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POSITIONING UNIVERSITIES/PUBLIC RESEARCH
INSTITUTES AS PROGENITORS OF TECHNOLOGY AND
INNOVATION: A FRAMEWORK
Dr. Maurice B...
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
• The changing role of universities in national development...
• Should we expect universities to mak...
•Transition to the knowledge based
economy
• Productivity and competitiveness are
hinged on exploitation of knowledge
• Ne...
TECHNOLOGY POLICY PARADIGMS: KEY ASSUMPTIONS
Market failure paradigm Mission paradigm Cooperative technology
paradigm
1. M...
Source: Bolo et al, 2015
THE COOPERATIVE TECHNOLOGY PARADIGM
AND THE UNIVERSITIES' THIRD MISSION
● The cooperative technology paradigm is therefore...
NATIONAL PATENT APPLICATIONS
NATIONAL PATENTS GRANTED
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
14
11
8 8
4
3
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
NumberofPatentsFiled
Universities
DISTRIBUTION OF PATENTS FILED BY THE
UNIV...
27
11
9
7
6
4
1 1 1 1 1
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
KIRDI ICIPE KEMRI KEFRI KARI TRF KEMFRI ILRAD CRF PBK Sigok WKR
NumberofPatents...
ONLY 4 OUT OF 69 PATENT APPLICATIONS
GRANTED TO UNIVERSITIES/OLIs
• Moi University (for an Electro-coagulation method for ...
ONLY 8 OUT OF THE 69 PATENT APPLICATIONS
GRANTED TO PUBLIC RESEARCH INSTITUTES
• KARI-Trypanosomiasis Research Centre (Vec...
PATENTS TO PRIs CONT’D
• Tea Research Foundation in partnership with Chui Tea Limited
(Process for optimum production of h...
UTILITY MODELS APPLICATIONS
(1990 – 2013)
UTILITY MODELS GRANTED
INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS IN KENYA
(1990 – 2013)
PERCENTAGE OF FIRMS USING UNIVERSITIES AND
PRIS AS SOURCES OF INNOVATION
(Source: Kenya Innovation Survey, 2012)
MARKET-BASED SOURCES OF INFORMATION
FOR INNOVATION FOR FIRMS
(Source: Kenya Innovation Survey, 2012)
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
Local NGOs Input Suppliers Local Private
Consultants
...
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
100.00%
Local NGOs Input Suppliers Foreign universiti...
Changes in approaches
From ‘mode 1’ science
…..to ‘mode 2’ science
Changes in methods
-Participation
-contribution
-Benefi...
• Licensing IP
• Start-ups/spin-offs
• Joint R&D projects
• Contract research
and consultancies
• Infrastructure e.g.
incu...
A FRAMEWORK FOR ENHANCING COMMERCIALIZATION AND
STRENGTHENING LINKAGES WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR
What’s in there?
• A self a...
THE THIRD MISSION FRAMEWORK
SELF ASSESSMENT TOOL
RESULTS & INTERPRETATION
AN ACTION GUIDE
PROJECT PARTNERS
www.scinnovent.org
Discussion papers
Policy briefs
Books
Prochain SlideShare
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Bolo universities and public research institutes as progenitors of technology and innovation nacosti_s_cience week_2015

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Our industries are not using knowledge from our universities/PRIs. How do we reposition the PRIs to deliver technological solutions required by the industry and what is the framework for achieving this?

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Bolo universities and public research institutes as progenitors of technology and innovation nacosti_s_cience week_2015

