volunteer farmers with      larger areas Kharif 2004-05  250  800 Rabi 2004-05  250  + Thousands of volunteer    farmers
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Tillering is greatly increased ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
 
 
Rice plant ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Conventional system with more water
Intermittent wetting and drying with soil aeration
SIX MECHANISMS AND PROCESSES FOR SRI ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
 
 
Main field   preparation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
 
 
Diagram of possible stalks of a rice shoot stalks grow following a regular cycle (phyllochron)
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Crop residues
Green Manure crop (Sunhemp)
Crop residues
Nursery Management ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
PADDY YIELDS UNDER  SRI  IN COASTAL AREA  Kharif 2003-04   YIELD( Kg/ha)
PADDY YIELDS UNDER  SRI  IN TELANGANA AREA  Kharif 2003-04   YIELD( Kg/ha)
PADDY YIELDS UNDER  SRI  IN RAYALASEEMA  Kharif 2003-04   YIELD( Kg/ha)
Performance of SRI in AP-Kharif 2004 (ANGRAU) No. of trials 194 SRI   7.6 t/ha Conventional   5.9 t/ha Advantage   1.7 t/ha
PADDY YIELDS UNDER  SRI  IN KHARIF 2004-05 IN A.P.  (ANGRAU)  YIELD( Kg/ha)
Performance of SRI in AP- Kharif 2003-04  (Trials organized by State DOA) No. of trials  -  476 Average SRI yield (t/ha) -  7.92 Control (t/ha) -  5.48 State average productivity (t/ha) -  3.01 2 districts averaged over  10 t/ha 6 districts averaged over  9 t/ha
Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer :  Mr.A.Jayasurya Reddy Address :  Tarimala Village, Singanamala Mandal   Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh Season :  Rainy season 2003 Area under SRI :  0.2 ha Variety :  BPT 5204  140 150 Duration(days) 8 12600 7110 Straw yield (kg/ha) 7 13297 5850 Grain yield (kg/ha) 6 3.2 19.2 Chaffy grain (%) 5 14.4 13.3 1000 grain weight (g) 4 14.2 15.5 Length of panicle (cm) 3 152 87 No. of grains/panicle 2 706 503 No. of productive tillers/m2 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer :  Mr.K.Venka Subba Reddy Address :  Konidedu Village, Panyam Mandal   Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh Season :  Rainy season 2003 Area under SRI :  840 m 2 Variety :  BPT 5204  18000 16250 Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) 9 15774 5625 Grain yield kg/ha 8 21.1 18.8 1000 grain weight(g) 7 202 105 No. of grains/panicle 6 20.2 17.2 Panicle length (cm) 5 1040 510 Productive tillers/m 2 4 10-12-2003 10-12-2003 Date of harvesting 3 28-7-2003 31-7-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 19-7-2003 22-6-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer :  Mr.Rakesh Address :  EdulapalliVillage, Kotturu  Mandal   Mahabubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh Variety :  BPT 5204 Area under SRI :  0.8 ha  (*) Only organic manures were applied  8.9 4.7 Grain yield t/ha 7 210 150 No. of grains/panicle 6 20 14 Length of the panicle (cm) 5 40 20 No. of productive tillers/hill 4 5-12-2003 6-11-2003 Date of harvesting 3 17-7-2003 28-6-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 7-7-2003 6-6-2003 Date of sowing  1. SRI  (*) Farmers method Parameter S.No.
Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer :  Mr.T.Sambi Reddy Address :  Bhadirajupalem Village, ThotlavallurMandal   Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh Area under SRI :  0.2 ha Variety :  BPT 5204  17,500 15,000 Cost of cultivation per ha 8 12576 8036 Grain yield (kg/ha) 7 357 254 No. of grains/panicle 6 30 22 Length of the panicle(cm) 5 42 13 No. of productive tillers/hill 4 13-12-2003 13-12-2003 Date of harvesting 3 1-8-2003 17-8-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 20-7-2003 20-7-2003 Date of sowing  1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
Performance of Rice under SRI during Rabi 2003-04 No. of trials (data reported so far)   -  94 Average SRI yield (kg/ha)  -  9,669 Average conventional yield (kg/ha)  -  7,125 Yield advantage (kg/ha)  -  2,554 Highest yield recorded under SRI (kg/ha) -  17,250
SRI is Counterintuitive Less can produce more Younger seedlings becomes larger and more productive Fewer plants/hill and per m 2  give more yield  Less water can give greater yield Less chemical fertilizers can result in higher yields Less pesticides to control pests
SRI Utilizes Biological Power ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Benefits of SRI 1. Higher yields – Both grain and straw 2. Reduced duration (by 10 days) 3. Lesser chemical inputs 4. Less water requirement 5. Less chaffy grain % 6. Grain weight increased without change in grain size 7. Higher head rice recovery 8. Withstood cyclonic gales 9. Cold tolerance 10. Soil health improves through biological activity 11. Drought tolerance
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Swarna under SRI
 
