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  2. BUILDING AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (BAS) INTRODUCTION: Building Automation is the automatic centralized control of a building's heating, ventilation and air conditioning, lighting and other systems through a Building Management System or Building Automation System (BAS). The objectives of building automation are improved occupant comfort, efficient operation of building systems, and reduction in energy consumption and operating costs. A BMS consists of software and hardware; the software program, usually configured in a hierarchical manner, can be proprietary, using such protocols as C-bus, Profibus, and so on, recently, however, new vendors are producing BMSs that integrate using Internet protocols and open standards such as Device Net, SOAP, XML, BACnet, Lon Works and Modbus. BUILDING AUTOMATION SYSTEM (BAS):  HVAC System  Lighting & Electrical System  Water Management System  Lifts, Escalators & Travellators
  3. INTELLIGENT ARCHITECTURE Intelligent architecture refers to built forms whose integrated systems are capable of anticipating and responding to phenomena, whether internal or external, that affect the performance of the building and its occupants. Intelligent architecture relates to three distinct areas of concern: 1 intelligent design; 2 appropriate use of intelligent technology; 3 intelligent use and maintenance of buildings. INTELLIGENT DESIGN requires that the building design responds to humanistic, cultural and contextual issues; that it exhibits simultaneous concern for economic, political and global issues; and that it produces an artificial enclosure which exists in harmony with nature. INTELLIGENT BUILDING PYRAMID.
  4. What is Building Automation in HVAC systems ?  Provide heating, cooling, ventilation, air filtration, and humidity control to building spaces  Respond to varying ambient environmental conditions to maintain building occupant comfort  Often have complex sequences of operation  Typically highest energy consumer in building  Modern building control systems had their roots in controlling HVAC systems WHAT IS THE NEED OF BAS ?  Keeps the building climate within a specified range.  Provides lighting based on an occupancy schedule.  Monitors system performance and device failures.  Provides malfunction alarms (via email and/or text notifications) to building engineering/maintenance staff.  Reduces building energy and maintenance costs when compared to a non-controlled building.
  5. WHAT IS CONTROLLED ? Generally, building automation begins with control of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems. For instance, the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is almost always controlled, including control of its various pieces of equipment such as :  Chillers  Boilers  Air Handling Units (AHUs)  Roof-top Units (RTUs)  Fan Coil Units (FCUs)  Heat Pump Units (HPUs)  Variable Air Volume boxes (VAVs)
  6.  The advantages of all- air systems are as follows: • separation of mechanical areas and major equipment from occupants; • possibility of using outdoor air for cooling and recovery; • flexibility to outdoor and occupancy changes;  The disadvantages of all- air systems are: • they require close cooperation between architectural, system and structural designers to ensure accessible terminal devices. CONTrOL AND OpTIMIzATION Of AIr-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS TYPICAL CONTROL LOOPS OF THE AIR- CONDITIONING PROCESS 1. Typical air- side systems  The types of air- side air- conditioning systems include all- air systems, air water systems, and all- water systems. Constant air- volume systems and variable air- volume systems are two major categories of all- air systems concerned with air flow control. Regarding ductwork design, these systems can be further divided into single- duct systems and dual- duct systems.
  7. 2. Cascade control Cascade control can be used when there are several measurement signals and one control variable. It is particularly useful when there are significant dynamics between the control variable and the process variable. Cascade control can be categorized into two kinds. One is called basic cascade control, built up by nesting the control loops The other is called reconfigured cascade control, which is tailored for specific applications. 3. Sequential split- range control It is used when there is one measured variable and several control variables. Systems of this type are common in air- conditioning control such as when heating and cooling are provided simultaneously. One physical device is used for heating and another for cooling.
  8. 4. Two- position control and on/off control Most building processes are controlled by continuous modulating control. However, there are still many processes controlled using two- position control primarily due to the low cost of the control actuation devices. Fan- coil units and room air- conditioning units often employ a two- position control The difference between the ‘on’ and ‘off’ points of the thermostat is called the control differential. The difference between the high temperature and low temperature in the room is called the operating differential. 5. Temperature controls Temperature control is the most fundamental function of air- conditioning systems. Temperature control is often done by a temperature controller called A thermostat which is set to the desired temperature value or set- point. The temperature deviation, or offset, from the set- point causes a control signal to be sent to the controlled device.
  9. 6. Humidity control Humidity control in a conditioned space is either for thermal comfort or Industrial processes, which is done by controlling the amount of water Vapors present in the air in the space. When relative humidity at the desired Temperature set- point is too high, dehumidification is required to reduce the Amount of water vapor in the air for humidity control. Similarly, when relative Humidity at the desired temperature set-point is too low, humidification Is required to increase the amount of water vapor in the air for humidity Control. Commonly used dehumidification methods include: • Surface dehumidification on cooling coils simultaneous with sensible Cooling; • Chilled water spray dehumidification with direct contact; • Direct dehumidification with desiccant- based dehumidifiers. • Commonly used Humidification methods include: water spray humidification and steam Spray humidification.
  10. 7. Static pressure control In a variable air volume system, the supply air volume delivered varies with the building load. It is necessary to provide some means of fan capacity modulation and static pressure control in the duct system. Static pressure control will prevent excessive noise generation and energy loss as the variable air volume system reduces the demand of air volume. Damper throttling can offer a low cost method of controlling air flow rate. There are four typical types of fans with variable capacity usually used in HVAC applications: 1 variable- speed centrifugal fan; 2 axial fan with variable pitch angle; 3 fan with variable inlet vanes; 4 fan with variable outlet vanes.
