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• The beginning of the revolution increase in cities population+ low life style +disease
1. Main characters (positives) mas production which lead to urban redesign for the cities
2. Main (negatives) disease
3. Effect on urban planning how the car changed the design and scale for the cities
2. The growthof Paris from 508-2015
3. Haussmann renovation of Paris
4. Haussmann renovation of Paris(strategy)
5. boulevard definition
6. examples of the demolition of Haussmann
On the ile de city
7. Public transportationin paris
8. Haussmann plans for the process ofrenovation.
9. Structural plan and the prosess
1. The great fire 1666
2. Sir Wrine plan for London (they did not use it)
3. The growthof London 1659-1950
4. The effect of the revolutiononLondon society
5. examples of the designof john Nash inLondon
Regent park & street design
6. London transportationsystem
7. London traffic zones & Congestioncharge
The city growthwas very slow, almost imperceptibleBEFORE THE
• Period fromabout 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
• transition to new manufacturing processes
• transition fromhand production methods to machines
• improvethe efficiency of water power
• increasing use of steam power
• The development of machine tools.
• change fromwood and other bio-fuels to coal
• increasing employment
• increasethe Value of output and capital invested
• THE USE OF CAR CHANGED THE URBAN FABRIC FOR THECITY.
80% of people usedtolive in the suburbs &20% inthe cities but after the
revolutionandincrease of jobs people immigrate tocities
The city designwas redesigned(strong renovation)
1- road network
2- A canal and waterway network
3- A railway network.
Raw materials and finished products could be
1- Moved more quickly
2- Cheaper than before.
3- Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.
Category Feature Why
life for the laboring
Short Because of factories
life for the laboring
worsethan slavery Capitalism
Factories a dangerous place to work 70 hour weeks on a regular basis
Housing for the workers overcrowded and unclean Low income High population low
Housing for the workers typhoid, cholera, and smallpox sick days, and forced themselves to
work to providemoney
Women & girls No time to clean house Work in factories as women
Families Economic problem Paid too little
• Europe, particularly England, industrial revolution. The growing
industrialized city without design intent
Schinkel’s Englishtravel diary, 1826
Factory buildings inManchester and
A market hall in Liverpool
• Production, commerce, trade, anddistributionof goods expandedrapidly
• New machines were thencreatedandlarge-scale productionbecame prevalent
• More food and supplies became available sothe populationbeganto grow rapidly
• Political aspect •The crown declines •The nobles and landlords decline •Industrial
entrepreneurs emergesas powerful bodies
• Different patternsof settlements starts regional plannin
• THE GROWTH OF PARIS FROM 508-2015
1223 1589 1618
508 Gallo-Roman wall 1180.
1705. 1735. 1740. 1750
• HAUSSMANN RENOVATION OF PARIS
Six reasons for the ‘Haussmannisation’Haussmann strategy for
Haussmann concept Paris 1853–1870
To make the capitalist instrumentof
the city moreefficient by liberating its
circulation (allowing for quicker and
more efficient commerce)
to celebrate the monuments and glory
of pastand presentempires by linking
focalpoints with vistas;
to let in air, light and greenery for the
to push the poor elsewhere
to turn the boulevard into a social
To usethe boulevard as a means of
military control(fearing revolutionary
uproar, the aim was that barricades
could not be easily built any more,
and soldiers would be able to shoot
straightthrough the streets).
‘rings’ around the
through the fabric:
How to get enough
‘green’ into the city?
Parks and public
fresh water supply
Pavementfor many streets.
By his ruthless cutting through
the old city fabric to CHANGED
PARIS INTO A MODERN CITY with
everything the 19th century
broad straight boulevards,
Haussmann's renovation of Paris strategy
Paris is known for the NON-UNIFORMITY of its map.
• The arrangement of ……. Streets……. alleys……. squares……. boulevards…….avenues
• Is a result of a SUPERIMPOSITION of one street planuponan earlier street plan?
• a PLOT OF LAND was usually dividedin a series of long and narrowparallel plots extending to
both sides of a central lateral stripreservedfor apassage across it
First phase Secondphase
constructing Boulevards encirclea city center new avenues and streets
avenues radiatefromthe center of the city
Size 9.467 kilometers 26.294 kilometers
Purpose Broughtair &Light & Healthiness
Create circulation in a labyrinth that
was constantly blocked and
to connect the interior of Paris with
the ring of grand boulevards
the new railroad stations
Cost 278 million francs 180 million francs grow to 410 million
A type of large roads.
Usually running througha city.
These roads often replacedobsolete fortifications.
In modern Americanusage it oftenmeans
a wide Multi-lane arterial thoroughare dividedwithamedian down the center.
Withroadways along each side designedas slowtravel andparking lanes
and for bicycle and pedestrian usage.
Have an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery.
EXAMPLES OF THE DEMOLITION AND RENOVATION OF HAUSSMANN 1853-1870
1-ON THE ÎLE DE LA CITÉ:
The islandbecame an enormous constructionsite,
Completely destroyedmost of the old streetsandneighborhoods.
Two new streetswere alsobuilt, the boulevardduPalais and the rue de Lutèce.
Two bridges, the point saint Michel andthe pont-au-Change were completely rebuilt
Two new government buildings, the Tribunal deCommerce andthe Prefecture de
a- Demolition of buildings on bridges
b- Bridge building
c- Demolition of buildingson shores,
leaving an open view from the upper streets.
d- Opening of the Boulevard de Sebastopol
e- Opening of the Boulevard SaintMichel
Paris,Champs Elyseeswestward Boulevard_Saint-Germain
The Île de la Cité
transverse streets (red),
public spaces (light blue)
and buildings (dark blue).
2-AVENUE DE L'OPERA
Size and populationof Paris
•Paris area in 1860 is 78km2
• Paris area in 1900 is 86.9km2
•Paris area in 1929 is 105km2 after adding Polonya forest.
•Paris urban area in 2014 is 2300km2
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATIONIN PARIS
1. The horse-drawn omnibus became Paris' first form public transportation in 1828.
2. The horse-drawn tramway was next to appear in 1871
3. steam-driven trams appeared in 1880
4. replaced by the electric tramway in 1888.
The main streets Haussmann in 1853. First phase1853-1858
center west el la
The main streets Haussmann in1853.
• the second phase (from 1858 to 1869)
• was particularly from main links between
• the center and the edges of the city.
• The city had to pay considerably more for
• this program itself, the final costs were also
• two times higher than planned.
•The third phase was presented by
Haussmann in 1869 and focused in
particular on the implementation of the city
annexed territories in the west of the city. it
was considered less important than the first
HAUSSMANN PLANS FOR THE PROCESS OF RENOVATION.
• 1971 AvenuesandBoulevardsbrown,boulevardsandavenues
that existedbefore Haussmann’stransformations/inblack,
1-The governmentof Francefocused on a new
cities in the suburbs of Paris
2-new transportation systemfromthe center
of Paris to the suburbs
3-diseasethe population of Paris
4-new industrialcities with economic power in
Boulevards and avenues
• Scheme of the greenstructure of Pariswithlarge
• THE GREAT FIREOF LONDON IN 1666
burnt for five days and destroyedmuchof the City of London and its timber buildings.
• 80% of Londoner was destroyed.
• SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN
he completedaplan for rebuilding Londonand submittedit toKing Charles II.
• Renaissance planning and large-scale Frenchgardendesign.
• The plan's central streets connect public squares
and landmarks,while a narrower street gridfillsthe
• The plan refusedbecause.
• Rebuilding was financedby private enterprise.
• The desire was torebuildquickly.
• No heavy government involvement tocarve newroads across existing building plots and
• The properties ownersrefuse tolose their locations.
• The King Charles II was afraid to lose his position.
• Muchof the ancient layout of the City remained, but
• Rebuilt inbrick and stone.
• Twelve interconnecting squaresandpiazzas as the central designof the NewLondon.
London 1643 fire areain London 1666 void from the fire 1666
London was transformed into the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire.
Its population expanded from 1 millionin 1800 to6.7 million a century later.
During this period, London became a global political, financial, andtrading capital
London & other cities population.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IMPACT ON LONDON SOCIETY
Georgian era from 1714-1837,
the people thought in terms of status when describing their own place in society.
The emphasis is on a person's birth, being directly linked to their relationship to the social
Victorian era 1837-1901
The emphasis of a person's birth becomes less important to socialhierarchy.
The new emphasis shifted to one's economic group. The industrialrevolution crushed the
traditional Georgian society and contributed to the new Victorian society.
The industrial revolution was the driving force behind socialchange between the 18th and 19th
Itchanged nearly all aspects of life through
• new inventions.
• new legislation.
• new economy.
Change of Family structure
The traditional marriageof the laboring class during the Georgian society, women would marry
men of the samesocial status
1659 1750 1850 1950
LONDON CITY GROWTH FROM 1659-1950
The IndustrialRevolution created terrible conditions, which had sparked the increaseof interest
to health and specialized hospitals. Morethan 70 different specialized hospitals were founded
from1800 to 1860
Progress in the textile industry spurred other industrial improvements.