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0501 SRI An Innovative Technology to Produce more Crop per Drop

  • 1. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) An innovative technology to produce ‘ More crop per drop’ Dr. A. SATYANARAYANA Director of Extension Acharya N. G.Ranga Agricultural University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -30
  • 2. Rice in India Major food crop: Normal area: 45 million ha Normal production: 90 million tons Rice production: 75.72 m.tons (2002-2003 (lowest in last 10 years) Reasons: * Irrigation water crisis * Diminishing returns to chemical inputs (fertilizer, agrochemicals)
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  • 4. Irrigation Status of Andhra Pradesh Total geographical area : 274.40 lakh ha Total cultivable area : 93.0 lakh ha Area under irrigation : 57.76 lakh ha 4.00 Waterlogged Area 8.00 Salt Affected Area 57.76 Total 2.54 Other sources 11.53 Other wells 14.42 Tube wells 7.19 Tanks 22.08 Canals Area (lakh ha) Source of Irrigation
  • 5.
  • 6. RICE WATER CONSUMPTION - Irrigated rice is the leading consumer of water - Rice is the most widely consumed staple crop - Finding ways to reduce the demand for water to grow irrigated rice in the necessity . - If rice production can be increased while water consumption is reduced, this is the need of the hour
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  • 9. The growth and performance of rice are achieved with substantial reduction in water applications using SRI methods: China up to 65% Yuan Longping (2001) achieve 16 t/ha Philippines by 67% Lazaro et al. (2004) with yield increase 3.66 -> 7.33 t/ha China by 43.2% Li et al. (2004) village study in Sichuan Province # of irrigations reduced Sri Lanka (IWMI) 32 -> 24 Dry season (Namara et al., 2004) 29 -> 22 Wet season 90% increase in water productivity (kg rice/water issue) 33% fewer hours spent in irrigation activity
  • 10. SRI has had the disadvantage of sounding “too good to be true” – but can get: “ More crop per drop” SRI is a set of principles and insights about how rice plants can be induced to become more productive An understanding of soil ecology reinforces the idea that water application should be optimised rather than maximised.
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  • 13. The basic ideas of SRI Rice plants do best when their roots can grow large because - young seedlings are transplanted carefully, - given wider spacing and - grown in soil that is kept well aerated- with abundant and diverse soil microorganisms
  • 14.
  • 15. On-farm evaluation of SRI in A.P. ANGRAU DOA Kharif 2003-04 200 500 Rabi 2003-04 >2000 Volunteer farmers with larger areas Kharif 2004-05 250 800 Rabi 2004-05 250 + Thousands of volunteer farmers
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  • 26. Intermittent wetting and drying with soil aeration
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  • 35. Diagram of possible stalks of a rice shoot stalks grow following a regular cycle (phyllochron)
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  • 41. Green Manure crop (Sunhemp)
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  • 44. PADDY YIELDS UNDER SRI IN COASTAL AREA Kharif 2003-04 YIELD( Kg/ha)
  • 45. PADDY YIELDS UNDER SRI IN TELANGANA AREA Kharif 2003-04 YIELD( Kg/ha)
  • 46. PADDY YIELDS UNDER SRI IN RAYALASEEMA Kharif 2003-04 YIELD( Kg/ha)
  • 47. Performance of SRI in AP-Kharif 2004 (ANGRAU) No. of trials 194 SRI 7.6 t/ha Conventional 5.9 t/ha Advantage 1.7 t/ha
  • 48. PADDY YIELDS UNDER SRI IN KHARIF 2004-05 IN A.P. (ANGRAU) YIELD( Kg/ha)