  11. Control of CAV systems The air- handling unit is one of the most important components in HVAC systems. The processed air can provide heating or cooling, adjust the humidity and refresh the air for each conditioned zone. The control system must be able to optimize the temperature, humidity and fresh air ratio in the supply air to provide comfortable air with minimum energy consumption. The components of the air- handler include fans, heat exchanger coils, dampers, ducts, sensor and control instruments. The system and its control which is a single- duct heating and cooling air- handling system with a return air fan and a supply air fan. The system is hot water or steam heating and chilled water cooling. It also uses an economizer control cycle to control an outdoor air (O.A.) damper. Usually outdoor air, return air (R.A.) and exhaust air (E.A.) dampers are interlocked. Generally, supply air leaving the cooling coil after surface dehumidification is often near a saturated condition and can meet indoor humidity requirements in cooling seasons. Therefore, no special measure is needed to control supply air humidity in cooling seasons.
  12. Control of VAV systems Variable air volume systems represent one major type of HVAC system in use today. VAV systems are the results of developments of fans, motor drivers, air diffusers and control in response to global energy crises. VAV systems are divided into single- duct systems and dual- duct systems. In single- duct VAV systems, the supply air temperature is controlled to be constant or is reset by optimized supervisory control while the supply air volume changes to satisfy the cooling load. As the volume of the supply air to the zones through the terminal units (VAV boxes) changes, the air volume delivered by the fan must also be adjusted. The control methods employ mainly motor- actuated variable inlet vanes on the fan, variable- speed fan and variable pitch angle. Control of VAV air- handling units
  13. Outdoor air ventilation control and optimization  Economizer control  Demand- controlled ventilation Economizer control and its performance Economizer control can be employed to save energy when it is beneficial to do so. In the cold season, economizer control can be employed to keep a minimum supply of fresh air. When temperature increases, cooling is required. Meanwhile, if the temperature (or enthalpy) is lower than that of return air, economizer control can be used to regulate the fresh air damper to introduce fresh air to maintain the supply air temperature at the set-point. This packaged HVAC system has an economizer.
  14. Demand- controlled ventilation Outdoor ventilation airflow is one of the key factors affecting air quality in air- conditioned indoor spaces. DCV is one of the alternative strategies to achieve acceptable indoor air quality with minimum energy consumption. Current ASHRAE standard 62–2004 requires that the minimum design outdoor ventilation air flow rate should be based on the occupancy of the space and the area of the space. Measuring directly the actual concentration of pollutants in indoor air is ideally the best means of controlling indoor air quality. However, it is hard to find one sensor that is able to accurately sense all the major pollutants at the same time. Even for typical pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (vocs), it is hard to find an accurate and reliable sensor that is reasonably simple and sufficiently low cost to allow it to be used in online control applications. Occupancy sensors are widely used in the control of lighting systems.
  15. An overview of optimal control methods used for HVAC systems
  16. FEATURES OF AUTOMATION IN HVAC:- 1. Direct digital controls (ddc) let you control your building via the internet. That means you can take control of your building's system from practically anywhere in the world. 2. Its controls require fewer personnel to monitor and maintain the systems. Even if you have a large facility, automated alerts can tell your personnel when a problem arises. Your system can also use colored graphs to make it easier for one person to manage. 3. Instead of replacing expensive hardware, most direct digital control upgrades only need new software. 4. Digital controls offer better accuracy than pneumatic designs. With better accuracy, you can maintain comfortable temperature levels throughout a building without losing efficiency. 5. Ddc can improve indoor air quality with demand-based ventilation controls. 6. Much easier to change equipment run schedules. DEVICE , COMPONENT AND APPLICATIONS IN AUTOMATION IN HVAC: - • Remote controlled automated hvac:- • The ir (infrared) technology are used in all automated or remote control devices. • Hvac automation control can run from your ipad, mobile telephone device, stand-alone controller equipment, or computer whose connection to the hvac units rely on infrared (ir) electronic control technology. • Technicians can integrate home automation program into the smartphone and mobile phone remote control that works from a distance.
  17. SENSOR BASED HVAC:- Thermostats and other types of smart thermostats give you greater control over when your ac is on. These thermostats allow you to adjust the temperature settings as needed from different locations, so you can raise or lower them when you’re not at home. For example, you can leave your ac off while you’re at work and turn the thermostat down to get your ac running while you’re driving home. You can program these thermostats to go on and off at certain times or let them determine when your home needs cooling by detecting whether or not you’re around. SMART AIR CONDITIONER IN MARKET USING SMART TECHNOLOGIES:- 1. Ubiquitous sensor network for smart cooling:- • Developments in the field of electronics, have made the usage of variegated sensors cinch for heavy electrical appliances. Most of the top ac brands use assorted mix of sensors and sensor technologies to impart smart cooling. Hitachi uses revolutionary isee technology which comes in the new hitachi models (e.G kashikoi series). These models come with an intelligent image sensor technology ensure that the users inside the room get an equal attention for an equal cooling comfort while minimizing the wastage of cooling. The image sensor detects number of people in the room, their location, their activity etc. And then cools accordingly to ensure maximum cooling comfort Temperature monitoring and security:- gadgets such as sentri are useful for more than one purpose. These gadgets are able to monitor the temperature inside your home when you’re away, so you know whether or not your ac should be on. They also act as a remote security system that allows you to check on your home throughout the day with the help of a built-in camera. This means you can save money on cooling your home while also making sure everything is safe and sound when you’re not around.
