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0604 Directorate of Rice Research's Experience of SRI Method of Rice Cultivation

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0604 Directorate of Rice Research's Experience of SRI Method of Rice Cultivation

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Presenter: S.V. Subbaiah, R.Mahender Kumar and J.S.Bentur

Institution: Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad

Subject Country: Hyderabad, India

Presenter: S.V. Subbaiah, R.Mahender Kumar and J.S.Bentur

Institution: Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad

Subject Country: Hyderabad, India

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0604 Directorate of Rice Research's Experience of SRI Method of Rice Cultivation

  1. 2. S.V. Subbaiah, R.Mahender Kumar and J.S.Bentur DRR.HYDERABAD www.drricar.org DRR’S EXPERIENCE OF SRI METHOD OF RICE CULTIVATION IN INDIA
  2. 3. 361.1 439.2 548.2 646.3 1012.4 1200 1400 65.46 85.00 111.53 146.55 201.6 253 305 90 140 100 In Millions Population Food grain Rice Population, production of food grains and rice Trends and Projections Rice Food grains 0 400 800 1200 1600 1951-60 1961-70 1971-80 1981-90 1999-00 2009-10 2024-25 211.3 (2002) 93.3 (2002)
  3. 4. Overview of Indian Agriculture <ul><li>Total geographical area - 32,68,090 Sq.km </li></ul><ul><li>Net sown area – 141 M. ha. </li></ul><ul><li>Population dependent on agriculture 51% </li></ul><ul><li>Rural population dependent on agriculture 70% </li></ul><ul><li>Part of GDP in agriculture 21% </li></ul>
  4. 5. Why SRI Rice ?
  5. 6. The Annual per capita Availability of water 1951 : 5177 cubic meters 2001 : 1869 cubic meters 2025 : 1341 cubic meters per capita availability is ~ 1000 cubic meters: Health and Economic Activity of the Whole Country is affected 5.5 % of the geographical area and 7.6 % of the population are facing acute water shortage with less than 500 cubic meters.
  6. 8. Implications on Rice Growing <ul><li>Rice takes away >50% of Agriculture’s irrigation water </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the rice production comes from Irrigated areas and country’s food security largely depends on this. </li></ul><ul><li>There is little scope for development/adoption of water saving technologies in other crops </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure on Rice to cut down the water requirements will be higher </li></ul>
  7. 9.   So System of Rice Intensification (SRI ) evolved in 1980s’ in Madagascar by Fr. Henri de Laulanie permits resource limited farmers to realize high yield of paddy in fertile soils, with greatly reduced rates of irrigation water and without external inputs (Willem A. Stoop et al., 2002) SRI is a system/method rather than a technology
  8. 10. Principles underlying SRI practices Ø   Rice is not an aquatic plant. Ø   Rice seedlings lose much of their growth potential when transplanted beyond 15 days of age Ø   Stresses from root damage during uprooting delay plant establishment and resumption of growth leading to lower no. of tillers and root development Ø   Wider spacing of plants leads to greater root growth and accompanying tillering Ø   Soil aeration and organic matter create beneficial conditions for plant root growth and for consequent plant vigor and health .
  9. 11. SRI – important features <ul><li>Transplanting of young seedlings with soil (8-10 day old) </li></ul><ul><li>Line planting with wider Spacing 25 x 25 cm </li></ul><ul><li>No standing water during entire crop growth </li></ul><ul><li>Application of organic manure </li></ul><ul><li>Early and frequent weeding with cono weeder </li></ul>
  10. 13. Claims of SRI method <ul><li>Higher yields (up to 15 t/ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Water saving (up to 50%) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved soil quality </li></ul><ul><li>Increased fertilizer use efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced requirement of seeds (5 vs 20 kg/ha) </li></ul>Scientific validation of these claims have not been done in India
  11. 15. Swarna under SRI
  12. 16. Multi-location evaluation Kharif 2004 Four crop establishment methods were compared. S1 – Normal Transplanting (NT) S2 – System of rice intensification (SRI) S3 – Integrated crop management (ICM) S4 – Direct Seeding with drum seeder Three genotypes viz ., V1 - variety Krishnahamsa, V2 - rice hybrid KRH-2 and V3 - Local check Test sites : 21 Studies were conducted under identical nutrient management conditions across the treatments.
