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Many people are either bilingual or
We hear different languages in media on
webpages on walls etc.
• Guarani is
spoken by % 90
of its population
BUT it is used
with friends or
poor people etc.
• Spanish is the
of the country
with its % 7 of
it is the language
Many people are either bilingual or multilingual.
• in the private domain
• on formal occasions: government,
business or with foreigners
• at schools
• at work
Edward (2004) says:
“ Schools play a central role in the socialization of the
children and embody the values of the dominant
UNESCO (2003) suggests:”
“ a careful balance needs to be made between
enabling people to use local languages in learning
and providing access to global languages of the
DO YOU AGREE??
•In the early
education in US
the use of
the language of
language of the
In 1879, in
Pennsylvania, in an
attempt to accelerate
assimilation; the use
of English was
By the end of the
became lingua franca
and the only language
tolerated in the
• In Scotland; a
hanging stick to the
ones caught speaking
Gaelic in the
• In Wales; a wooden
block hung around
neck to the ones
speaking Welsh in the
• In Ireland; hanging
sticks to the ones
speaking Irish in the
During WW I, in various Australian states the
use of other languages other than English is
What is the difference between FLT
and Bilingual Education at schools?
The goal of FLT is to learn additional language but the goals of bilingual
education is as follows (Ferguson et al., 1977):
to assimilate individuals and socialize people for full
to bring unity to multilingual society,
to enable people to communicate with the outside world
to mediate between different political & linguistic
to give equal status to languages of unequal status,
to deepen an understanding of language and culture,
As the World Bank (2004) points out:
Fifty percent of the world’s out of school children live in communities
where the language of the schooling is rarely, if ever, used at home.
This underscores the biggest challenge to achieving Education for All
(EFA): a legacy of non-productive practices that lead to low levels of
learning and high levels of dropout and repetition.
Every language reflects a unique world
view and culture mirroring the
manner in which a speech
community has resolved its
problems in dealing with the world,
and has formulated its thinking, its
system of philosophy and
understanding of the world around
it. With the death of the language,
an irreplaceable unit of our
knowledge and understanding of
human thought and world view has
been lost forever.
(Wurm 1991, 17)
A Child uses his native language only until he becomes
fluent in the target language which is most often the
language of the state. Applied generally in US:
He star ts with his native language.Language of the
Words are for
Las palabras helping.
According to Villarreal (1999),
∑ the main aim of this programme is to increase the use of
majority language in the classroom while decreasing the home
language of the minorities.
∑ to increase mastery of concepts in maths and social studies
her content areas since they are taught in home language.
Language of For To get ready for
Early exit- Bilingual 2 years % 100 Submersion
Late exit- Bilingual 6 years %40 Submersion
Even though TBE seems to stands for
building on the strengths of home
language and culture, it is also based on
the view of the superiority of majority
language and culture.
A school context in El Paso where:
Teachers speak both English & Spanish
Headmasters & Assistants speak only English
DOES THIS SEEM OKEY?
Cook & Servants speak only Spanish.
Language majority children are taught exclusively in the
language that they are trying to acquire.
A good example: ODTU
The immersion programmes may be foreign (e.g. English
immersion in Austria or Hungary) or heritage (e.g.
Gaelic or Welsh immersion in Scotland and Wales
respectively) or community reflecting new communities
settled in particular countries (e.g. French, Japanese,
Indonesian, or Mandarin immersion in Australia, or
Korean, Japanese or Russian immersion programme in
Immersion programmes serve not only to educate learners but to fulfill
other reason which is that they serve as a means of strengthening
national unity by establishing a bilingual Canadian identity !!
There are two strong reasons behind this idea, one of them is
waves of immigration to Australia, the other one is for economic
reasons based on the fact that Australians could get benefit from
its geographical closeness to Asia.
All children are required to master two languages, Spanish and Catalan,
until the end of their primary school.
• to respect language rights
of Catalan pupils and
• to integrate them by
making Catalan culture and
language their education;
In Scotland, Gaelic-
medium education is
provided to have a
fundamental role in helping
to preserve and
reinvigorate the Gaelic
Speech community in
Scotland and same is being
applied in Ireland for Irish
and in Wales for Welsh
Children start school at five through
the medium of Luxembourgish
and German is initially a subject in
the curriculum and then becomes the
medium of instruction. By the end of
Grade 6, French is introduced and
increasingly used in as the main
teaching medium. Therefore at the end
of schooling, most students have a
working knowledge of three languages
The early immersion from the start of primary
schooling or in pre- primary
The delayed models adolescent learners at
late programmes adults.
This strong form of bilingual education
occurs where language minority children use
their native, ethnic, home or heritage
language in the school as a medium of
instruction with the goal of full- bilingualism.
Children easily transfer ideas, concepts, skills, and
knowledge into the majority language.
A minority language is easily lost.
number of teachers of each language,
their qualifications and interests,
the instructional materials,
the parents’ wishes,
the community’s sociolinguistic profile
and that of the students.
Mar. 12, 2021
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Jan. 9, 2017