Contenu connexe

Presentation research design

  2. Overview :”Research Design” 1. Definition 2. Purpose 3. Functions 4. Classifications 5. Unique Designs 6. Designs used for Quantitative Research 7. Designs used for Qualitative Research
  3. DEFINITION  A research design is a plan, structure and strategy of investigation… to obtain answers to research questions or problems. It includes an outline of what the investigator will do from writing the hypotheses …to the final analysis of data. (Kerlinger 1986: 279))  A traditional research design is a blueprint or detailed plan for how a research study is to be completed (Thyer 1993: 94)
  4. What does it do?  According to Selltiz, Deutsch and Cook: (1962: 50) ‘A research design is the arrangement of the conditions for collection and analysis of data ◦ in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure’
  5. What does it do? Helps take decisions about how to complete the entire research:  Validly  Objectively  Accurately  Economically
  6. Tells Others:  what study design you propose to use  how you are going to collect information from your respondents  how you are going to select your respondents  how the information you are going to collect is to be analyzed  how you are going to communicate your findings. + give rationale and justification for all above decisions + support them critically from the literature reviewed.
  7. Functions of Research Design 1. The identification and/ or development of procedures and logistical arrangements required to undertake a study 2. Ensuring that the procedures are adequate in quality to obtain valid, objective and accurate answers to the research questions. Kerlinger calls it: control of variance
  8. 1. Identification and Development of Procedures  What procedures to follow and how to follow them  Name the design per se – e.g. ‘cross-sectional’, ‘before-and-after’ etc.  Provide detailed information about the following aspects of the study:  Who will constitute the study population?  How will the study population be identified?  Will a sample or the whole population be selected?  If a sample is selected, how will it be contacted??  How will consent be sought?  What method of data collection will be used and why?  In the case of a questionnaire, where will the responses be returned?  How should respondents contact you if they have queries?  In the case of interviews, where will they be conducted?  How will ethical issues be taken care of?
  9. 2. Control of Variance  To ensure that independent variable has the maximum opportunity to have its effect on the dependent variable Change In Dep. Var. Change in Indep. Var. Change in extraneous Var. Change in Chance Var. It is important to select a study design that helps isolate, eliminate or quantify the effects of different sets of variable influencing the independent variable.
  10.  Control of Variance: Example  Independent variable: Heat  Dependent Variable: Performance in Exams  Extraneous Variable: Broken or Uncomfortable seats  Chance Variable: Personal Problem/ Noise from the next Class
  11. Classifications of Study Designs Three types of classifications on the basis of: 1. The number of contacts with the study population 2. The reference period of the study 3. The nature of the investigation
  12. Classifications of Study Design
  13. Study Design based on no. of contact with the population 1. Cross Sectional Studies:  One-shot or Status studies: One time contact  Most commonly used design in social sciences  Obtain overall picture  Very simple design: Decide what you want to find out about, identify the study population, select a sample and contact your respondents to find out the required information
  14. Best for finding out about:  A phenomenon  Situation  Problem  Attitude  Issue  Examples:  Impact of management on street crime  The health needs of a community.  The attitude of students towards the facilities available in their library.  Extent of unemployment in a big city  Consumer satisfaction with a product
  15. Cross Sectional Design Advantages:  Cheap to undertake  Easy to analyze Disadvantages:  Cannot measure change
  16. 2. Before and After Study Design:  Pre-tests / Post-Test Design  2 points of contact with the same population  Best suited to measure extent of change in:  Situation  Phenomenon  Issue  problem  Attitude  Also Impact or Effective of a Program or Intervention
  17. Change is measured by comparing the difference in the phenomenon or variables
  18. Examples of Before and After Design  Impact of increased funding on the quality of teaching in universities.  Effects of a counseling service on marital relations.  Effects of an advertisement on the sale of a product. Difference from Cross Sectional: 2 points of contact
  19. Before and After design Disadvantage:  More difficult to implement + more expensive  Requires a longer time to complete  The lapse in time may cause, changes, maturation or withdrawal of the original population  It measures total change: effect of independent var. and extraneous var. can’t be quantified
  20. 3. Longitudinal Design  Helps study the pattern of change in relation to time  The study population is visited a number of times, at intervals [not fixed]  Useful when factual information on a continuing basis is needed  Information gathering technique is the same each time  Study population same: but not necessarily the same respondents
  21. Study Population Study Population Study Population Study Population t t t
  22. Longitudinal Design  May be seen as a repetitive cross sectional study  Reliable in accuracy as data is collected on regular basis  Same disadvantages as Before – after design +may suffer from the ‘conditioning effect’ respondents become familiar with the pattern and respond without thinking
  23. Classifications of Study Design
  24. Study design based on reference period  Refers to time frame in which a study is exploring a phenomenon , situation , event or problem.  Time frame means: ◦ Whether the phenomenon, event, problem or situation occurred in the past or the present or will occur in the future
  25. Study design based on Reference Period 1. Retrospective Design:  Investigates a phenomenon , situation , problem or issue that has happened in the past.  Basis for studies: ◦ data available for that period ◦ the respondents’ recall of the situation.  Examples: ◦ Living conditions of the Aboriginal in Australia ib the early 20th century ◦ Migratory movements in the Subcontinent at the time of Partition
  26. Retrospective Design
  27. 2.The Prospective Study Design  Refers to the likely prevalence of a phenomenon , situation , problem, attitude or outcome in the future  Such studies attempt to: ◦ establish the outcome of an event or what is likely to happen  Experiments are usually classified as prospective studies as the researcher must wait for an intervention to register its effect on the study population.
