Contenu connexe


Introduction to Modernism

  2. COURSE CONTENT 2 Modern architecture  Introduction to Modernism  Chicago School & Prairie School  Expressionism & Rationalism  Futurism & Art Deco  Bauhaus & International style Late modern architecture  Googie  Brutalism  Structuralism  Metabolism Post-modern architecture  Neo-Futurism  Deconstructivism  Sustainable (Green) architecture  Current trends in architecture  The future of architecture
  4. What is Modern Architecture?  Term given to several building styles with similar characteristics.  Early 1900s and ended around the 1960s.  It was associated with an analytical approach to the function of buildings, a strictly rational use of (often new) materials, structural innovation and the elimination of ornament.  Emerged from revolutions in technology, engineering, and building materials, and from a desire to break away from historical architectural styles and to invent something that was purely functional and new.  Modern architecture is a style of building that emphasizes function and a streamlined form over ornamentation. 4
  5.  The debut of new materials and techniques inspired architects to break away from the neoclassical and eclectic styles.  In support of this break away movement, architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc urged in his book “Entretiens sur L'Architecture” (1872), “Use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, and in that way, we can inaugurate a new architecture.”  The birth of modernism came with the thought of Louis Henri Sullivan that “form should follow function”. 5 The origin of Modern Architecture Louis Henri Sullivan Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
  6.  Social and political revolutions such as industrialization and urbanization.  Technological and Engineering advancements such as structural steel, reinforced concrete, sheet glass, and curtainwall.  Reaction against eclecticism and the lavish stylistic excesses of Victorian Era, Art Nouveau, Baroque, and so on. 6 The origin … cont.
  7. 7  After the first World War, a prolonged struggle began between architects who favored the more traditional styles of neo- classicism and the Beaux-Arts architecture style, and the modernists, led by Le Corbusier and Robert Mallet-Stevens in France, Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in Germany, and Konstantin Melnikov in the new Soviet Union, who wanted only pure forms and the elimination of any decoration. The origin … cont.
  8. Early examples of Modern Architecture in Europe 8 Crystal Palace (London), Joseph Paxton, completed in 1851
  9. 9 In Germany Deutscher Werkbund  German association of artists, architects, designers and industrialists  Organization founded in 1907 in Munich  Important event in the development of modern architecture.  To improve the competence of German companies in global markets.  Instigation of Hermann Muthesius (writer)  Not really an artistic movement  To integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass production techniques  To compete with England and United States Early examples … cont.
  10. 10 AEG Turbine Factory, Berlin - 1909 Peter Behrens Werkbund Theatre, Cologne1914 Henry van de Velde Early examples … cont.
  11. 11 Fagus Shoe Factory, Germany - 1911 Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer Early examples … cont.
  12. 12 The first house built of reinforced concrete, designed by François Coignet (1853) in Saint-Denis near Paris Eiffel Tower, Gustave Eiffel, constructed from 1887 to 1889 French industrialist François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete, that is, concrete strengthened with iron bars, as a technique for constructing buildings. Early examples … cont.
  13. 13 Le Corbusier's Functionalist Plan for a Utopian "Radiant City" Early examples … cont.
  14. 14 Early examples … cont. in the US  At the end of the 19th century, the first skyscrapers began to appear in the United States.  They were a response to the shortage of land and high cost of real estate in the center of the fast-growing American cities, and the availability of new technologies, including fireproof steel frames and improvements in the safety elevator invented by Elisha Otis in 1852. Wainwright Building (St. Louis, Missouri), Louis Sullivan, 1891
  15. 15 Home Insurance Building (Chicago), William Le Baron Jenney, started in 1884 and Completed in1885  The Great Chicago Fire in 1871 has forced the city to abandon timber as a structural element and adopted the use of structural steel frames.  Home Insurance Building became the fist tall bldg. to be supported entirely by structural steel frame. Early examples … cont.
  16. Characteristics of Modern Architecture  Absence of ornament  Simplified form  Usually involves sharp, clean lines  Prioritizes function over form Guggenheim museum, Frank Lloyd Wright Villa Savoye - Le Corbusier 16
  17. Characteristics … cont.  Low and horizontal planes  Broad roof overhangs  Steel frame  Use of modern materials  Use of traditional materials in new ways  Plenty of glass that allows for lots of natural light  Building structures were stronger, lighter, and taller  Express the spirit of a new age.  Aesthetics of modern architects differed radically. 17 Barcelona Pavilion, Mies van der Rohe