  18. It also recognizes the shape and size of the room and then regulates its swing angle with a special smart swing feature in a bid to optimize cooling. Another important feature is it also recognizes human absence in the room for a specified time and switches the ac off automatically to avoid cooling wastage. Taking cues from hitachi, even the new daikin acs come with a smart human sensor that detects human presence (and their count) to optimally cool the room App control of acs using the smartphone:- With the growth of smartphone, flurry of apps, millennials want an app for everything; even for controlling their ac. The ac manufacturers have fulfilled this demand by developing a smart dedicated app to control the ac. Here too hitachi leads the pack with wifi connect technology which additionally comes with wifi direct functionality. The user simply needs to download the dedicated hitachi app and pair it with a router. Once the connection is established, the user can control and monitor their ac from any part of the room. The best part is, even if router or wifi network is not present, one can still connect the smartphone (even the tablet) with the ac using wifi direct feature. Humidity control using auto humid control and dry mode:- Summer season makes the ac overwork and with the monsoon to follow, ordinary acs could fail to control the humidity or even result in water leakage. During the rainy season, conventional air conditioners not only consume more energy but also make the room uncomfortably cold. This may lead to health ailments like sneezing, common cold or even headache. Most of the new ac models from reputed brands like lg, voltas, bluestar, carrier etc comes with a dehumidification or dry mode to keep the humidity under control.
  22. LIGHTING CONrOL & ELECTrICAL SYSTEM  A lighting control system is an intelligent network based lighting control solution that incorporates communication between various system inputs and outputs related to lighting control with the use of one or more central computing devices. Lighting control systems are widely used on both indoor and outdoor lighting of commercial, industrial, and residential spaces.  Lighting control systems are employed to maximize the energy savings from the lighting system, satisfy building codes, or comply with green building and energy conservation programs. Lighting control systems are often referred to under the term smart lighting.  In a building, lighting contributes 20-60% of the total consumption of electrical energy usage. To turn on and off the lamp with the switch manually sometimes people forget to turn it off when leaving the room. This resulted in the inefficiency of energy and cost, where the lamps work not based on need.
  23. A good lighting design includes a good controls design. Lighting controls play a critical role in lighting systems, enabling users manually or automatically to:  Turn the lights ON and OFF using a switch;  Adjust light output up and down using a dimmer. This basic functionality can be used to generate these benefits for the lighting owner:  Flexibility to satisfy user visual needs;  Automation to reduce energy costs and improve sustainability. In recent years, lighting controls have evolved two additional capabilities:  Adjust light source color, including shade of white light;  Generate data via measuring and/or monitoring. Visual needs By adjusting the intensity of one or more layers of lighting in a space, lighting controls can:  Change space appearance;  Facilitate different functions of the space;  Alter atmosphere and mood;  Reduce glare;  Increase user satisfaction by providing users the ability to control their lighting. BENEfITS:
  24. Energy management By reducing lighting ON time, intensity or zoning, lighting controls reduce both demand and energy consumption. According to a study, popular lighting control strategies produce 24-38% average lighting energy savings, which reduces building operating costs. Because of strong energy savings, the majority of state commercial building energy codes require a wide range of controls in new construction. In existing construction, the controllability of LED lighting results in an ideal pairing with controls, combining to minimize energy costs. Various apps and software support implementation of lighting control systems. The most robust software is available for centralized intelligent networked lighting control systems. Residing on a server or in the Cloud, the software may provide many functions, such as: Software 1) Discover Control Points (Devices, Etc.) 2) Assign Control Points To Zones 3) Program Sequences Of Operation For Zones 4) Calibrate Sensors 5) Monitor Control Points And Issue Service Alerts/Alarms 6) Record And Display Energy Use And Other Recorded Data 7) Back Up Data And Event Logs And Create Users/Access Levels
  25. Lighting controls may be categorized as: 1. Centralized 2. Distributed 3. Standalone sensors/switches 4. Switching or dimming GENErAL TYpES Of LIGHTING CONTrOLS 1.Centralized Centralized intelligent networked control systems provide programmable lighting control for entire floors, buildings or campuses. They may be an extended-feature option of a room-based control solution or packaged as a comprehensive system. Examples - Relay or Dimming Panels Advantages: • Centrally located equipment – • ease of maintenance • Straight forward maintenance Disadvantages: • Takes up valuable space in electrical rooms • Long control wiring runs back to panel • Less flexibility
  26. Switching or Dimming Advantages: • Less space taken in electrical rooms • Less/shorter wiring requirements • More flexibility – keeping control in the space it is needed Disadvantages: • Equipment located throughout the building ceiling space, closets, etc • Newer technology – programming often required for small changes • Requires costly processor to network distributed equipment 2. Distributed
  27. AUTOMATION IN CENTRALIZED AND DISTRIBUTED LIGHTING SYSTEM  CENTRALIZED • In this design, instead of your high voltage wiring being run to a standard switch or dimmer, is pulled back to a centralized location in the home. From there it is run directly into your electrical panel and then into something called a ‘dimmer pack’ within an automation enclosure. • With all of the lighting loads now handled by the dimmer pack, you eliminate multiple switches in each room and replace them with a single keypad (or more depending on how many entry points there are into the room) that communicates to this dimmer pack instead. • This keypad will be labeled for the various lighting ‘scenes’ for the room – a kids bedroom may only have ‘On’ and ‘Off’ while a Family Room may have additional scenes for ‘Watch TV’, ‘Reading’, ‘Entertain’ that will automatically adjust the lighting of the room to pre-programmed scenes. COMPONENTS AND DEVICES : 1. CONTROL KEYPADS - Custom designed lighting scenes are easily controlled from a variety of keypad styles, complementing the rooms' décor. Geeks of Technology uses a variety of top home automation brands and lighting control systems, which will all determine the associated control keypad. CONTROL KEYPAD
  28. 2.TOUCH PANELS: Touch panels are the ideal lighting control interfaces. Besides having the ability to control every other integrated home automation system, they allow for both independent or global adjustment of any controlled light in your home or office. Geeks of Technology is a certified Crestron lighting installation company in South Florida that installs Crestron touch panels for lighting and every other integrated system of your home or office. 3.MOBILE CONTROLS: Control your smart home automated lighting from your mobile device, tablet, or even smart watch. Whether our geeks install lighting controls for your South Florida residence or office space, or home theater equipped with wall sconces and recessed RGB color changing LEDs, control all lighting via mobile controls and apps. TOUCH PANELS MOBILE CONTROLS
  29.  DISTRIBUTED • A distributed lighting control system composed of multiple LED lights and switchable shades, the transparency of which can be changed independently. • Distributed controllers are embedded in all the lights and shades, and they communicate to determine the appropriate lighting and shading patterns required to realize a desired illuminance distribution. COMPONENTS AND DEVICES : 1. GREEN LIGHT POWER PACK (GLPP) - It delivers affordable room lighting control with essential features for reducing energy usage .Additionally, the GLPP can be connected to a central control system, enabling it to become an integral part of the building energy management system. 2. LUMINAIRE CONTROLLERS : The power controller is a relay-based device that provides ON/OFF switching and (in the majority of LED systems) circuitry enabling 0- 10VDC (and/or potentially DALI) full-range dimming. In a wireless system, the controller features an embedded wireless receiver that accepts radio control signals within range. It then acts upon those signals within its set rules. GREEN LIGHT POWER PACK (GLPP) LUMINAIRE CONTROLLERS 3. PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR : A photoelectric sensor, is an equipment used to discover the distance, absence, or presence of an object by using a light transmitter, often infrared, and a photoelectric receiver. They are largely used in industrial manufacturing.
