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Chapter 1.pptx

  1. INTRODUCTION Whether by land or by sea, humans have always sought to traverse the earth and move to new locations. The evolution of transportation has brought us from simple canoes to space travel, and there's no telling where we could go next and how we will get there. The following is a brief history of transportation, dating from the first vehicles 900,000 years ago to modern-day times. Transport is one of the essential components of tourism activities. The relationship between transport and tourism development is very important because it contributes significantly in the development of tourism. It overcomes the physical social and economic development of human beings. It overcomes the physical constraints of distance and meets the human needs for movement over the space. It provides a link between the origin and destination of tourism. The movement of human beings at national and international level is taking place because of various means of transport. Millions of tourists are being transported safely, quickly and comfortably to their destinations at a reasonable cost. In fact, transport and its associated infrastructure have facilitated human mobility on large scale.
  2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Discuss the meaning of transportation • Know the importance of the evolution of transportation • Identify different modes of transport • Determine the advantage and disadvantages of different modes of transportation • Know the means and mode to transportation • Explain the linkages between transport and tourism
  3. TRANSPORTATION The term transport is derived from the Latin word trans meaning across a port. Thus, the movement of people or goods from one place to another by a means of transport is called transportation. Each tourist has to move from place to place and needs transportation for his or her movement. Transport helps people to move from tourist generating area to tourist destination area. There are different modes of transport like road transport, rail transport, water transport and air transport. In earlier times road transport was more popular than railways or waterways.
  4. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Early boats The first mode of transportation was created in the effort to traverse water: boats. Those who colonized Australia roughly 60,000–40,000 years ago have been credited as the first people to cross the sea, though there is some evidence that seafaring trips were carried out as far back as 900,000 years ago. The earliest known boats were simple logboats, also referred to as dugouts, which were made by hollowing out a tree trunk. Evidence for these floating vehicles comes from artifacts that date back to around 10,000– 7,000 years ago.
  5. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Horses and wheeled vehicles It was also roughly around this period that the wheel was invented. Archaeological records show that the first wheeled vehicles were in use around 3500 BCE, with evidence of the existence of such contraptions found in mesopotamia, the northern caucuses, and central Europe. The earliest well-dated artifact from that time period is the "bronocice pot," a ceramic vase that depicts a four- wheeled wagon that featured two axles. It was unearthed in southern Poland.
  6. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Horses and wheeled vehicles Based on changes in teeth records, butchering activities, shifts in settlement patterns, and historic depictions, experts believe that domestication took place around 4000 BCE. Genetic evidence from horses, including changes in musculature and cognitive function, support this.
  7. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Steam engines In 1769, the watt steam engine changed everything. Boats were among the first to take advantage of steam-generated power; in 1783, a French inventor by the name of Claude de Jouffroy built the "pyroscaphe," the world’s first steamship. But despite successfully making trips up and down the river and carrying passengers as part of a demonstration, there wasn’t enough interest to fund further development.
  8. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Steam engines Back in 1769, another Frenchman named Nicolas Joseph Cugnot attempted to adapt steam engine technology to a road vehicle—the result was the invention of the first automobile. However, the heavy engine added so much weight to the vehicle that it wasn't practical. It had a top speed of 2.5 miles per hour.
  9. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Steam engines While other inventors tried to make steamships that were practical enough for mass transport, it was American Robert Fulton who furthered the technology to where it was commercially viable. In 1807, the Clermont completed a 150-mile trip from New York City to Albany that took 32 hours, with the average speed clocking in at about five miles per hour. Within a few years, Fulton and company would offer regular passenger and freight service between New Orleans, Louisiana, and Natchez, Mississippi.
  10. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Steam engines Another effort to repurpose the steam engine for a different means of personal transport resulted in the "roper steam velocipede." Developed in 1867, the two-wheeled steam-powered bicycle is considered by many historians to be the world’s first motorcycle.
  11. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Locomotives One mode of land transport powered by a steam engine that did go mainstream was the locomotive. In 1801, British inventor Richard Trevithick unveiled the world’s first road locomotive—called the “puffing devil”—and used it to give six passengers a ride to a nearby village. It was three years later that Trevithick first demonstrated a locomotive that ran on rails, and another one that hauled 10 tons of iron to the community of Penydarren, wales, to a small village called Abercynon.
