Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical,
biological, and information sciences to the study of the environment and the
solutions of the environmental problems.
Define Environmental Science
Factors of environment
Why we study environmental science?
Our environment is very important because it is where we live and
share recourses with the other species. Environmental science is the
study of interactions among physical, chemical, and biological
components of the environment. Environmental science enlightens
us on how to conserve our environment in the face of increasing
human population growth and anthropogenic activities that degraded
natural resources and ecosystem.
Rapid changes in earth’s environment due to human activities can be
traced to two “revolutions’’.
Can you name them?
Gradual move from nomadic lifestyle of
hunter-gatherers to the farming of
domesticated animals and plants Started
about 10,000 years ago Led to human
Development of machines to do
manual/animal labor. Led to use of
non-renewable energy sources (fossil
fuels) that disrupt the balance of our
ecosystems (started in mid-1700’s –
10 Major Problems Facing Earth’s Environment
(from Collapse by Jared Diamond)
Destruction of natural habitat
Loss of biodiversity
Soil damage and erosion
Use of fossil fuels as our main energy source
Overuse of freshwater resources
Release of toxic materials
Introduction of “alien” species
Release of harmful gases into atmosphere
Human population growth
Increasing standard of living
What is disaster?
• Disasters are the effect of hazard on vulnerable or defenceless areas.
• A Disaster is a serious disruption occurring over a short or long period of time that
causes widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss.
Types of Disasters:
Disasters can be classified as:
1. Natural disaster 2. Human-Made disaster
1. Natural Disasters:
Natural disasters are the result of biological, geological, seismic, hydrologic or
meteorological conditions. They are a threat to, people, structures and economic
assets. Examples are: Earthquake,Cyclones,Hurricanes,Floods,Landslides.
Human-made disasters are Emergency situations which are the results of
deliberate human actions. They involves situations in which people suffers
casualties, losses of basic services and means of livelihood.
Examples are: Oil Spill,An airplane crash,War,Civil strife,Major fire
A continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and
implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for-
Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster.
Reduction of any disaster or its severity or consequences.
Preparedness to deal with any disaster.
Promote response to any threating disaster.
Evacuation, rescue and relief.
Rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Assessing the magnitude of any disaster.
• Disaster Management Cycle is
a cycle which has phases to reduce
or prevent disasters.
• It is a cyclic process it means the
end of one phase is the beginning
of another phase
• The next phase can be started
before the completion of previous
• The complete Disaster
Management cycle includes the
shaping of public policies and
Disaster management cycle
Hazard-Hazard is the possibility of laying yourself open to loss or misfortune.
Capacity-Within a community all the available resources, that can reduce risk level
and disaster effects.
Risk-Occurrence probability of a hazard that trigger a disaster with an undesirable
Mitigation-Mitigation refers to all actions taken before a disaster to minimize its
Preparedness-Preparedness activities are the Plans/preparations made to save lives
Early Warning System-This early warning system used to detect large-scale
disasters and emergencies and also man-made disaster or technological disaster.
Related terms with disaster management