  28. Prospective Design
  29. Examples of Prospective design  To find out the effect of parental involvement on the level of academic achievement of their children.  To measure the effects of the change in migration policy on the extent of immigration in Australia.
  30. 3. Retrospective-Prospective Study Design  It focuses on the past trends in a phenomenon and study them into the future.  Data collection is done in stages: ◦ Retrospectively from existing records before the intervention is introduced ◦ The study population is followed to ascertain the impact of intervention.
  31. Retrospective-Prospective Study Design
  32. Features  Distinction: No control group.  Most before after studies: if no intervention, are Retrospective-prospective studies.  Also Trend studies Examples  The effect of incentives on the productivity of the employees of an organization.  The impact of maternal and child health services on the infant mortality rate.  The effects of an advertisement on the sale of a product.
  33. Classifications of Study Design
  34. Study Design based on the Nature of the Investigation  Nature of Investigation : Whether the independent variable whose effect is to be investigated on a given phenomenon or situation, is controlled or manipulated or not
  35. 1. Experimental Design  The researcher introduces the intervention that is assumed to be cause of change and waits until it has produced or has been given sufficient time to produce the change.  The independent variable can be observed , introduced, controlled or manipulated by the researcher.
  36.  An experimental study can be carried out in either a ‘controlled’ or a ‘natural’ environment.  Study population in a ‘controlled’ situation: such as a room. Study Population in a ‘natural’ situation, population is in its natural environment
  37. 2. Non Experimental Design  The researcher starts from the effect(s) or outcome(s) and attempts to determine the causation  In this case the independent variable cannot be observed, introduced, controlled or manipulated as the assumed cause has already occurred.  Instead the researcher retrospectively links the cause(s) to outcome(s)
  38. 3. Semi-experimental study Design Quasi-experimental study design It has the properties of both experimental and non-experimental studies; Part of the study may be non-experimental and the other part experimental
  39. Other Unique Study Designs  Action Research  Collaborative Inquiry or Participatory Research  Feminist Research  Strictly speaking they are not designs, but they may be classified within the above categories  They are based on certain philosophies or methodologies  Have gained a name of their own
  40. Action Research  Two components: action and research  Research is a means to action: ◦ either to improve your practice or ◦ to take action to deal with a problem or an issue  Based on a philosophy of community development that seeks the involvement of community members.  Involvement in the total research process from problem identification to implementation of solutions
  41. Action Research: 2 Focuses  An existing program is studied in order to identify possible areas of improvement in terms of efficacy and/ or efficiency. The findings become the basis for bringing about changes.  An unattended problem or unexplained issue in the community is investigated, to justify the introduction of an intervention or a new service.
  42. Collaborative Inquiry or Participatory Research  They advocates the active involvement of research participants in the research process.  Participatory research is based upon the principle of minimizing the ‘gap’ between the researcher and research participants  Increased community involvement and participation to enhance the relevance of the research findings  Willingness and involvement in solving the problems and issues that confront it
  43. Feminist Research  It is characterized by its philosophical base : the feminist theory that underpins all enquiries  The feminist concerns act as the guiding framework  Its main focus is the experiences and viewpoints of women. It uses research methods aimed at exploring them  Using research techniques to create awareness of women’s issues and concerns
  44.  It actively tries to remove or reduce the power imbalance between the researcher and respondents  The goal of Feminist research is changing the social inequality between men and women  Feminist research may be classified as action research in the area of gender inequality, and promoting equality between sexes  Any study design could be used in feminist research.
  45. Designs associated with Qualitative and Quantitative Research
  46. Designs used for Quantitative Research  The cross-over comparative experimental design  Trend studies  Cohort studies  Panel studies  Blind studies  Double-blind studies
  47. The cross-over comparative experimental design  Also called the ABAB design  2 groups are formed; the intervention is introduced to one; after a certain period, the impact is measured.  Then the intervention are ‘crossed over’; the experimental becomes the control group and vice versa  The findings are compared  Dis Adv: Discontinuity in treatment
  48. Trend Studies  Used to map change over a period  Trend analysis enables you to find out : what has happened in the past; what is happening now and what is likely to happen in a future in a population group  Useful in forecasting trends  The design involves selecting a number of data observation points in the past, together with the picture of present or immediate past with respect to the phenomenon under study and then making certain assumptions as to future trends.
  49. Cohort Studies  Based upon the existence of a common characteristic such as year of birth, graduation or marriage, within a subgroup of population. e.g: Studying employment pattern of LCWU graduates of year 2000.  Contact all graduates of 2000  Find employment histories  Find existing patterns Design may be: cross-sectional or longitudinal Not necessary to use the same respondents; should be from the same cohort
  50. Panel Studies  Similar to trend and cohort studies  Longitudinal + Prospective the information is always collected from the same respondents e.g. changes in the pattern of expenditure on household items in a community  Select population  Expenditure in a given time  Repetitive data collection over a certain time  (In trend and cohort studies the information can be collected in a cross-sectional manner and the observation points can be retrospectively constructed.)
  51. Blind Studies  In a blind study, the study population does not know whether it is getting real or fake treatment or which treatment modality.  The main objective of blind study is to isolate the placebo effect: the psychological effect  Usually applied to studies measuring the effectiveness of a drug or treatment.
  52. Double- Blind Studies  Concept similar to that of a blind study except that it also tries to eliminate researcher bias by concealing the identity of the experimental and placebo groups from the researcher. Neither the researcher nor the study participants know who is receiving real and who is receiving fake treatment or which treatment model they are receiving.
  53. Designs used in Qualitative Research  Case study  Oral history  Focus group/ group interviews  Participant observation  Holistic research  Community discussion forum  Reflective journal log
  54. Case Study Studying a social phenomenon through a thorough analysis of an individual case The case may be: a person, group, episode, process, community, society  All relevant data is gathered and organized in terms of the case.  Opportunity for intensive analysis  Specific details often overlooked by other methods are accounted for Based on the assumption that the case is typical of cases of a certain type through intensive analysis, generalizations may be made that will be applicable to other cases
  55. Oral History  It is more a method of data collection than a design In qualitative research, this has become an approach to: 1. study perceptions, experiences, and accounts of an event 2. gathering historical knowledge as viewed by individuals These opinions or experiences could be based upon : eye-witness evidence information passed on from other sources such as older people, ancestors, folklore, stories.  Simple Design ◦ decide the type of accounts, perceptions, experience or historical event required ◦ identify the individuals or sources (which could be difficult and time consuming) ◦ collect information to be analyzed and interpreted.
  56. Holistic research  More a philosophy than a study design  Basis: A multiplicity of factors interact in our lives, we cannot understand a phenomenon from just one or two perspectives.  To understand a situation or phenomenon you have to look at it in its totality – that is holistically from every perspective.  Any design and multiple methods may be used
  57. Community discussion forums  Designed to find opinions, attitudes and/ or ideas of a community with regard to communication issues and problems.  Popular way of seeking a community’s participation  Used for a variety of other reasons  developing town planning options  community health programmes  seeking participation in resolving issues relating to traffic management,  infrastructure development and determining future directions for the area  informing communities of new initiatives
  58. Participant observation  A strategy for gathering information about a social interaction or a phenomenon Usually done by developing a close interaction with members of a group or ‘living’ in the situation which is being studied Provides rich data through multiple methods Can also be used in quantitative research, depending upon how the information has been generated and recorded  Other methods may be employed such as informal interviewing, in-depth interviewing, group discussions, previous document, oral histories
  59. Focus group/ Group Interviews  Strategy for exploring attitudes, opinions or perception toward an issue, product, service or programme Free and open discussion between members of a group and the researcher Researcher raises issues or asks questions that stimulate discussion among members of the group  Select a group of people who you think are best equipped to discuss what you want to explore  Need to identify the issues for discussion  Decide, in consultation with the group, the process of recording the discussion  Becomes the basis of analysis findings and conclusions.
  60. Reflective Journal Log  A means of recording ideas, personal thoughts and experiences + reflections and insights a student have in the learning process of a course Requires the students to think more deeply to challenge their old ideas with new incoming information to synthesize what they have learnt into their personal thoughts and philosophy to integrate it into their daily experiences and future actions.  Structured journals: students are given a specific question, target, or set of guidelines  Unstructured journals/free-form journals: students are required to record thoughts and feeling with minimal direction