  12. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Locomotives It took a fellow brit—a civil and mechanical engineer named George Stephenson—to turn locomotives into a form of mass transport. In 1812, Matthew Murray of Holbeck designed and built the first commercially successful steam locomotive, “the Salamanca,” and Stephenson wanted to take the technology a step further. So in 1814, Stephenson designed the "blücher," an eight-wagon locomotive capable of hauling 30 tons of coal uphill at a speed of four miles per hour.
  13. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Locomotives By 1824, Stephenson improved the efficiency of his locomotive designs to where he was commissioned by the Stockton and Darlington railway to build the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the aptly named "locomotion no. 1." Six years later, he opened the Liverpool and Manchester railway, the first public inter- city railway line serviced by steam locomotives. His notable accomplishments also include establishing the standard for rail spacing for most of the railways in use today. No wonder he’s been hailed as "father of railways."
  14. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Submarines The first navigable submarine was invented in 1620 by dutchman Cornelis Drebbel. Built for the English royal navy, Drebbel’s submarine could stay submerged for up to three hours and was propelled by oars.
  15. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Submarines There were important milestones such as the launch of the hand-powered, egg-shaped "turtle" in 1776, the first military submarine used in combat. There was also the French navy submarine "plongeur," the first mechanically powered submarine.
  16. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Submarines In 1888, Spanish navy launched the “Peral," the first electric, battery-powered submarine, which also so happened to be the first fully capable military submarine. Built by a Spanish engineer and sailor named Isaac Peral, it was equipped with a torpedo tube, two torpedoes, an air regeneration system, and the first fully reliable underwater navigation system, and it posted an underwater speed of 3.5 miles per hour.
  17. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Aircraft The start of the twentieth century was truly the dawn of a new era in the history of transportation as two American brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright, pulled off the first official powered flight in 1903. In essence, they invented the world’s first airplane.
  18. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Aircraft In 1919, British aviators John Alcock and Arthur Brown completed the first transatlantic flight, crossing from Canada to Ireland. The same year, passengers were able to fly internationally for the first time.
  19. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Aircraft French inventor Paul Cornu started developing a rotorcraft. And on November 13, 1907, his “Cornu" helicopter, made of little more than some tubing, an engine, and rotary wings, achieved a lift height of about one foot while staying airborne for about 20 seconds.
  20. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Spacecraft and the space race The soviet union surprised much of the western world in 1957 with its successful launch of sputnik, the first satellite to reach outer space. Four years later, the Russians followed that by sending the first human, pilot Yuri Gagaran, into outer space aboard the Vostok 1.
  21. THE EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORTATION Spacecraft and the space race On July 20, 1969, the lunar module of the Apollo spacecraft, carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, touched down on the surface of the moon. The event, which was broadcast on live tv to the rest of the world, allowed millions to witness the moment Armstrong became the first man to ever step foot on the moon, a moment he heralded as “one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
  22. The evolution of transportation, just like the evolution of humankind, has gone through trials and tribulations as it has evolved through time. The history of transport is largely one of technological innovation. Advances in technology have allowed people to travel farther, explore more territory, and expand their influence over larger and larger areas.
  24. Air Transport The development of air transport mostly occurred after World War I and II. Commercial airlines were created for travelers. Because of increasing air traffic, the commercial sector grows rapidly. Before the World War II, Swissair already was carrying around 14-16 passenger between Zurich to London.
  25. The first commercial service was introduced by KLM, the Dutch Airlines, in 1920 between Amsterdam and London. 1958 Pan American introduced the Boeing 707 services between Paris and New York. Due to the introduction of jet flights, the year 1959 onward saw a tremendous increase in air traffic.
  26. The modern era, thus, is the era of mass air travel. After road transport, air travel is the most popular mode of travel, particularly for international travel. For the business travelers, air transport is more convenient as it saves their precious time and offers a luxurious and hassle-free travel.
