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“Value-centered design starts a story about an ideal
interaction between an individual and an organization
and the benefits each realizes from that interaction.”
Jess McMullin, “Searching For The Center of Design,“ Boxes and Arrows
Holism Experiences, not products
Multiplicity Multiple facets of activity
Interaction Touchpoints between people and a system
Visualization Provide a graphical overview
Self Evidence Little or no explanation
Relevance Address business problems
Validity Grounded in investigation and evidence
“Visualizations don’t provide answers outright,
they foster conversations. Diagrams are
compelling artifacts that draw interest and
attention from others in the organization. They
are a means to engage others in discourse.”
1. Point of view – whose experiences? Which experiences?
2. Scope – where do you begin and end?
3. Focus – which aspects are highlighted?
4. Structure – how will you arrange elements?
5. Use – what will you do with the diagram?
1. DEFINE THE EFFORT
Five things businesses care about:
2. ALIGN TO BUSINESS GOALS
• Increase revenue
• Decrease cost
• Increase new business
• Increase existing business
• Increase shareholder value
Jared Spool: “UX means business” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEyUe4q_pOk
Dave McClure: http://500hats.typepad.com/500blogs/2007/09/startup-metrics.html
2. ALIGN TO BUSINESS GOALS
The Providence Tourism Office (PTO) would like to improve the overall experience guests have when visiting the
city, particularly holiday travelers. They already have some ideas what to do, but need to see the big picture in
order to prioritize funding and to focus on areas that will have the most impact.
First, the PTO is planning to significantly overhaul its website. The site has grown organically over the past
decade, and there are many complaints about finding information. In particular, the federated reservations
system for hotels is incomplete, outdated and hard to use.
Second, the PTO wants to offer mobile services and apps for travelers. With so many options in the mobile arena,
they are not sure where the best place to start would be.
Finally, PTO believes partnering with key service providers would improve the travel experience of visitors. PTO
already has information kiosks in tourist areas, but they are looking to integrate more with partner services.
You work for a research agency specializing in experience mapping. The PTO has hired you to investigate and
identify the most salient ways to bring the most value to visitors. They are also looking for new opportunities
previously overlooked. The insight they hope to gain will help structure a multi-year program for improvement.
Based on the scenario, address the 5 questions for getting started:
1. What is your POINT OF VIEW?
2. What is the SCOPE of the experience?
3. What will you FOCUS on?
4. How will STRUCTURE the diagram?
5. What will you USE the map for?
Time permitting, create a value chain diagram.
1. List all of the actors and entities involved
2. Create a concept diagram show the flow of value
EXERCISE 1: VALUE CHAIN (20 minutes)
Who might you want to interview?
Internal interview participants External interview participants
EXERCISE 2: INTERVIEW PARTNERS (5 MINUTES)
What themes or topics might you include in a guide for interviews
internally at the HTO and externally with travellers?
Internal interview themes External interview themes
EXERCISE 3: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (5 MINUTES)
Guideline Example 1 Example 2
Start with insights
Research cluster 1: People indicated they sometimes
hesitate and reconsider during the customer acquisition
phase because of our premium pricing model
Research cluster 2: There is a clear pain point around
deploying the solution, primarily due to lack of
necessary technical knowledge.
Use natural language
People reconsider when making a purchase because
they may be nervous or anxious about the high cost
Users struggle to install the software for the first time
if they don’t have the required technical skills
Keep voice consistent
I reconsider when making a purchase because I’m
anxious and nervous about the high cost
I struggle to install the software for the first time
because I don’t have the necessary technical skills.
Omit pronouns and
Reconsider when making purchase due to anxiousness
and nervousness over high cost
Struggle to install software for first time without the
necessary technical skills.
Focus on the root
Feel anxious and nervous when making purchase due to
high cost, and then reconsider
Struggle during installation due to lack of necessary
Feel anxious during purchase about cost, and then
Struggle due to lack technical skills during installation
“” Struggle due to lack of tech skills during installation
Rely on context of
anxious about cost
(In the cell for the column for “purchase” and row for
(In the cell of a column for “purchase” and a row for
Struggle due to lack of tech skills
Lack tech skills
(assuming a column for “installation” and a row for
• Actions: Start each with a verb,
• Thoughts: Phrase as a question
• Feelings: Use adjectives
• Pain points: start each with a gerund
• Touchpoints: Use nouns
• Opportunities: Begin with verb of change, e.g.,
increase the ease of installation
• Fit to space
• Font selection
• Color coding
• Icons and shapes
EXERCISE 4: ILLUSTRATE (45 MINUTES)
In groups, create a draft diagram for the PTO scenario
Use the following phases
• Plan Trip
• Return Home
• Visit Again
Include the following aspects
• Pain points
• Channels / Touchpoints
• Role + Activity
Scientific American Supplement, No. 530, February 27, 1886
“A NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS”
This apparatus consists of a box containing a camera, A, and a frame, C,
containing the desired number of plates, each held in a small frame of black
Bristol board. The camera contains a mirror, M, which pivots upon an axis and is
maneuvered by the extreme bottom, B. This mirror stops at an angle of 45°, and
sends the image coming from the objective to the horizontal plate, D, at the
upper part of the camera. The image thus reflected is righted upon this plate.
As the objective is of short focus, every object situated beyond a distance of three
yards from the apparatus is in focus. In exceptional cases, where the operator
might be nearer the object to be photographed, the focusing would be done by
means of the rack of the objective. The latter can also slide up and down, so that
the apparatus need not be inclined when buildings or high trees are being
photographed. The door, E, performs the role of a shade. When the apparatus
has been fixed upon its tripod and properly directed, all the operator has to do is
to close the door, P, and raise the mirror, M, by turning the button, B, and then
expose the plate. The sensitized plates are introduced into the apparatus through
the door, I, and are always brought automatically to the focus of the objective
through the pressure of the springs, R. The shutter of the frame, B, opens
through a hook, H, with in the pocket, N. After exposure, each plate is lifted by
means of the extractor, K, into the pocket, whence it is taken by hand and
introduced through a slit, S, behind the springs, R, and the other plates that the
frame contains. All these operations are performed in the interior of the pocket,
N, through the impermeable, triple fabric of which no light can enter.
An automatic marker shows the number of plates exposed. When the operations
are finished, the objective is put back in the interior of the camera, the doors, P
and E, are closed, and the pocket is rolled up. The apparatus is thus hermetically
closed, and, containing all the accessories, forms one of the most practical of
systems for the itinerant photographer.—La Nature.
[EASTMAN] recognized that his roll film could
lead to a revolution if he focused on the
experience he wanted to deliver, an
experience captured in his advertising slogan,
“You press the button, we do the rest.”
Solutions that merely please, serve, meet
the needs/specs, or delight customers don’t
go far enough. They represent yesterday’s
marketing and design paradigms. They
misunderstand innovation’s real impact –
Kodak = Camera > Photographers
eBay = Trading Platform > Entrepreneurs
Google = Search Engine > Expert Researchers
Segway = New Vehicle > Weirdo on Scooter
Super Size = Value for Money > Unhealthy person
THE ASK & DIAGRAMS
1. At each phase ask: Who do we want our
customers to become?
2. Use metaphors. These are often experts
3. Reframe solutions to transform users
1. In groups, discuss who you want your customer to become.
2. Together, brainstorm ideas that will transform you customers.
If we want our customer to become <the ask>,
then they need these <solutions, services>
EXERCISE 5: ALIGN
What are some benefits of alignment diagrams?
EXERCISE 7: ADVANTAGES (5 MINS)
• Longevity of information
• Common big picture
• Continuity in vision
• Diagnosis of problems
• Indicate where to create value
• Opportunities for growth
not product research
I was in our target group. Just ask me. You’ve internalized processes and may not express them freely.
Also, different people have different ways of doing things. We want
to look beyond what we already know.
We regularly listen to customers Listening to customers is good, but it is not enough. We also need
alignment throughout the organization. Also remember the 90-9-1
rule: Only 1% of people will send such an email.
We already do market research. Market research and Diagramming are different. Marketing
understands what people will buy so we can sell more. This work
seeks to uncover fundamental needs and activities for innovation.
We don’t have time or budget Alignment diagrams needn’t be expensive or time consuming. For
the cost of a usability test or marketing survey, we can conduct an
A focus group would be easier By taking people out of their contexts, much of the situational and
environmental cues are missing. People also don’t remember
exactly how they work without the actual tool or artefact present.
Focus groups sometimes lead to group opinions.
KNOW THE OBJECTIONS
• Key elements of an elevator pitch
1. What problem are your solving?
2. What is the value proposition?
• Characteristics of elevator pitch
• Be succinct
• Easy to understand
• Greed inducing
• Irrefutable – leave no questions
CREATE A PITCH
You’d like to grow into a new markets to move beyond
maintaining your current offerings. You’ll have better
understand the needs and behaviour of this segment quickly.
Alignment Diagrams reflect a modern technique that more
and more companies are using to improve their customer
understanding, such as Intel and Microsoft.
By visually aligning various aspects of customer behaviour
with business processes, you’ll be better able to understand
how to create, deliver and capture value. It will also give you
insight in to creating innovative products and services that
outperform competitors and help business growth.
With relatively little investment, alignment diagramming
provides you with the strategic insight you need to keep up in
today’s fast changing marketplaces.
Men are moved by two
fear and self interest
- Napoleon Bonaparte
• Mental Models, Indi Young
• ‘Locating Value with Alignment
Diagrams,’ James Kalbach & Paul Kahn
– ‘customer journey mapping’
– ‘mental models’
– ‘service blueprint’
On Business Relevance
• Game Changer, A.G Lafley & Ram
• Subject to Change, Peter Merholz et al.
• Business Model Generation, Alexander
• Harvard Business Review articles
• Forrester Reports
• Find case studies
• Find out what competitors are doing
• