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Importance of Mobile Learning
Uses of Mobile Technology
Mobile Learning in High School Biology
Mobile Collaborative Learning
Literature Review (Concerns and Trends)
Mobile Learning Frameworks
Learning should be based on ones natural interest and
motivation to learn which should be supported in the
classroom (McDevitt and Ormrod, 2013).
Piaget (1959) supported active learning through the
construction of ones own knowledge.
Vygotsky (1978) put emphasis on the role of social interaction
"Our students have changed radically. Today's students are no longer the people our
educational system was designed to teach" (Prensky, 2001).
Phones, computers and other media devices can now fit our pockets with the ability to
connect us to a variety of information sources and enable communication nearly
everywhere we go” (Naismith, Sharples, and Lonsdale, 2004, p. 2).
It comes as no surprise that people would look for ways to integrate mobile computing
into e-learning to make courses more accessible and portable (Corbeil & ValdesCorbeil, 2007).
Younger and older students especially from grades 5-12 are not interested in biology.
Educators should focus ways to improve their interest using mobile learning devices to
engage them to learn (Prokop et al., 2007) .
Collaboration using mobile technology was rated by IBM c-suite studies (2012) in their
latest global CEO study as the number one trait CEO’s are seeking in new employees.
Technology is moving at a faster pace than research, as such mobile learning research is
still in the relatively early stages (Chen & Denoyelles, 2013)
Mobile Learning is any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed
predetermined location,- learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies (O’Malley et
Mobile learning should be restricted to learning on devices which a lady can carry in her handbag
or a gentleman can carry in his pocket (Keegan, 2005).
The exploitation of ubiquitous handheld hardware, wireless networking and mobile telephony to
enhance and extend the reach of teaching and learning (MoLeNet, 2007).
Learning which requires the use mobile devices which are personal
(PDAs/palmtops/handhelds, smartphones), easy to use and which people can carry everywhere
with them (Taxler, 2009).
Caballe, Xhafa, and Barolli (2010) considered mobile learning as the next phase of online learning
with the exception of it being on a mobile device.
technology in the
Finding information Peters (2010) studied the use of cellphones in finding information is “just in time, just enough,
and just for me” in the classroom.
Cellphones, tablets and
Walsh (2010) investigated the use of QR codes in finding information in the library
Providing Feedback Kinash, Shelly, Kordyban and Hives (2012), Mendez and Slisko (2013) used Socrative to get
feedback from students.
Crossgrove, K., & Curran, K. L. (2008) used clickers in biology courses to get student opinion,
learning, and long-term retention of course material
Cellphones, laptops and
Learn new things
Prokop et al (2007) used mobile devices to engage students to learn biology
Fletcher, J. D., Tobias, S., & Wisher, R. A. (2007) use for blogging and communication.
Evernote, Google docs,
Zoho, Flickr, phone
Fletcher, J. D., Tobias, S., & Wisher, R. A. (2007) using blogs
Kindle cloud device,
Baya'a, N. N., & W., D. (2009). Learning Mathematics in an Authentic Mobile Environment
Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Traxler, J. (Eds.). (2005)
Corlett, D., Sharples, M., Bull, S., & Chan, T. (2005).
Cortez et al. (2004) used a mobile computer to support collaborative learning.
Grosseck (2009) study
Edmodo, Google docs,
Prensky (2005) suggested that mobile devices can support learning processes
listening, observing, imitating, questioning, reflecting, trying, estimating, predi
cting, speculating, and practicing.
According to Rau, Gao, and Wu (2008) two factors impact
high school student learning: Motivation, Pressure.
Stark (2012) investigated the use of Apps for touch-pad
devices for learning cell biology in high school. Results
showed that the use of the devices hold promise for guiding
and supporting learning.
Annetta, Minogue, Holmes, & Cheng (2009) used games to
teach genetics. Participants’ level of engagement while
interracting with the game increased.
Some studies focused on the use of mobile devices in the
Laboratory ( Penn State University)
Mostly educators have raised concerns about mobile learning.
Most of the research addressed concerns and provided solutions or suggestions.
Georgiev, T., Georgieva, E., & Smrikarov, A. (2004) reviewed that cellphones had
low memory capacity and low data transfer rates, and tablets and notebook
computers were expensive.
Celano and Neuman (2010) reported that children from low income homes in K-12
learning environments did not have access to mobile technology or have a hard
time accessing it.