  27. THERE TWO TYPES OF AIRLINES. THESE ARE FOLLOWING AS: A scheduled flight means the air carrier sells single seats to individuals until the aircraft is full. A scheduled service operator offers flights on a regular basis be it hourly, daily, or monthly schedules. The departure times are fixed and so is the routing. Flight details are very static and standard. A charter flight does not follow a schedule set by the air carrier. The customer sets the schedule to meet their needs. Essentially a charter is when a person or a company rents an entire aircraft for a very particular purpose. The departure times and final destinations are set as per the individual agreement between the hirer and the aircraft company.
  28. Airlines are classified into two broad categories namely small carrier and large carrier. The small carrier also known as commuter airlines have less than 30 seats. The larger carriers, also known as major airlines fly direct routes between the major cities and seat and seat 100 to 800 passengers.
  29. Road Transport The most popular and widely used mode of road travel is the automobile or the car. Road transport is dominated by the automobile, which provides views of the landscape and the freedom to travel. Tourist often travels with their entire family for holidays. To promote tourism, the vehicle required are coaches and tourist cars. Tourist coaches or buses are preferred for large tourist groups traveling together on a specified tour itinerary. Many tourists prefer to travel in comfort and privacy and hire cars. Cars of various makes and standards are available on a rental basis.
  30. Rail Transport The railway is the most economical, convenient, and popular mode of travel especially for long distance travel all over the world. The broad gauge lines account for more than 55 percent of the total network and carry 85 percent of total traffic. The steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electric engines which have helped in increasing the speed. Railways have promoted tourism by introducing a special tourist train.
  31. In Europe, the railway systems of six European countries have been clubbed to make rail travel easier for the people of Europe. A rail passenger can buy a ticket in any one country of Europe and travel through six countries. For the foreign tourists, Eurail Passes offer unlimited discounts travel in express trains for periods ranging from a week to three months.
  32. In the USA, AMTRAK operates trains. With more than 30 train routes throughout the United States, and some in Canada, Amtrak travels to over 500 destinations in 46 states, giving you the best views North America has to offer. Whether you want to visit big cities, small towns or places you can only see by rail.
  33. Water Transport Travel by ship was the only means for traveling overseas until the middle of the twentieth century. The Cunard Steamship Company was formed in 1838 with regular steamship services operating on the North Atlantic. During the World War I, in 1914 the operations of the steamship company had to be suspended. After the World War I, the steamship luxury liners were back to business till World War II.
  34. Water transportation is also used in riverboat travel. The Mississippi River has been a popular tourist river since the first settlers came to the USA. Today, tourists enjoy two or three-day luxury trips along the river. In Europe, the Rhine, winding through the grapes growing areas of Germany, offers similar leisure tourist trips.
  35. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VARIOUS MODES OF TRANSPORT Modes of Transportation Advantages Disadvantages Road Transportation • The velocity of delivery is high in the case of short distances. • The door-to-door service is best for this mode of transportation. • Emissions of noise pollution and toxic materials. • Possible traffic delays. Rail Transportation • Carrying capacity is pretty high. • The rapid speed of delivery. • There is a strict and restricted timetable and routes. • Expensive cost for constructing and maintenance. Water Transportation • It has a high carrying capacity. • Cost-effective for heavy and bulky goods. • It uses a high time for shipment. • The risk of accidents is pretty huge as the ship/boat could sink any time. Air Transportation • It has high speed. • There is no physical barrier to this mode of transportation. • It is the most costly out of all other modes of transportation. • It needs trained individuals for a successful flight.
  36. The Emergence of the Tourism Industry Since the 1970s where tourism became increasingly affordable, the number of international tourists has more than doubled. The expansion of international tourism has a large impact on the discipline of transport geography since it links traffic generation, interactions at different scales (from the local to the global), and the related transportation modes and terminals. The industry is also a large employer accounting for 10% of all the global employment; 30 tourist visits are usually associated with one job. 30% of the global trade of services is accounted for by tourism. Tourism dominantly takes place in Europe and North America, but geographical diversification is taking place.
  37. Traveling has always been an important feature, but its function has substantially evolved. Historically, travelers were explorers and merchants looking to learn about regions, potential markets and to find goods and resources. The risks and exoticism associated with also attracted the elite that could afford the large expenses and the time required to travel to other remote destinations.