  30. Advantages: • Simple to install and maintain • Short wiring runs • No complicated programming Disadvantages: • No global override or sweep on/off • Simple on/off/dim control – advanced programming functions typically not available • Does not meet requirements of new energy codes for every application 3. STAND ALONE CONTROLS Standalone controls are control devices designed to provide autonomous operation of a lighting load, which may be a luminaire or luminaires installed on a switch leg. They typically install on the AC power line and directly control the load. Examples: toggle switches, occupancy sensors, timer switches, dimmers, light sensors and hotel keycard switches. Occupancy sensors, daylight sensors, local dimmers & switches.
  31. AUTOMATION IN STANDALONE LIGHTING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND DEVICES : 1. STANDALONE EMBEDDED SENSORS Standalone occupancy and light sensors may be mounted in or attached to luminaires for autonomous luminaire control. Typically, sensors are specified via the luminaire manufacturer and installed at the factory. However, they may be specified from a control manufacturer for relatively simple field attachment. The controls may offer options such as dimming or switching to a lower light level during vacancy instead of turning OFF. If the luminaires dim instead of shut OFF, additional scheduling control may be needed to provide energy code-compliant shutoff. The major advantage of a lighting control system over stand- alone lighting controls is the ability to control individual lights or groups of lights from a single user interface device. STANDALONE EMBEDDED SENSORS
  32. 2.FAWS FAWS, the switch allows you to adjust the luminaires wattage and light output in the field using ten preset positions. Optional Field Adjustable Wattage Selector (FAWS) switch can be operated even while earing Lineman’s gloves, providing tactile, audible and visual switch position markers. Benefits: • Helps keeping a lower luminaire variety in inventory by been able to adjust luminaire to desired wattage at the onsite installation • Provide flexibility for onsite last second adjustment vs photometry • Include an auxiliary position option for future control system retro-fit 3.OCCUSWITCH OccuSwitch wall switch and low voltage occupancy sensors automatically turn lights off when a work space is unoccupied, saving energy and creating a more sustainable work environment. The ceiling mounted sensor communicates with a network of wall switches and dimmers. Using a combination of ultrasonic and passive infrared (PIR) technology, the sensor recognizes room occupancy or vacancy for maximum performance and energy savings. Benefits FAWS OCCUSWITCH
  33. 4.SITEWISE AREA LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM • Provide a sense of security for visitors while saving energy, adhering to local code requirements, and meeting your business objectives. • Introducing Philips Site Wise, the complete area lighting management system featuring patented central dimming technology. • Site Wise utilizes existing wiring, making installation and commissioning simple. An intuitive user interface makes it easy for users to set dimming schedules around the needs of your site. Benefits • Site Wise allows you to manage wall sconces, bollards, floodlights and arm- mounted luminaires under one simple control system. • Site Wise allows you to easily schedule lighting for different times of day and levels of activity to maintain a sense of security. • Site Wise allows you to achieve a quick 3-4 year payback through enhanced energy savings that meet your budget goals. • Site Wise is a simple, out-of-the-box system with no re-wiring required so installation is not disruptive. Set-up is quick and easy, and you can operate almost immediately. • SiteWise features an intuitive user interface that makes it easy for authorized users to set and update schedules based on your site’s specific needs. SITEWISE AREA LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
  34. Types of Lighting Controls 1.Light Dimmers Light dimmers do exactly what their name states, they dim light. These switches allow for more control than just on and off. With the ability to decrease brightness, dimmers reduce wattage and output, which saves energy and lowers cost. Pros: Reduces energy consumption, allows for control over brightness, inexpensive. Cons: Can potentially reduce a light bulb’s efficiency 2.Motion Sensor Lighting Motion sensor lighting controls turn off and on by the detection of movement. They can be installed indoors, but are particularly useful in outdoor locations to light up areas at night. They, too, are energy efficient by eliminating accidentally leaving the lights on completely. Plus, no one wastes any time trying to find the light switch in a dark room. Sensor lighting controls use body heat and wavelengths so they’re extremely reliable, as well. Pros: Energy efficient, easy to use, saves time. Cons: Little control, unwanted shutoff if motion isn’t detected, don’t work well with certain bulbs.
  35. 3.Timers Lighting timer controls are programmable light switches. They can be set so that lights are turned on only during a certain period of time. They are helpful in regulating energy consumption also but just make scheduling easier for your home or building. There are two types of timer lighting controls, manual and in-wall programmable digital timers. Pros: Increase energy efficiency, good for scheduling. Cons: Aren’t great to use outdoors because of seasonal changes, may require particular bulbs and lamps.
