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Sensation and Perception

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Sensation and perception
Sensation and perception
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Sensation and Perception

  1. 1. Sensation and Perception Group 3
  2. 2. - Is the process of accepting the stimulus by the sense.
  3. 3. Stimulus - is any form of energy that can cause awareness or change to the consciousness (light waves, sound waves, temperature, chemical state – liquid, solid, gaseous, etc.). - These stimuli are then modified and accepted by the accessory structures (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, etc.)
  4. 4. Receptors - are specialized cells responsible for detecting specific type of energy as a result of transduction. - Transduction is the process of changing the stimulus sense into energy for neural activity.
  5. 5. Psychophysics - is the relationship between the physical and psychological environment. It connects the external and internal world of an individual. Psychophysics aims to examine the sensitivity of the individual to various stimuli. Then it determines the psychological perception on the stimulus.
  6. 6. Absolute Threshold is the least quality and quantity of a stimulus that can be sensed and perceived consequently. It is the smallest intensity of energy that can be perceived 50% of the time. SENSES ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD Light Sees a candlelight 30 miles away on a clear, dark night Sound Hears the tick of a watch 20 feet away under silent situation. Touch Feels wing of a fl 1 cm. away from the cheek Taste Tastes the sweetness of one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water. Smell Smells the scent of one drop of perfume diffused in a 3-room apartment
  7. 7. Difference threshold or Just Noticeable Difference (JND) is the minimum difference in intensity between two small stimuli when caused by a smallest change. It does not only determine the presence or absence of stimulus but also detect whether the two small stimuli are different or the same.
  8. 8. Rods - Allow humans to see in black, white, and shades of gray in dim light - Mostly in the periphery - Take 20 – 30 minutes to fully adapt to darkness Cones - Enable humans to see color and fine detail in adequate light, but that do not function in dim light - Mostly in the fovea - Adapt fully to darkness in 2 – 3 minutes
  9. 9. Hue is the fundamental color, marked by the intensity of wavelength of the light. Saturation is associated with the purity of color. There are colors that have single, more intense wavelength than other wavelengths. Brightness conforms to the total degree of all the wavelengths constituting light.
  10. 10. Coding of Frequencies The auditory system can react to various quantities of sound intensities. The greater degree of sound is produced, the more intense is the response of the neuron. The range of specific neuron in the auditory nerve is based on both frequency and intensity of the stimulus. The difference in frequency can be explained by place theory and volley theory.
  11. 11. Frequency Theory (Frequency Matching: Volley Theory) William Rutherford pioneered the frequency theory on pitch discrimination. The membrane vibrates faster if the tone is high. This causes a greater number of neurons to send the information faster into auditory nerve at a particular time. Pitch depends on how fast the stimulus is sent to the brain by its frequency per second.
  12. 12. - Sensations arising from the skin — such as touch, pressure, cold, warmth, and pain — and from the muscles, tendons, and joints — such as the position of the limbs and pain — are known as somatic sensations. - All somatic sensations start with the excitation of sensory receptors located in the appropriate tissue — skin, muscle, joints etc.
  13. 13. Gustation - The sensation of taste Five basic tastes - Sweet - Sour - Salty - Bitter
  14. 14. - Olfaction or the sense of smell is somehow considered to be one of the lower senses. - Odors of gaseous state are senses in the upper part of the nose. Molecules enter through the nostrils (Opening) or from the back of the mouth (oral cavity) into the nasal cavity. Hence, olfaction is a dual sense; it can smell internally (oral cavity) and externally (nasal cavity).
  15. 15. Proprioception from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own," and perception — is one of the human senses. There are between nine and 21 in all, depending on which sense researcher you ask. Rather than sensing external reality, Proprioception is the sense of the orientation of one's limbs in space.
  16. 16. a. Vestibular Sense (balance) -the sensations of body rotation and of gravitation and movement) b. Kinesthesia (posture and movement) -is the perception of body movements. It involves being able to detect changes in body position and movements without relying on information from the five senses.
  17. 17. -The process by which sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by the brain
  18. 18. - Stimulus is recognized by the sense organ – resulting to sensation. - Perception interprets meaningful experiences in totality. The meanings on how the brain organized previous and present knowledge or information are obtained.
  19. 19. Grouping - is when certain elements or objects are put together forming a whole pattern according to the following principles: a. Proximity b. Similarity c. Continuity d. Closure e. Figure and Ground
  20. 20. a. Proximity Proximity occurs when elements are placed close together. They tend to be perceived as a group.
  21. 21. b. Similarity Similarity occurs when objects look similar to one another. People often perceive them as a group or pattern.
  22. 22. c. Continuity Continuation occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object.
  23. 23. d. Closure Closure occurs when an object is incomplete or a space is not completely enclosed. If enough of the shape is indicated, people perceive the whole by filling in the missing information.
  24. 24. C. Figure and Ground Figure ground perception is the tendency to discriminate between target and background stimuli. The stimulus we perceive as being the target is referred to as the figure.
  25. 25. Constancy Constancy is the capacity to perceive stable properties belonging to objects even if there are changes in their features. a. Size Constancy b. Shape Constancy c. Texture Constancy d. Color Constancy e. Brightness Constancy
  26. 26. a. Size Constancy Size constancy refers to our ability to see objects as maintaining the same size even when our distance from them makes things appear larger or smaller.
  27. 27. b. Shape Constancy Shape constancy is the tendency to perceive the shape of a rigid object as constant despite differences in the viewing angle.
  28. 28. c. Texture Constancy Texture constancy reveals the true nature or property of an object. If the object is closer or nearer, the details or features will be visualized. If the same object is seen farther, it will look smoother and the details cannot be seen.
  29. 29. d. Color Constancy Color Constancy of the same object can vary in accordance with light illumination. The lightning of an object can appear different but its true color remains the same. A bright lightning on a hue will make the colors appeal lighter and less lightning will make the colors appear darker.
  30. 30. e. Brightness Constancy Brightness constancy refers to our ability to recognize that color remains the same regardless of how it looks under different levels of light.

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