Lenhart, A. (2011) suggest that mobile devices are a distraction in the classroom
and should be banned.
Small screen sizes, Internet access, heavy weight, short battery life, content and
software application limitations, including a lack of built-in functions, the difficulty
of adding applications, challenges in learning how to work with a mobile
device, and differences between applications and circumstances of use, network
speed and reliability (Kukulska-Hulme (2007)
Results of the 2013 Project Tomorrow statistics proved otherwise as close to
80% of students owned some form of mobile technology in spite of their
A recent study by Chen & Denoyelles (2013) found out that tablets were the
most popular devices used for academic purposes and that most students
owned smartphone that had the ability to access academic resources.
(Nielsen, L., & Webb, W. (2011) suggested educator took this as an
opportunity to find out what students interests and their world. Katy High
School in Texas are implementing the BYOD project to enhance use of
mobile devices in their classroom to foster engagement and collaboration.
Many schools are implementing mobile learning like BYOD, researchers are
looking for mobile learning opportunities in informal classroom
Vygotsky (1978) observed that students can perform at
higher intellectual levels when they worked in collaborative
conditions especially in K-12 learning environments.
Crook (2000) suggested that working with other
people, given the right conditions, was in itself motivating.
Cortez et al., (2004) found that MCSCL system provided a
highly motivating learning environment that changed
classroom dynamics and promoted collaboration between
Grosseck (2009) suggested that microblogging using learning
using systems like Twitter, Identi.ca, Tumblr, Pownce, Jaiku
and Edmodo enhanced collaboration.
The FRAME Model (Koole, 2009)
The TPACK Framework, by Matthew
Koehler and Mishra (2011)
ng-the-tpack-image/, rights free
Mobile learning typically occurs outside the classroom, with
only limited guidance from instructors (Chen and
To improve mobile learning effectiveness, students and
instructors need help adopting more effective learning and
teaching practices across content areas in my case biology –
students are taught digital citizenship and teachers get
Curriculum first, then mobile technology
Annetta, L. A., Minogue, J., Holmes, S. Y., & Cheng, M. T. (2009). Investigating the impact of video games on high school students’ engagement
and learning about genetics. Computers & Education, 53(1), 74-85.
Caballé, S., Xhafa, F., & Barolli, L. (2010). Using mobile devices to support online collaborative learning. Mobile Information Systems, 6(1), 27-47.
Chen, B. & Denoyelles, A (2013). Exploring students' mobile learning practices in higher education. EDUCAUSE review.
Cortez, C., Nussbaum, M., Santelices, R., Rodríguez, P., Zurita, G., Correa, M., & Cautivo, R. (2004). Teaching science with mobile computer
supported collaborative learning (MCSCL). In Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education, 2004. Proceedings. The 2nd IEEE
International Workshop on (pp. 67-74). IEEE.
Grosseck, G. (2009). Using microblogging for collaborative learning. Proc. the New Technology Platforms for Learning–Revisited, Budapest,
Keegan, D. (2005, October). The incorporation of mobile learning into mainstream education and training. In World Conference on Mobile Learning, Cape Town.
Learning and Skills Network (2007). MoLeNET Projects, from MoLeNET Web site: http://www.m-learning.org/case-studies/molenet, retrieved on Nove mber 26, 2013.
McDevitt, T. M and Ormrod (2013). Child Development and Education. Fifth Edition, Pearson Education Inc.
Messinger, J. (2011). m-learning: an exploration of the attitudes and perceptions of high school students versus teachers regarding the current and future use of mobile
devices for learning. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University.
O'Malley, C., Vavoula, G., Glew, J. P., Taylor, J., Sharples, M., Lefrere, P., ... & Waycott, J. (2005). Guidelines for learning/teaching/tutoring in a
Prensky, M. (2004). What can you learn from a cell phone? – almost anything! Journal of Online Education. Retrieved March 9th, 2013 from
Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2005). Towards a theory of mobile learning. Proceedings of mLearn 2005, 1(1), 1-9.
Rau, P. L. P., Gao, Q., & Wu, L. M. (2008). Using mobile communication technology in high school education: Motivation, pressure, and learning
performance. Computers & Education, 50(1), 1-22.
Traxler, J. (2009). The evolution of mobile learning. The evolution of mobile teaching and learning, 1-14.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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