  36. • INTELLIGENT LIGHTING CONTROL SYSTEMS include multiple technical solutions and features that automatically regulate different parameters for lighting, such as the intensity and the colour temperature of the light. • These are formed by Active Dimming, Light Colour Temperature, and RGB Control Systems that guarantee the cost- effectiveness , reliability and pleasant interior lighting with a range of moods.  ACTIVE DIMMING SYSTEM The control unit for the Active Dimming is an Intelligent Lighting Control System that uses sensors to adjust the interior lighting o based on exterior light conditions. The control unit can be set for minimal lighting requirements, in which case the desired lighting level is obtained by the optimal use of the lights, that is, with minimal energy consumption. This significantly reduces the lifecycle costs of lighting.  LIGHT COLOUR TEMPERATURE CONTROL This Intelligent Lighting Control System improves comfort level by adjusting the colour temperature of the interior light. The different tones of the light have a significant biological impact on human activities and feelings. On a hot summer day, a cool white light creates a sense of cooler atmosphere, while a warm white light creates a feeling of warmth.
  37.  MOTION DETECTORS These are small electronic eyes that detect infrared waves—heat waves that radiate from moving objects. ... The motion sensing light stays on anywhere from 1 to 20 minutes, depending on how you preset the timer. Then the detector automatically shuts the light off unless it continues to sense movement. There are many motion detector and motion sensor light styles to choose from. Three common types are: Motion activated flood light Decorative Remote  RGB-LED LIGHTING The different tones of RGB-LED lights can achieve striking effects, or they can change the atmosphere of the illumination as needed. In an RGB-LED Intelligent Lighting Control System, components emitting red, green, and blue light are all in one LED. The brightness of the components can be adjusted separately, making it possible to create nearly all color tones.
  38. TYPES OF LIGHTING:  AMBIENT LIGHTING Also known as background or ‘mood’ lighting, ambient lighting creates a soft glow that gently illuminates an area without causing glare. Light fixtures such as upward facing wall lights can be effective at creating ambient lighting.  ACCENT LIGHTING OR FEATURE LIGHTING This type of lighting is used to provide texture and focus to general lighting, and can draw attention to items on display such as artwork, while shadowing other areas. Accent lighting might be provided by spotlights, table lamps landscape lighting, and so on.
  39. EMERGENCY LIGHTS EMERGENCY LIGHTING OR SAFETY LIGHTING. Emergency lighting is installed to provide lighting in the event of mains power failure and provides sufficient illumination to allow occupants of a building to evacuate safely. Types of emergency lighting include; emergency exit signs, recessed fluorescent lights, powerful halogen emergency spotlights for larger spaces, emergency ceiling lights and downlights, and so on. SECURITY LIGHTING Security lighting is generally used to illuminate an area where there is a concern for security. This may be turned on throughout the hours of darkness, to give visibility of an insecure area, or it may be turned on temporarily, for example when a person arrives at a property, sometimes activated by a linked detector
  40. LIGHTING FOR CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle. A combination of bright light during the day and darkness at night helps maintain the daily cycle of waking and sleep. Circadian lighting varies in cooler and intensity during the day. The aim is to improve alertness during working hours using bright light, but to switch to lower brightness, warmer colored light before it is time to relax.
  41. SMART LIGHTING FIXTURES Smart Automatic sensor based features. 1.STARTER KIT E26 - Add ambient color to any room with the Philips Hue White and color ambiance starter kit. Connect to the included Hue Bridge to take advantage of endless list of features. Control via the App or voice. •White and colored light •Instant control via Bluetooth •Control with app or voice •Hue Bridge included 2.HUE WHITE: Get comfortable, soft white light in your home with fully dimmable smart light bulb. Control instantly via Bluetooth in one room or connect to a Hue Bridge to unlock the full suite of smart lighting features. FEATURES: •Soft white light •Instant control via Bluetooth •Control with app or voice •Add Hue Bridge to unlock more
  42. 1.Get in the mood with warm to cool white smart lights Use over 50,000 shades of warm to cool white light to put you in the mood to work, play, or relax ∙ no matter what time of day it is. Start your morning off on the right foot with cool, energizing bright white light, or settle down for the night with golden tones. 2.Play with smart color lights There's no limit with Philips Hue: with over 16 million colors, you can transform your home into the perfect party venue, bring a bedtime story to life, and much more. Use preset, colored light scenes to evoke the feeling of summer any time you'd like, or use your own photo to relive a special memory. HUE BRIDGE : The heart of your Philips Hue system, the Bridge acts as a smart hub, connecting your devices to your smart lights. You can add up to 50 Philips Hue lights and accessories to one Bridge. • Control up to 10 lights with the Bluetooth app With the Hue Bluetooth app, you can control your Hue smart lights in a single room of your home. Add up to 10 smart lights and control them all with just the touch of a button on your mobile device.
  43. 3.Sync your media to smart lights With the Hue Sync app and the Hue Bridge, you can bring your entertainment to new heights. Surround yourself with Philips Hue lights and turn on your movie, music, or game ∙ and then watch your lights mirror the colors and rhythm. 4.Smart lights to wake you up and help you sleep Set your lights to slowly brighten in the morning at a preset time to mimic sunrise and help you start your day feeling calm and refreshed. In the evening, the relaxing warm white lights will help you unwind, relax and prepare your body for a good night's sleep. 5.Smart home automation hub: Hue Bridge The Hue Bridge is an essential component to a personal Philips Hue smart lighting system. It is the brains of the operation, communicating with both your smart light bulbs and the Hue app to ensure that everything works together. It also enables smart home automation features like scheduling routines and timers.