  • 49. Performance of SRI in AP- Kharif 2003-04 (Trials organized by State DOA) No. of trials - 476 Average SRI yield (t/ha) - 7.92 Control (t/ha) - 5.48 State average productivity (t/ha) - 3.01 2 districts averaged over 10 t/ha 6 districts averaged over 9 t/ha
  • 50. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.A.Jayasurya Reddy Address : Tarimala Village, Singanamala Mandal Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh Season : Rainy season 2003 Area under SRI : 0.2 ha Variety : BPT 5204 140 150 Duration(days) 8 12600 7110 Straw yield (kg/ha) 7 13297 5850 Grain yield (kg/ha) 6 3.2 19.2 Chaffy grain (%) 5 14.4 13.3 1000 grain weight (g) 4 14.2 15.5 Length of panicle (cm) 3 152 87 No. of grains/panicle 2 706 503 No. of productive tillers/m2 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  • 51. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.K.Venka Subba Reddy Address : Konidedu Village, Panyam Mandal Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh Season : Rainy season 2003 Area under SRI : 840 m 2 Variety : BPT 5204 18000 16250 Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) 9 15774 5625 Grain yield kg/ha 8 21.1 18.8 1000 grain weight(g) 7 202 105 No. of grains/panicle 6 20.2 17.2 Panicle length (cm) 5 1040 510 Productive tillers/m 2 4 10-12-2003 10-12-2003 Date of harvesting 3 28-7-2003 31-7-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 19-7-2003 22-6-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  • 52. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.Rakesh Address : EdulapalliVillage, Kotturu Mandal Mahabubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh Variety : BPT 5204 Area under SRI : 0.8 ha (*) Only organic manures were applied 8.9 4.7 Grain yield t/ha 7 210 150 No. of grains/panicle 6 20 14 Length of the panicle (cm) 5 40 20 No. of productive tillers/hill 4 5-12-2003 6-11-2003 Date of harvesting 3 17-7-2003 28-6-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 7-7-2003 6-6-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI (*) Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  • 53. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.T.Sambi Reddy Address : Bhadirajupalem Village, ThotlavallurMandal Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh Area under SRI : 0.2 ha Variety : BPT 5204 17,500 15,000 Cost of cultivation per ha 8 12576 8036 Grain yield (kg/ha) 7 357 254 No. of grains/panicle 6 30 22 Length of the panicle(cm) 5 42 13 No. of productive tillers/hill 4 13-12-2003 13-12-2003 Date of harvesting 3 1-8-2003 17-8-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 20-7-2003 20-7-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  • 54. Performance of Rice under SRI during Rabi 2003-04 No. of trials (data reported so far) - 94 Average SRI yield (kg/ha) - 9,669 Average conventional yield (kg/ha) - 7,125 Yield advantage (kg/ha) - 2,554 Highest yield recorded under SRI (kg/ha) - 17,250
  • 55. SRI is Counterintuitive Less can produce more Younger seedlings becomes larger and more productive Fewer plants/hill and per m 2 give more yield Less water can give greater yield Less chemical fertilizers can result in higher yields Less pesticides to control pests
  • 56.
  • 57. Benefits of SRI 1. Higher yields – Both grain and straw 2. Reduced duration (by 10 days) 3. Lesser chemical inputs 4. Less water requirement 5. Less chaffy grain % 6. Grain weight increased without change in grain size 7. Higher head rice recovery 8. Withstood cyclonic gales 9. Cold tolerance 10. Soil health improves through biological activity 11. Drought tolerance
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