The first such development, the steam engine, stemmed from the search for a cheap,
Convenient sourceof power.
As early as 1705, coalminers wereusing steam powered.
LONDON, CA. 1800:PICTURESQUEPLANNING FOR THECITY, JOHN NASH VISION FOR REGENT
The development of Regent’s Park and Regent Street to connect them with the centre of power
and governmentat Westminster a mile away, was […] as much a productof marketforces as
original design intent.
As Nash’s vision of a dense development of terraces of houses arranged in a double circus at the
heart of Regent’s Park gaveway to a handfulof generously spaced villas, an important prototype
for the modern urban park as a public amenity came into existence thanks moreto lacklustre
[=dull] housing-marketthan to civic-mindedness.”
– Metroand Light rail
– 1.1 London Underground
– 1.2 docklands Light Railway
– 1.3 Tramlin
– 1.1 LONDON UNDERGROUND -TUBE
– Carrying nearly 50% of London's commuters,
– the Tube is the most heavily usedmode of public
transport inthe area.
– the London Underground was the first rapid
transit systeminthe world
– begun operations in1863.
– 3 millionpassengers travel init every day
– 1 billionpassenger journeysper year
– 1.2 docklands Light Railway
–It serves Docklands area(east London)
–101 millionpassengers ayear
–Light rail/tramsystemsouth London
–It has 39 stations
–it carriedover 28 millionpassengers2011
– up from 18 millionin2001
–The systemruns on its own right of way
– mixeduse rails and withstreet traffic.
–The network has connections with
–the London Underground
–the London Overground
– the National Rail system
•London Undergroundtube map
New Trim link design in london
• 2 Heavy rail
• 2.1 radial commuter railway
• 2.2. London Overground
• 2.3. Airport services
• 2.4 operator
• 2.5 national inter city
• 2.6 international
• 2.1 RADIAL COMMUTER RAILWAY
• The majority of commuters TO central London
(about 80% of 1.1 million)
• arrive by either the Underground(400,000daily)
• Or surface railway intothese termini (860,000 daily).
• 2.2. LONDON OVERGROUND
• metrosystemwithhigh-frequency services
• around a circular route withradial branch lines
• designedtoreduce stress fromthe INNER-CITY TUBE
• By allowing commuters totravel ACROSS LONDON.
• Without going through the central Zone 1.
• 2.3. AIRPORTSERVICES
• Heathrow Gatwick and Stanstedairports
• Standard commuter services.
• 2.4 operator
• a single systemownedand operatedby Transport for London
• It’s a free market owned by different organizations tohave
• 2.5 national inter city
Long-distance intercity services
• do not depart from all termini
•radial commuter railway
• but eachterminus provides trains toaparticular part of the country
• 2.6 international
• International services are providedwithintermediate stops.
• This new link, brought intoservice on2007 cuts journey times by some 20–25 minutes
compared withservices previously routedParis 2 hours 15 minutes fromLondon Brussels1
hour 51 minutes fromLondon
• 3.1 Major routes
• 3.2 Distributor andminor routes
• 3.3 Congestioncharge
• London has a hierarchy of roads ranging from major
radial and orbital trunk roads down to minor "side streets.
• which works in conjunctionwitha GPS,
• enables drivers toselectanoptionwhere accelerationis stoppedautomatically at the speed
limit specific toany road inLondon ,
• The unit can be disabledat the touchof a button
• 3.1 MAJOR ROUTES
• There are many major routes inLondon
• There are also three ring roads linking these routes.
• The innermost
• the Inner Ring Road
the congestioncharging zone inthe city center.
• 3.2 DISTRIBUTOR AND MINOR ROUTES
• The major roads are supplementedby a host of standardmain roads
• They linkedsuburbs witheachother
• deliver traffic fromthe ends of the major routes intothe city center.
• These non-strategic roads only carry local traffic.
3.3 CONGESTION CHARGE
• a radical scheme to charge motorists £5 per day for driving vehicles
• within a designated area of central London during peak hours
• London Congestion Pricing
DATE ,February 2003
LOCATION ,city of London
REGULATION charged a fee for driving private automobiles
TIME during weekdays 7:00 amand 6:30 pm
REASON to reduce traffic congestion
1. licensed taxis,
2. vehicles used by disabled people
3. some alternative fuel vehicles
5. emergency vehicles
6. area residents receive a 90% discount on annual passes.
• A basic economic principle is that consumers should pay directly for the costs they
• impose as an incentive to use resources efficiently.
• Urban traffic congestion is often cited as an example:
• if road spaceis unpriced traffic volumes will increase until congestion limits further growth.