  44. • Control lights with your voice Philips Hue works with Amazon Alexa and the Google Assistant when paired with a compatible Google Nest or Amazon Echo device. Simple voice commands allow you to control multiple lights in a room or just a single lamp. • Set the right mood with soft white light Hue bulbs and light fixtures use a soft white light. Dimmable from bright daylight to low nightlights, these smart lights allow you to fill your home with just the right level of warm light when you need it • Unlock full suite of smart light features with Hue Bridge Add a Hue Bridge (sold separately) to your smart lights to experience the full suite of Philips Hue features. With a Hue Bridge, you can add up to 50 smart lights to control throughout your home. Create routines to automate your entire smart home lighting setup. Control your lights while away from home or add accessories such as motion sensors and smart switches.
  45. SENSOR BASED SMART LIGHT FIXTURE Outdoor Light:  RS PRO 5800 LED : Features: • Integrated 360 degree High frequency sensor • Bright light with 4065 lm with 33 W • Configurable Basic light level from 10 – 50 % • Configurable Main light level from 50 – 100 % • 30 Year LED life ( average useof 4.5 hours per day) Application: • In car park – with basic light • Lights lead the way via swarm function
  47. SENSOR BASED SMART LIGHT FIXTURE Setting : • Setting of one light with the optional remote control RC 10 ADDITIONAL INDOOR SENSOR BASED SMART LIGHT: RS PRO 5850 LED 5570 Lumens at 45 W
  48. SMART WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Smart water management systems can provide a more resilient and efficient water supply system, reducing costs and improving sustainability. High-technology solutions for the water sector. WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN A HOME AREAS WHERE WATER IS USED :  TOILET  KITCHEN  WASHING AREAS
  49. TOILET • Maximum water is wasted during flushes in toilets. • Using water efficient fixtures can help in conservation of water. • Faucets which uses less water in comparison to other faucets. Air flow along with water helps in water efficiency. • While taking a bath, user don’t know how much water is wasted. Nowadays shower timers use smart technology to measure the amount of water that each person uses in the shower. The device then warns you if you are taking too long in the shower. These devices can be easily installed onto the shower's pipe. • Also there are faucets that contain small IR sensors which will turn on the flow of water when it detects movement in the sink, and turn off once your hands have been removed.
  50. • WCs account for nearly 30 percent of an average home’s indoor water consumption. Older toilets use as much as 6 gallons per flush. But the newer, EPA Water Sense-certified toilets use just 1.28 to 1.6 gallons of water per flush. Dual-flush toilets use even less water. WATER CLOSETS WATER BASIN SENSOR SHOWER TEMPERATURE CONTROL BATH TUB TEMPERATURE CONTROL
  51. KITCHEN • Using efficient dishwashers can save as much as 1,600 gallons of water per year. • Using water efficient fixtures WASHING AREAS Using high efficiency washing machines. They use 35 – 50% less water and 50% less energy per load.
  52. WATEr CONSErvATION TECHNOLOGIES AND STrATEGIES Water efficiency is the planned management of water to prevent waste, overuse, and exploitation of the resource. Effective water efficiency planning seeks to "do more with less" without sacrificing comfort or performance. WATER CONSERVATION STRATEGIES There are a number of strategies that can be employed to reduce the amount of water consumed at a facility. In general terms, these methods include:  System optimization (i.e., efficient water systems design, leak detection, and repair);  Water conservation measures; and  Water reuse/recycling systems.  Water-efficient plumbing fixtures (ultra low-flow toilets and urinals, waterless urinals, low-flow and sensored sinks, low- flow showerheads, and water-efficient dishwashers and washing machines)  Irrigation and landscaping measures (water-efficient irrigation systems, irrigation control systems, low-flow sprinkler heads, water-efficient scheduling practices, and Xeriscape)  Water recycling or reuse measures (Grey water and process recycling systems), and  Methods to reduce water use in HVAC systems.
  53. 1. PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION PROGRAMS The following bullets summarize some of the activities that can be incorporated into a public information and education program:  Establish hot line or other reporting mechanisms to report leaks and waste;  Place signs on new equipment on how to use;  Initiate a suggestion or incentive program; BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  Distribute flyers and pamphlets to increase awareness of the facility's water management plan and educate inhabitants on wise water use practices; and  Develop a display on water management highlighting the practices in use at the facility (i.e., Xeriscape, ULF toilets, water reuse, etc.) and its resultant savings and benefits and place in a highly visible area of the building.
  54. 2. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AUDITS, LEAK DETECTION, AND REPAIR Performance of a water distribution system audit is not limited to existing, aged buildings. Water system leaks can occur in new construction from improper installation of piping and fixtures, or impacts to piping systems during the construction process. Water system leaks that are not repaired immediately can damage building structures, since even a small leak can result in the loss of large quantities of water over time. With un-metered service, leaks go undetected; water is wasted; and there is no accountability and therefore, no incentive to save. 3. WATER-EFFICIENT LANDSCAPING Landscaping water usage can easily account for 20% or more of facility water consumption, and is a key area to target for water use savings. There are three major components to designing a water-efficient landscape for a new facility: 1) reduce the amount of turf and other irrigated areas 2) ensure water-efficient design of irrigation systems,  specify native or climate appropriate landscape materials (Xeriscape). Reducing the amount of turf grass and overall irrigated areas will reduce water consumption and associated costs, and will result in time and dollar savings from mowing, fertilizing, waste removal, and maintenance.  Remaining landscape areas that require irrigation should utilize water-efficient irrigation systems (low-flow sprinkler heads, efficient system design and layout, and optimized irrigation schedules and controls) to minimize water use and maximize plant health. Utilizing Xeriscape strategies whenever practicable will save on water, fertilizer, pruning, maintenance, labour, and overall costs.
