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SMEs
in global value chains
SMEs typically account for a relatively
small share of countries’ exports...
Trade policies ...
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Denmark Finland Norway Sweden
direct, own exports of large firms
indirect, supplied by others
indi...
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SMEs
in global value chains
Services form a substantive share of the upstream contribution
of SMEs to the export competi...
SMEs provide
upstream
inputs to
other firms
Direct exports,
54% of total SMEs exports
Border
Indirect
exports via other SM...
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SMEs
in global value chains
… meaning that SMEs are much more integrated into
GVCs and exposed to foreign markets than c...
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Nordic countries in Global Value Chains, January 2017

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Global Value Chains play an important role for small open economies like the Nordic Countries. See how, in the Nordic countries, different types of firms including SMEs (dependent and independent), large enterprises, foreign and domestically owned enterprises, and trading and non-trading companies, engage in GVCs and help shape Nordic countries’ roles in GVCs. For the full story, visit: www.oecd.org/std/its/enterprises-in-global-value-chains.htm

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Nordic countries in Global Value Chains, January 2017

  1. 1. 1 SMEs in global value chains SMEs typically account for a relatively small share of countries’ exports... Trade policies are often focused on improving competitiveness of exporting firms, which are usually large enterprises. Even though 99.8% of enterprises are Small and Medium sized (SMEs), these firms account for only one third of exports. This is a reflection of the relatively higher costs of engaging in exports for SMEs as compared to larger enterprises. 0% 20% 40% 60% 30% 50% 10% 80% 100% 70% 90% Denmark Finland Norway Sweden SMEs % of total direct exports, selected Nordic counties, 2013
  2. 2. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Denmark Finland Norway Sweden direct, own exports of large firms indirect, supplied by others indirect, supplied by SMEs 2 One-third of every dollar of GDP that is created by exports of large firms reflects the value of goods and services provided by SMEs that supply these exporting enterprises. Therefore, policies that target improved efficiency in the production process of these SMEs (that do not export themselves) can also help drive export success. SMEs in global value chains …but SMEs do contribute to the export competitiveness of larger, exporting firms by supplying them with inputs. Exports of large firms decomposed into origin of domestic value-added % 2013 – total economy
  3. 3. 3 SMEs in global value chains Services form a substantive share of the upstream contribution of SMEs to the export competitiveness of larger firms. A large part of the upstream contribution of SMEs to exporting enterprises involves services, including the inputs supplied to capital-intensive manufacturing industries. For example, 22% of the value of exports by manufacturing firms in Sweden reflects the value of inputs produced and supplied by SMEs active in the services sector.0% 10% 20% 30% 15% 25% 5% Denmark Finland Norway Sweden SMEs’ services VA embodied in manufacturing exports of large firms, 2013
  4. 4. SMEs provide upstream inputs to other firms Direct exports, 54% of total SMEs exports Border Indirect exports via other SMEs, 18% of total SMEs exports Indirect exports via large firms, 28% of total SMEs exports SMEs Other SMEs Large firms 4 SMEs in global value chains As indirect suppliers to other firms, the contribution of SMEs to overall exports is nearly twice as high as official figures suggest... For example, around half (54%) of SMEs’ exports in value added terms is exported directly to foreign markets, but 18% reflects indirect exports through other SMEs and another 28% reflects exports via large firms SMEs’ integration in GVCs, Nordic countries
  5. 5. 5 SMEs in global value chains … meaning that SMEs are much more integrated into GVCs and exposed to foreign markets than can be observed in traditional trade statistics. The indirect exposure to foreign markets is especially important for independent SMEs (i.e. SMEs that are not part of a larger enterprise group). For example, although only 5% of the total value added by independent micro-SMEs (SMEs with less than 10 employees) in Sweden is exported directly, an additional 24% of the value added they produce is exported indirectly. This means that growth or slowdowns in foreign markets may impact production (and employment) of these enterprises more than anticipated. 0% 10% 20% 30% 15% 25% 5% 35% 40% 45% IndependentSMEs DependentSMEs Largefirms IndependentSMEs DependentSMEs Largefirms IndependentSMEs DependentSMEs Largefirms IndependentSMEs DependentSMEs Largefirms Denmark Finland Three country weighted Sweden Indirect, as a supplierDirect, own exports SMEs’ integration in GVCs, Nordic countries

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