  38. As an economic activity, tourism is characterized by a high demand level of elasticity. As transport costs are significant for international transportation, cost fluctuations strongly influence demand. Therefore, transport is a key element in the tourism industry. The demand in international and even national transport infrastructures implies a large number of people to be transported in an efficient, fast, and inexpensive manner. It requires heavy investments and complex organization.
  39. Transport policies and national regulations can influence destinations available to tourists. One dimension concerns the openness to tourism through travel visa restrictions, which vary substantially depending on the countries of origin of tourists. Unsurprisingly, travelers from developed countries, particularly Europe, face the least restrictions, while travelers from developing countries face a much more stringent array of restrictions. Another dimension concerns the provision of infrastructures. If the public sector does not cope with the demand in terms of transport infrastructures, the tourist industry might be impaired in its development. However, land transport networks in various countries are designed to meet the needs of commercial movements that tourism requires.
  40. MODES AND MODES OF TRANSPORTATION Car traveling is usually an independent transport conveyance where the traveller decides the route and the length of the trip. It is usually cheaper since road fees are not directly paid and provided as a public. It is the only transportation mode that does not require transfers, in the sense that the whole journey, from door to door can be achieved.
  41. Coach traveling uses the same road network as cars. Coaches are well suited for local mass tourism but can be perceived as a nuisance if in too large numbers since they require a large amount of parking space. MODES AND MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
  42. Rail travel was the dominant form of passenger transport before the age of the automobile. The railway network usually reflects more the commercial needs of the national economy then holiday tourist flows which can make it a less preferred choice as a traveling mode. MODES AND MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
  43. Air transport is by far the most effective transport mode. Notably because of prices, only 12.5% of the tourists travel by plane, but for international travel, this share is around 40%. Air transport has revolutionized the geographical aspect of distances; the most remote areas can now be reached any journey around the world can be measured in terms of hours of traveling. MODES AND MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
  44. Cruises are mainly providing short sea journeys of about a week. Cruising has become a significant tourist industry. Cruise ships act as floating resorts where guests can enjoy amenities and entertainment while being transported along a chain of port calls. MODES AND MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
  45. MASS TOURISM AND MASS TRANSPORTATION Tourism transport can be divided into two categories: Independent means of travel; controlled by individual tourists who book them on their own. This mainly involves the private automobile, but also mass conveyances that are booked to travel on an individual basis such as regularly scheduled flights, rail connections, ferries, and even cruises. Mass travel; where tourists travel in organized groups. The most common form involves chartered buses and flights used for this single purpose.
  46. When tourism was mainly for the elite, independent means of travel prevailed. However, the emergence of mass tourism and the significant revenue it provides for local economies required the setting of mass transportation systems and specialized firms such as travel agencies organizing travel on behalf of their customers. These firms were able to take advantage of their pricing power being able to negotiate large volumes of passengers for carriers and hotels.
  47. LINKAGES BETWEEN TRANSPORT AND TOURISM Tourism plays a key role in the socio-economic and cultural progress through creation of jobs, enterprise and infrastructure and revenue earnings. Tourism certainly requires an integrated development of basic infrastructural components, and transport is one of them. Transport occupies a key position in tourism sector and it is an important driver for socio-economic progress. It plays an important role as it would be impossible for tourists to visit many tourist sites without it. It provides an essential link between points of origin to its destination areas.
  48. Transportation as An Attraction To attract customers as well as take them around an attraction, destination developers have used many forms of transport to move people around. These novel modes of transport ensure that major exhibits are viewed in a certain sequence and ensure that the crowd moves through at a reliable pace. Transportation is the most crucial component of the tourism infrastructure. It is required not only for reaching the destination but also visiting the site and moving about at the destination. Variety in modes of transportation adds color to the overall tourism experience.
  49. Unusual forms of transportation are also an attraction such as the cable cars in hilly terrain, the funicular railway, or jet boating. The choice of mode of transport is vast and tourists can choose a mode to suit their budget. They can opt for scheduled or non-scheduled transport such as the hiring of vehicles, boats, coaches or trains so that they can travel with their group.