• Trondheim , Oslo, Bergen (Norway)
Central London is particularly suitable for congestion pricing because of its limited road
• capacity (the streets network in the core area is hardly expanded)
heavy travel demand result in severecongestion
relatively good travel alternatives, including walking, taxi, bus and subway services, which are
used by mosttravelers.
ONLY ABOUT10% OF PEAK-PERIOD TRIPS WERE MADEBY PRIVATE AUTOMOBILE.
(15%) discounts if the driver pay weekly or monthly
If driver didn’t pay they sent a £80 fine. ‘This fine is reduced to £40 if paid within two weeks, and
increases to £120 if not paid after a month
Signs and Symbols Entering the Charging Area
• Over one millionLondoners own bicycles but 2 per cent of all
The Barclays Cycle Hire scheme at 2010
• Aims to provide 6,000 bicycles for rental.
main roads within
west London railway
• Bikes are available at a number of docking stations inCentral London
• Trade-off of benefits to harm for cycling incentral London: effects by age and sex, per million
populations (althoughfewolder people usedcycle hire). Benefitscome throughimpacts on
diseases relatedtophysical activity, harms come fromexposure toroad traffic injuries
• 5 BUSES AND BUS RAPID TRANSIT
• The reddouble-decker is internationally recognizedas Britishicon
• every weekday carrying about six millionpassengers onover 700 different routes.
• for local journeys, it carries more passengersthanthe Underground.
• Also100-route night bus service is alsooperated, providing a24-hour service.
• 6 TAXIS
• The iconic black cab remains a common sight.
• They are drivenby the only taxicabdrivers inthe worldwho have spent at least three years
learning the city's road network togain
• 6.2 HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES
• More than 70 years after horse-drawncarriages wererestrictedfromthe West End,
Westminster City Council has announcedthat it will consider supporting applications to
reintroduce themfor sightseeing tours acrossthe city
• 7 AIRPORTS
• London is the best servedcity by airports inthe worldwithalmost 150 millionpassengers.
Proposal bike rout in London
Weekday journey bike rout in London
bike rout in London
• London City
• London SouthendAirport
• 8.1 RIVER THAMES
• the river was one of London's main transport arteries.
• Althoughthis is no longer the case,
• passenger services have seensomething of a revival since the creationin1999 of London
• 8.2 CANALS
• These canals were originally built inthe Industrial Revolutionfor the transport of coal. raw
• Althoughthey now carry few goods, they are popular with
• private narrow boat users and leisure cruisers
• a regular "water bus"service operatesalong the Regent's Canal during the summer months.
• 8.3 CARGO
• Some bulk cargoes are carriedonthe Thames, this use. London's port used tobe the country's
busiest whenit was locatedin Central London and east London's Docklands
• The Condition, Improvement and Town Planning of the City of Calcutta and contiguous area (by Richards report)
• Hanson, Neil (2001). The Dreadful Judgement: The True Storyof the Great Fire of London. New York: Doubleday. For a review
of Hanson's work, see Lauzanne, Alain. "Revue pluridisciplinaire du monde anglophone". Cercles. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
• Hanson, Neil (2002). The Great Fire of London: In That Apocalyptic Year, 1666. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. A
"substantially different" version of Hanson's The Dreadful Judgement (front matter).
• Leasor, James (1961,2011). The Plague and the Fire.
• Morgan, Kenneth O. (2000).Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: Oxford.
• Pepys, Samuel (1995). Robert Latham and William Matthews (eds.), ed. The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Vol. 7. London: Harper
• First published between 1970 and 1983,by Bell & Hyman, London. Quotations from and details involving Pepys are taken
from this standard, and copyright, edition. All web versions of the diaries are based on public domain 19th century editions
and unfortunately contain many errors, as the shorthand in which Pepys' diaries were originally written was not accurately
transcribed until the pioneering work of Latham and Matthews.
• Porter, Roy (1994). London: A Social History. Cambridge: Harvard.
• Reddaway, T. F. (1940). The Rebuilding of London after the Great Fire. London: Jonathan Cape.
• Transport in London From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• T&E (2003),Congestion Pricing in London, A European Perspective, European Federation for Transport and Environment
• London Congestion Pricing Implications for Other Cities 24 November 2011 by Todd Litman Victoria Transport Policy Institute
• Travel in London TfL. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
• Martin, Andrew. Underground, Overground a Passenger's History of the Tube. London: Profile.
• Transport for London (2011). Casualties in Greater London during 2009 and 2010
• Department for Transport, central government department overseeing the national railway network