  13. 17. Multi-location evaluation Kharif 2004 - Results <ul><li>At 18 locations treatments differed significantly in grain yield </li></ul><ul><li>At 11 of these location SRI had significantly higher yield than NT </li></ul><ul><li>At 3 location SRI was better than ICM </li></ul><ul><li>At 4 locations SRI was comparable to ICM </li></ul><ul><li>At 2 locations ICM was better than SRI </li></ul><ul><li>At 5 locations significant interaction between cultivars and treatment noted </li></ul><ul><li>Increased yield was associated with increased number of panicles per unit area </li></ul><ul><li>Increased yield was not associated with soil type or soil pH </li></ul>
  14. 18. Average grain yield under different methods- kharif 2004 NT SRI ICM 1 2 3 4 5 6 Grain yield t/ha) Standard TP SRI ICM Methods of Crop establishment
  15. 19. Fig. 1 Grain yield under different methods of crop establishment – Kharif 2004 Location SRI<NT SRI=NT SRI>NT SRI>ICM>NT SRI=ICM
  16. 20. Multi-location evaluation Kharif 2005 Four crop establishment methods were compared. S1 – Standard transplanting S2 – System of rice intensification (SRI) S3 – Integrated crop management (ICM) S4 – Direct Seeding with drum seeder Only one local popular rice variety was used Test sites : 21 Studies were conducted under identical nutrient management conditions across the treatments.
  17. 21. Multi-location evaluation Kharif 2005 - Results <ul><li>At 21 locations treatments differed significantly in grain yield </li></ul><ul><li>At 10 of these location SRI had significantly higher yield than NT </li></ul><ul><li>At 3 location SRI was better than ICM </li></ul><ul><li>At 7 locations SRI was comparable to ICM </li></ul><ul><li>At 3 locations increased yield was associated with increased number of panicles per unit area </li></ul><ul><li>Increased yield was not associated with time of transplanting </li></ul>SRI may prove valuable in situations of late transplanting due to delayed water availability
  18. 22. Fig. 2 Grain yield under different methods of crop establishment – Kharif 2005 Location SRI>ICM>NT SRI=ICM SRI>NT SRI=NT SRI< NT
  19. 23. DRR station trial - Rabi 2003 Four crop establishment methods were compared. S1 – Normal Transplanting (NT) with 15 X 20 cm S2 – System of rice intensification (SRI) using 12 day old seedlings S3 – System of rice intensification (SRI) using 25 day old seedlings S4 – Normal Transplanting (NT) with 25 X 25 cm Seven genotypes viz ., Varieties- Jaya, Rasi, Krishnahamsa,Tulasi Hybrids - PHB- 71, KRH-2 Aromatic rice - Pusa basmati Studies were conducted under identical nutrient management conditions across the treatments.
  20. 24. Mean over genotypes SRI gave 16.6% higher grain yield over NT Hybrids recorded 46 – 48% higher yield under SRI Varieties recorded 5 – 17% higher yield under SRI Aromatic rice registered lower yield (35%) under SRI SRI with 25 day old seedlings not effective NT with wider spacing not effective Higher grain yield due to higher number of effective tillers per unit area and higher biomass SRI is cultivar sensitive method. Hybrids are more responsive to SRI DRR station trial - Rabi 2003 Results
  21. 25. Varieties as influenced by for SRI method
  22. 26. SRI modification on grain yield
  23. 27. DRR station trial – Kharif 2004-05 Four time of transplanting after uprooting were compared S1 – System of rice intensification (SRI) using 8 day old seedling transplanted immediately after uprooting S2 – System of rice intensification (SRI) using 8 day old seedling transplanted 12 hr after uprooting S3 - System of rice intensification (SRI) using 8 day old seedling transplanted 24 hr after uprooting S4 – System of rice intensification (SRI) using 8 day old seedling transplanted 48 hr after uprooting Two genotypes viz ., Studies were conducted under identical nutrient management conditions across the treatments.
  24. 28. SRI using 8-14 day old seedling transplanted immediately after uprooting proved better over other treatments Delay in transplanting gradually reduced grain yield DRR station trial – Kharif 2004-05 Results
  25. 29. CONCLUSIONS Based on data collected for two seasons, SRI appears to be more promising in terms of grain yield although gains observed were genotype and location specific. Further studies are required to confirm these results.
  26. 30. Research issues to be addressed in SRI:     Preferred plant type characteristics for SRI have not been established in any systematic way. Delineation of area/zone for SRI adoption based on soil type. Quantification of water saving in SRI Role of soil microbial population in yield enhancment and sustainance
  27. 31. Most Popular Rice Varieties Pest & Disease Resistance DRR Ajaya BLB Vikramarya , Nidhi RTV Suraksha, Shaktiman Multiple pest resistance Sonasali , Chaitanya, Vajram, Jyoti, Gauri BPH Phalguna , Vikram, Triguna , Mahamaya, Kavya, Pavitra, Shakti Gall midge Varieties Pest
  28. 32. Thanking you Everything can stop but not Agriculture “ Pandit Nehru”

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