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Tuğba Boz
2
Many people are either bilingual or
           multilingual.
We hear different languages in media on
        webpages on walls etc.
• Guarani is
spoken by % 90
of its population
BUT it is used
with friends or
poor people etc.
•  Spanish is the
official l...
Many people are either bilingual or multilingual.




Minority                        Majority
languages                  ...
  Edward (2004) says:
 “ Schools play a central role in the socialization of the
     children and embody the values of t...
•In the early
years of
education in US
the use of
mother tongue
was tolerated;
the language of
the instruction
was the
lan...
In 1879, in
Pennsylvania, in an
attempt to accelerate
assimilation; the use
of English was
severely imposed.

By the end o...
• In Scotland; a
hanging stick to the
ones caught speaking
Gaelic in the
classroom,
• In Wales; a wooden
block hung around...
During WW I, in various Australian states the
use of other languages other than English is
banned.




                   ...
What is the difference between FLT
and Bilingual Education at schools?
    The goal of FLT is to learn additional languag...
As the World Bank (2004) points out:
 
Fifty percent of the world’s out of school children live in communities
where the l...
Every language reflects a unique world
          view and culture mirroring the
              manner in which a speech
   ...
15
A Child uses his native language only until he becomes
   fluent in the target language which is most often the
       lan...
According to Villarreal (1999),
∑ the main aim of this programme is to increase the use of

  majority language in the cla...
18
Even though TBE seems to stands for
        building on the strengths of home
    language and culture, it is also based o...
Language majority children are taught exclusively in the
          language that they are trying to acquire.
             ...
Immersion programmes serve not only to educate learners but to fulfill 
other reason which is that they serve as a means o...
 There are two strong reasons behind this idea, one of them is
waves of immigration to Australia, the other one is for ec...
All children are required to master two languages, Spanish and Catalan,
until the end of their primary school.


• to resp...
In Scotland, Gaelic-
medium education is
provided to have a
fundamental role in helping
to preserve and
reinvigorate the G...
Children start school at five through
the medium of Luxembourgish
and German is initially a subject in
the curriculum and ...
The early immersion   from the start of primary
                      schooling or in pre- primary
                      e...
This strong form of bilingual education
occurs where language minority children use
their native, ethnic, home or heritage...
 Children easily transfer ideas, concepts, skills, and
  knowledge into the majority language.
 A minority language is e...
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Opportunities and Challenges in the Multilingual and Multicultural Learning Space: Principles and Practices by Dr Kevin Haines
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Multilingual education

