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battles of Civil War• where did most of the fighting happen?
fighting 1861 – 1863• Lincoln thought one battle would defeat S & war would end.• fighting in N Virginia; N goal to capture Richmond, Confederate capital.• neither side strong enough to win; both sides too strong to be defeated.• N strategy: control Mississippi River & blockade S by ocean.• N seized islands of N & S Carolina & captured New Orleans.
fugitive slaves = “contrabands”• slaves fled to Union armies when they reached their areas.• slave owner demanded return, but union commander refused, said they were “contrabands of war.”• built fortifications, cooked, did other work.• Contraband Relief Association, Washington, DC, founded by Elizabeth Keckley, ex-slave, seamstress to Mary Todd Lincoln.
contrabands, VirginiaElizabeth Keckley, Contraband Relief Association
Corinth, Mississippi• Contraband Camp at Shiloh Battlefield, National Park.• 6,000 ex-slaves lived there.
contrabands employed by 13th Massachusetts Infantry, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation• after Antietam victory, Lincoln stated, unless rebellious states returned to Union by 1/1/1863, he would declare their slaves free.• “If I could save the Union w/o freeing any slave, I would do it. If I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it. If I could free some & leave others alone, I would also do that.”• freed only slaves in areas of rebellion, not areas Union controlled or in border states.• recruited Black soldiers for 1st time.
Gettysburg, PA, 7/1 – 7/3/1863 • 160,000 troops; 51,000 dead, wounded, missing, captured. • could not ride across field on horse, so many bodies. • Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, 11/1863, dedication of cemetery.
1864• Sherman captures Atlanta.• Lincoln wins re-election.• voters supported his new policy of unconditional surrender – no negotiated peace.• war continued.
Sherman’s march to the sea• destruction of Atlanta & RR.• 11 & 12/1864
Sherman’s march to the sea, 1864 • seize, burn, destroy everything; don’t harm civilians.• 60,000 troops. • 400,000 acres to be• to cut off Mississippi, given to freed slaves, Alabama, Georgia from 40-acre plots. rest of Confederacy.
soldiers’ daily lives• volunteers w/ little • by end, Confederate military training. troops starving.• marched w/ 50 – 60 • Confederacy considered pound packs. arming slaves near end.• disease, hunger. • “If slaves make good• 1/9 Confederates & 1/7 soldiers, our whole Union soldiers deserted. theory of slavery is Also AWOL. wrong. (Confederate• early in the war, Congressman). fraternization between battles.
surrender at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, April 9, 1865 • Lee surrendered to Grant. • Grant gave Confederate troops parole – could not be prosecuted for treason. • Jefferson Davis, Conf. President, captured• Confederate May 10. government fled Richmond, early April.
enormous death toll of war – N & S• improved weapons, but generals still relied on old military doctrine of massed infantry offensives (learned at West Point).• medical ignorance – gangrene (infected wounds) & disease (smallpox, dysentery, typhoid, pneumonia, malaria).• unprepared for health & supply needs.• Andersonville, GA – Confederate prison camp for Union soldiers. 100 died daily, summer 1864.
620,000 military deaths = 2% of population• equal to total fatalities of Revolution, War of 1812, Mexican War, Spanish-American War, WW I & II, & Korean War combined.• 1/5 white S men of military age died; 3 times rate of N men.• 2.1 million N & 880,000 S soldiers = 3 million combatants.• American Rev. – largest army was 30,000.
plans for Reconstruction• Lincoln wanted to bring seceded states back to Union asap (as soon as possible).• respect private property (except slavery).• full pardon if swear oath of allegiance.• 10% Plan – once 10% swore allegiance, could establish state government & ask to return.• Congress disagreed; Lincoln vetoed 50% plan.• Freedmen’s Bureau established 1865.
Freedmen’s Bureau, 3/1865• food, clothing, fuel to destitute.• managed abandoned lands.• could lease 40 acres abandoned or confiscated land to freed slaves or white Unionists.• 13th Amendment passed & ratified, 12/1865.• abolished slavery.
plans change – President Andrew Johnson • granted amnesty & pardons for officers. • fall 1865, 10/11 S states claimed they had met• only S Senator loyal to requirements. US, Democrat; VP ‘64. • Johnson opposed to• Reconstruction political rights for belonged to executive, freedmen. not legislative branch.• blamed planter elite.
Radical Republicans• federal govt. should remake S society, especially civil rights & suffrage for freedmen.• S states passed Black codes, 1865, to restrict freedom & keep as close to slavery as possible.• Civil Rights Bill, 1866 – citizenship & rights of citizens for Black people.• enlarged Freedmen’s Bureau to schools & courts.• Congress overrode Johnson’s veto of both.• 14th Amendment – citizenship & due process of law cannot be denied based on previous condition of servitude.
Congressional Reconstruction• 1st Reconstruction Act, 1867 – S divided into 5 military districts, under martial law.• states had to call new constitutional conventions, w/ universal manhood suffrage, ratify 14th Amendment. Then readmitted.• 7 states readmitted by 1868.• Grant (Union commander) elected president.• 15th Amendment, Black male suffrage, passed 1869, ratified 1870.
“40 acres & a mule”• economic necessity for freedom.• too radical to be implemented by Congress.• former slave owners wanted compensation for lost property (enslaved human beings).
Ku Klux Klan, 1866• threatened, whipped, m urdered Black & white Republicans in S to prevent voting.• violence in 1868 election.• KKK Act, 1871 – violent infringement of civil & political rights a federal crime.
• Mississippi, Texas, Virginia required to ratify 14th & 15th Amendments.• all states readmitted by 1870.
meanwhile, elsewhere• US purchases Alaska from Russia, 1867.
1st transcontinental RR, 1869 • Chinese workers started in California. • Irish immigrant workers started in Omaha, Nebraska. • also Black workers.