  1. 1. POSITIONING UNIVERSITIES/PUBLIC RESEARCH INSTITUTES AS PROGENITORS OF TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION: A FRAMEWORK Dr. Maurice Bolo Bolo@scinnovent.org
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE • The changing role of universities in national development... • Should we expect universities to make technologies for industry uptake? What are the justifications? • Performance of Kenyan Universities and Public Research Institutes: The evidence • How do we stimulate innovation and entrepreneurship in our universities/PRIs? • How do we enhance knowledge and technology transfer from our universities/PRIs? “The Third Mission Framework”
  3. 3. •Transition to the knowledge based economy • Productivity and competitiveness are hinged on exploitation of knowledge • New sciences such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, ICTs etc) •Pressures of the “third mission” • Decreasing financial support from governments • Increasing demands from stakeholders ROLE OF UNIVERSITIES/PRIs IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
  4. 4. TECHNOLOGY POLICY PARADIGMS: KEY ASSUMPTIONS Market failure paradigm Mission paradigm Cooperative technology paradigm 1. Markets are the most efficient allocator of information and technology 1. Government role closely tied to authorized programmatic missions of agencies e.g. defence, health etc 1. Markets are not always the most efficient route to innovation and economic growth 2. Government role limited to market failures; universities provide basic research to cater for private sector under- supply 2. Govt R&D limited to supporting missions of agencies 2. Global economy requires more targeted support to technology development 3. Innovation flows from and to private sector with minimal university/govt role 3. Govt should not compete but complement private sector in innovation and technology 3. Universities and PRIs can play a role in technology development for use by the private sector
  5. 5. Source: Bolo et al, 2015
  6. 6. THE COOPERATIVE TECHNOLOGY PARADIGM AND THE UNIVERSITIES' THIRD MISSION ● The cooperative technology paradigm is therefore an umbrella term for a set of values that emphasize cooperation amongst sectors – industry, government, universities/PRIs in the creation of technologies ● The logic: Universities and PRIs make, industry takes (but…various forms of collaboration/co-production of knowledge exist) ● Central point is: putting universities/PRIs to greater use as progenitors of technology and innovations ● Depends on the suitability of the universities/PRIs to the task....
  7. 7. NATIONAL PATENT APPLICATIONS
  8. 8. NATIONAL PATENTS GRANTED
  9. 9. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 14 11 8 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 NumberofPatentsFiled Universities DISTRIBUTION OF PATENTS FILED BY THE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA (1990 - 2013)
  10. 10. 27 11 9 7 6 4 1 1 1 1 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 KIRDI ICIPE KEMRI KEFRI KARI TRF KEMFRI ILRAD CRF PBK Sigok WKR NumberofPatentsFiled Public Research Institutes Distribution of Patents Filed by the Public Research Institutes in Kenya (1990 - 2013)
  11. 11. ONLY 4 OUT OF 69 PATENT APPLICATIONS GRANTED TO UNIVERSITIES/OLIs • Moi University (for an Electro-coagulation method for colour removal in waste water or water with low power consumption); granted on 21st July, 2010 • Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) for a trap for controlling Bont ticks in pastures; granted on 8th August, 2012 • Egerton University in partnership with the Pyrethrum Board of Kenya (for Pyrethrum solar dryer); granted on 5th July, 2006 • Kangubiri Girls Secondary School (for a laxative compound from Senna diddy extract for curing fungal and bacterial infections); granted on 22nd September, 2003
  12. 12. ONLY 8 OUT OF THE 69 PATENT APPLICATIONS GRANTED TO PUBLIC RESEARCH INSTITUTES • KARI-Trypanosomiasis Research Centre (Vector and rodent holding devices during parasite transmission experiments in the laboratory); granted on 6th September, 2006 • Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (Bio Pesticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis for mosquito breeding control); granted on 31st May, 2013 • International Laboratory Research on Animal Diseases (ILRAD) for Vaccine for the protection of animals against Theileria infection; granted on - on 29th August, 1994
  13. 13. PATENTS TO PRIs CONT’D • Tea Research Foundation in partnership with Chui Tea Limited (Process for optimum production of high Catechin content black tea with specified characteristics from Camellia sinensis L.O (Kunze) clone tea); granted on 13th June, 2008 • Pyrethrum Board of Kenya in partnership with Egerton University for Pyrethrum solar dryer ; granted on 5th July, 2006 • The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE): – (a) Novel tick resistance antigenic indicators (Trai) for host animals; granted on 9th February, 1994 – (b) Grgarisation -distributing factors in a novel approach of controlling locust and grasshoppers; granted on 10th March, 2005 – (c) a Novel method for controlling Tsetse flies and other related blood feeding insects; granted on 3rd September, 2004
  14. 14. UTILITY MODELS APPLICATIONS (1990 – 2013)
  15. 15. UTILITY MODELS GRANTED
  16. 16. INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS IN KENYA (1990 – 2013)
  17. 17. PERCENTAGE OF FIRMS USING UNIVERSITIES AND PRIS AS SOURCES OF INNOVATION (Source: Kenya Innovation Survey, 2012)
  18. 18. MARKET-BASED SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR INNOVATION FOR FIRMS (Source: Kenya Innovation Survey, 2012)
  19. 19. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% Local NGOs Input Suppliers Local Private Consultants Local Public universities & research institutes Farmers Respondents'ratings Sources of New knowledge SOURCES OF NEW KNOWLEDGE FOR SMALL SCALE FLOWER FARMERS Least Important Not Quite Important Important Quite Important Most Important Source: Bolo, 2012
  20. 20. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% Local NGOs Input Suppliers Foreign universities & research institutes Local public universities & research institutes Other farmers Percentageofrespondents Main Partners in R&D CHOICE OF MAIN PARTNERS IN R&D BY FARM SIZE: FLOWER FARMERS Small scale Medium scale Large scale Source: Bolo (2012)
  21. 21. Changes in approaches From ‘mode 1’ science …..to ‘mode 2’ science Changes in methods -Participation -contribution -Benefit sharing -Role sharing -Capacity to access and use Organizational change -Different incentives and rewards - Different attitudes, habits and practices - Different organizations cultures and structures REPOSITIONING UNIVERSITIES/PRIs
  22. 22. • Licensing IP • Start-ups/spin-offs • Joint R&D projects • Contract research and consultancies • Infrastructure e.g. incubation centres/ science parks • Technology transfer offices (TTOs) • Venture capital/equity finance/long-term loans • Staff and student engagement in knowledge exchange • Engagement in (non- patent) social innovation/enterprise • Mission/Vision • Leadership structure • Action plans • IP/Research policy • Procurement • Funding • Quality Assurance • Monitoring & Evaluation • Competencies and capacities • Recruitment and promotions policy • Career progression • Awards and rewards • Recognition and prestige • Increased incomes • Facilitation • Workload policy • Community outreach activities • Partnerships with stakeholders • Joint appointments and staff mobility • Co-publications • Sharing facilities • Placements and internships • Representation in boards/advisory councils • Participation in Networks/Consortia
  23. 23. A FRAMEWORK FOR ENHANCING COMMERCIALIZATION AND STRENGTHENING LINKAGES WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR What’s in there? • A self assessment tool • An action guide • Community of Practice • Resource Centre How do I access it? • An online version • An offline version • Print version
  24. 24. THE THIRD MISSION FRAMEWORK
  25. 25. SELF ASSESSMENT TOOL
  26. 26. RESULTS & INTERPRETATION
  27. 27. AN ACTION GUIDE
  28. 28. PROJECT PARTNERS
  29. 29. www.scinnovent.org Discussion papers Policy briefs Books

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