  1. 1. Tuğba Boz
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. Many people are either bilingual or multilingual.
  4. 4. We hear different languages in media on webpages on walls etc.
  5. 5. • Guarani is spoken by % 90 of its population BUT it is used with friends or poor people etc. • Spanish is the official language of the country with its % 7 of speakers BUT spoken in government and it is the language of instruction.
  6. 6. Many people are either bilingual or multilingual. Minority Majority languages languages • in the private domain • on formal occasions: government, business or with foreigners • at schools • at work 6
  7. 7.  Edward (2004) says: “ Schools play a central role in the socialization of the children and embody the values of the dominant group.”  UNESCO (2003) suggests:” “ a careful balance needs to be made between enabling people to use local languages in learning and providing access to global languages of the communication.” DO YOU AGREE?? 7
  8. 8. •In the early years of education in US the use of mother tongue was tolerated; the language of the instruction was the language of the community. 8
  9. 9. In 1879, in Pennsylvania, in an attempt to accelerate assimilation; the use of English was severely imposed. By the end of the century, English became lingua franca and the only language tolerated in the classrooms. 9
  10. 10. • In Scotland; a hanging stick to the ones caught speaking Gaelic in the classroom, • In Wales; a wooden block hung around neck to the ones speaking Welsh in the classroom, • In Ireland; hanging sticks to the ones speaking Irish in the classroom. 10
  11. 11. During WW I, in various Australian states the use of other languages other than English is banned. 11
  12. 12. What is the difference between FLT and Bilingual Education at schools?  The goal of FLT is to learn additional language but the goals of bilingual education is as follows (Ferguson et al., 1977):  to assimilate individuals and socialize people for full participation,  to bring unity to multilingual society,  to enable people to communicate with the outside world  to mediate between different political & linguistic communities,  to give equal status to languages of unequal status,  to deepen an understanding of language and culture, 12
  13. 13. As the World Bank (2004) points out:   Fifty percent of the world’s out of school children live in communities where the language of the schooling is rarely, if ever, used at home. This underscores the biggest challenge to achieving Education for All (EFA): a legacy of non-productive practices that lead to low levels of learning and high levels of dropout and repetition.   13
  14. 14. Every language reflects a unique world view and culture mirroring the manner in which a speech community has resolved its problems in dealing with the world, and has formulated its thinking, its system of philosophy and understanding of the world around it. With the death of the language, an irreplaceable unit of our knowledge and understanding of human thought and world view has been lost forever. (Wurm 1991, 17) 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. A Child uses his native language only until he becomes fluent in the target language which is most often the language of the state. Applied generally in US: He star ts with his native language.Language of the state Words are for Las palabras helping. son para ayudar. 16
  17. 17. According to Villarreal (1999), ∑ the main aim of this programme is to increase the use of majority language in the classroom while decreasing the home language of the minorities. ∑ to increase mastery of concepts in maths and social studies her content areas since they are taught in home language. Language of For To get ready for Instruction Early exit- Bilingual 2 years % 100 Submersion teachers programmes Late exit- Bilingual 6 years %40 Submersion teachers programmes 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. Even though TBE seems to stands for building on the strengths of home language and culture, it is also based on the view of the superiority of majority language and culture. A school context in El Paso where: Teachers speak both English & Spanish Headmasters & Assistants speak only English DOES THIS SEEM OKEY? (majority language). Cook & Servants speak only Spanish. 19
  20. 20. Language majority children are taught exclusively in the language that they are trying to acquire. A good example: ODTU The immersion programmes may be foreign (e.g. English immersion in Austria or Hungary) or heritage (e.g. Gaelic or Welsh immersion in Scotland and Wales respectively) or community reflecting new communities settled in particular countries (e.g. French, Japanese, Indonesian, or Mandarin immersion in Australia, or Korean, Japanese or Russian immersion programme in USA) 20
  21. 21. Immersion programmes serve not only to educate learners but to fulfill  other reason which is that they serve as a means of strengthening  national unity by establishing a bilingual Canadian identity !! 21
  22. 22.  There are two strong reasons behind this idea, one of them is waves of immigration to Australia, the other one is for economic reasons based on the fact that Australians could get benefit from its geographical closeness to Asia. 22
  23. 23. All children are required to master two languages, Spanish and Catalan, until the end of their primary school. • to respect language rights of Catalan pupils and • to integrate them by making Catalan culture and language their education; 23
  24. 24. In Scotland, Gaelic- medium education is provided to have a fundamental role in helping to preserve and reinvigorate the Gaelic Speech community in Scotland and same is being applied in Ireland for Irish and in Wales for Welsh 24
  25. 25. Children start school at five through the medium of Luxembourgish and German is initially a subject in the curriculum and then becomes the medium of instruction. By the end of Grade 6, French is introduced and increasingly used in as the main teaching medium. Therefore at the end of schooling, most students have a working knowledge of three languages 25
  26. 26. The early immersion from the start of primary schooling or in pre- primary education. The delayed models adolescent learners at secondary schools. late programmes adults. 26
  27. 27. This strong form of bilingual education occurs where language minority children use their native, ethnic, home or heritage language in the school as a medium of instruction with the goal of full- bilingualism. 27
  28. 28.  Children easily transfer ideas, concepts, skills, and knowledge into the majority language.  A minority language is easily lost.  number of teachers of each language,  their qualifications and interests,  the instructional materials,  the parents’ wishes,  the community’s sociolinguistic profile and that of the students. 28
  • YashaswineeSahoo

    Mar. 12, 2021
  • pradap_iyer

    Jul. 15, 2019
  • JosephineMendoza17

    Feb. 18, 2019
  • VINEETSOOD3

    Jan. 9, 2017

multilingual education çokdilde eğitim ikidilde eğitim

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