  55. 4. TOILETS AND URINALS  Toilet and urinal flushing typically account for nearly one-third of a building's total water consumption, and this end-use is one of the simplest and lowest cost areas to target for significant water and sewer savings.  ULF urinal products are typically offered in four categories: 1) symphonics jet, 2) washout and washdown, 3) blowout, and 4) waterless,  Waterless urinals have gained widespread acceptance, as they are made of a urine-repellent surface; have no flush handles or moving parts; and virtually require no water.  Additional savings in the area of toilets and urinals can be achieved by utilizing non-potable water for flushing, or utilizing composting or incinerator toilets where sewer service is not available.
  56. 5. SHOWERHEADS AND FAUCETS Federal legislation passed in 1992 (EPAct) requires that all U.S. plumbing manufacturers and importers meet or beat the following water-efficiency standards for new fixtures: showerheads—2.5 gallons per minute; and faucets—2.5 gallons per minute. Newer models and features of these low-flow showerheads include: 1) atomizers that deliver water in small but abundant droplets that cover larger surface areas, 2) pulsators that vary spray patterns with pauses between spurts or through pulsating between strong flow and light mist, and 3) aerators which mix water droplets with air to cover the desired surface area. 4) Low-flow faucets also employ the use of aeration technology, as well as sensors, to achieve water savings at equivalent comfort levels to older, more consumptive fixtures. Examples of newer low-flow faucet technologies include: 1. metered valve faucets that deliver a preset amount of water and then automatically shut off (the federal standard for this fixture type is 0.25 gallons per cycle); 2. self-closing faucets that are spring-loaded to shut off the faucet a few seconds after the user turns it on, and 3. ultrasonic and infrared sensor faucets that automatically activate the faucet when hands are detected beneath it, and automatically shuts off the water when the hands are removed.
  57. 6. COOLING TOWER MANAGEMENT Cooling towers assist in regulating indoor air temperature of a building by either rejecting heat from air-conditioning systems or by cooling hot equipment, and require vast amounts of water to perform these functions. To replace this lost water more make-up water must be added. To displace the use of potable water used in cooling towers, sometimes water used for other purposes within a facility can be recycled and reused as make-up water with little or no pre-treatment, including:  water used in a once-through cooling system,  pre-treated effluent from other processes, provided that any chemicals used are compatible with the cooling tower system, and  high-quality municipal wastewater effluent or recycled water (where available). Additional measures that improve the efficient utilization of water in cooling towers include:  Installing a side stream filtration system composed of a rapid sand filter or high-efficiency cartridge filter to cleanse the water. These systems draw water from the sump, filter out sediment, and return the filtered water to the tower, enabling the system to operate more efficiently with less water and chemicals.  Installing covers to block sunlight penetration and inhibit algae growth  Installing automated chemical feed systems on large cooling tower systems (over 100 tons). These systems minimize water and chemical use while optimizing control against scale, corrosion, and biological growth.
  58. 7. SINGLE-PASS COOLING EQUIPMENT Single-pass, or "once-through", cooling equipment circulates water one time through a piece of equipment to cool it, then the water is discharged (often to the sewer line). Single pass cooling equipment is often specified for such end-uses as: CAT scanners, degreasers, hydraulic equipment, condensers, air compressors, welding machines, vacuum pumps, ice machines, x-ray equipment and air conditioners. Using water for only one cycle and then discharging it results in significant waste, and this process can be avoided in many instances. Strategies to reduce waste from single-pass cooling include:  specifying multi-pass, closed loop, or air-cooled equipment options (note that some equipment types may not function properly if other than single-pass is specified, be sure to check with equipment manufacturer first) to arrive at the most water- and energy-efficient cooling system,  specify an automatic shut-off valve to the cooling system to eliminate usage when equipment is not running (to be used only on equipment where indoor air quality is not a concern), and  find alternative uses for single-pass effluent such as landscaping, boiler or cooling tower make-up water, toilet flushing, etc. (ensure that effluent does not contain any waste stream such grease or chemical agents).
  59. 8. BOILERS AND STEAM SYSTEMS Boilers and steam generators are used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, and in facilities that require large amounts of processed steam. Many of these systems use large amounts of water to make hot water and/or steam that is then subject to losses from leaks and "blow-down". Strategies to achieve water and cost savings from boiler and steam systems are highly site specific, but may include: 9. MISCELLANEOUS HIGH WATER-USING PROCESSES Numerous site-specific processes requiring high water use are found within federal facilities. These processes and/or end uses include kitchens and food processing, vehicle washing stations, laboratory uses, cleaning/laundry facilities, fish hatcheries, treasury production, and more. Each of these end uses and their application within federal facilities presents site-specific opportunities and challenges for reducing water usage. For new facility design, each high water-using process should be identified and estimated usage quantified—and then reviewed and analysed for potential energy and water savings measures. Some processes may require outside expert assistance to identify the most applicable and beneficial water savings options. properly sizing boiler and steam units (and possibly downsizing units by reducing facility heat and steam requirements—and thus reducing makeup water requirements), specifying the most life-cycle cost-effective system option, and not just the lowest first cost option, installing a small summer boiler or distributed system for reheat or dehumidification requirements instead of inefficiently running a large boiler at part load, and considering alternative technologies such as heat pumps for small loads.
  60. 10. WATER REUSE AND RECYCLING The use of non-potable water resources is often more cost-effective if applicable end-uses are identified early on in the building design process. There are four general strategies that can be employed for utilizing reused or recycled water. 1. On-site water reuse or recycling: this process relies on reusing water from the same purpose at the same location, and usually involves minimal treatment or filtration to make it acceptable for its intended reuse. Examples include rinse water that is filtered from car washing and laundry uses and then used in the next wash cycle. 2. Reclaimed/treated water: this non-potable water resource is developed by treating used water to wastewater treatment standards and then redistributed for on-site use. This strategy can be costly, but may still be cost-effective due to offsets of potable water purchases and sewerage costs. Non-potable water meeting wastewater treatment standards can be used for end uses such as landscape irrigation, decorative fountains, cooling tower makeup water, toilet flushing, fire sprinkler systems, and other on-site industrial processes. 3. Grey water: this resource is derived from water captured from uses such as showers, baths, sinks, and laundries (excluding diaper washing and food processing) and then filtered to remove solids. Grey water may be used to serve such end uses as landscape irrigation (preferably subsurface) and toilet flushing. 4. Water catchment systems: this resource includes non-potable water captured from rainwater sources or from rivers, lakes, ponds, and wells that have not been treated to meet potable standards. Rooftop rainwater collection systems are becoming increasingly popular, and the captured water can be stored in architecturally aesthetic cisterns. End uses that can be served by this resource include landscape irrigation, single pass cooling, and toilet flushing.
  61. WATER MANAGEMENT ON SOCIETY LEVEL WATER ALARMS • The sensors can contain high and low alarms to help ensure limited water loss due to overflowing and help protect equipment in low water conditions. LEAK DETECTION • Water leaks can range from a leaky faucet or toilet to a catastrophic break. • By metering water and tracking usage over time, it is fairly easy to detect when there is a minor or major leak. • Stopping minor leaks saves energy and water – reducing cost and improving sustainability. • Finding major leaks early saves property.
  62. CONSERVATION OF WATER ON A HOME LEVEL • Storing waste water from R.O. Purifiers • Instead of letting water run down the drain, capture it in a bucket while waiting for the temperature to change. • This clean water can then be used in the kitchen or outdoors. • Using defrost water from refrigerator. • Saving water from air conditioner
  63. ROTATOR SPRINKLER • Consider investing in weather-based irrigation controllers that adjust to real weather conditions and provide water only when needed. • Replace older mist-style sprinkler heads with today’s newer, and more efficient, rotator sprinkler heads, which shoot jets of waters at a slow rate to increase penetration and eliminate drift. • This application rate allows up to 30% less water use when compared to traditional sprays CONSERVING AND RECYCLING WATER Rainwater harvesting and sewage treatment plant are best examples of conserving and recycling water on a society level.
  64. 1. WOOD BRIDGE LUXURY SMART TOILET  This is a one-piece luxury toilet which comes with an advanced bidet function. Its smart toilet seat comes with temperature controlled wash functions and an air dryer.  It has a modern design which is chic with a low profile enlarged toilet.  It has a comfortable height, with water sense that has high efficiency. In regards to hygiene features, it comes with rear wash, pulsating wash, adjustable water pressure, and hygienic filtered water.  For comfort, the developer went all in because the smart toilet has a water heater, warm air dryer, unlimited warm water and a heated seat with five adjustable options to match your liking. INTELLIGENT fIXTUrES WITH THEIr fEATUrES 2. SMART BIDET ELONGATED ELECTRIC TOILET  Smart Bidet electric toilet has retractable, self-cleaning faucets and warm air dryers for hygienic purposes.  The water pressure levels and faucet positions are both adjustable up to 5 levels for your own comfort and taste
  65. 3. OVE DECORS SMART TOILET  The Ove smart toilet is a high-quality ceramic toilet with innovations of advanced features such as heated electric toilet seats, warm flowing water, air dryer, and anti-bacterial seating.  Its hygiene components have been catered for in terms of eliminating the need for using toilet paper or wet wipes since the jets in this model are quite efficient and the most current in the market.  The toilet comes with a bidet and spray wash which is largely hands-free making them altogether convenient.  You have the option of choosing from multiple settings on water, pressure, heater or dryer.  The smart toilet seat has a soft close seat and adjustable seat temperature for added comfort.  If you wake up frequently at night, this model has you covered, because it comes with a smart nightlight mode which will help you find your way at night.
  66. 4. TOTO WASH LET SMART TOILET  The Ove smart toilet is a high-quality ceramic toilet with innovations of advanced features such as heated electric toilet seats, warm flowing water, air dryer, and anti-bacterial seating.  Its hygiene components have been catered for in terms of eliminating the need for using toilet paper or wet wipes since the jets in this model are quite efficient and the most current in the market.  The toilet comes with a bidet and spray wash which is largely hands-free making them altogether convenient.  You have the option of choosing from multiple settings on water, pressure, heater or dryer.  The smart toilet seat has a soft close seat and adjustable seat temperature for added comfort.  If you wake up frequently at night, this model has you covered, because it comes with a smart nightlight mode which will help you find your way at night. 5. BIO BIDET BLISS SMART TOILET  This model has a smart seat decision option which is streamlined for comfort. The heated seat is adjustable and comes with a slow closing lid.  It is also eco-friendly because it comes with the energy saving mode by reducing electricity and toilet paper use which is good for the environment.
  67. Elevator is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel or other structures. Elevators are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables or counterweight systems like a hoist, or pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack. CLASSIFICATION OF LIFTS ELEVATORS DRUM TYPE TRACTION TYPE HYDRAULIC TYPE TYPES OF LIFT ACCORDING TO USE  PASSENGER LIFT  PLATFORM LIFT  GOODS LIFT/FREIGHT LIFT  HOSPITAL LIFT  STAIR LIFT  CAPSULE LIFT  PATERNOSTER LIFT  WHEEL CHAIR LIFT  DUMB WAITER LIFT /SERVICE LIFT  HOME ELEVATOR PLATFORM LIFT PATERNOSTER LIFT CURVED STAIR LIFT STAIR LIFT CAPSULE LIFT CHAIR CAR LIFT PASSENGER LIFT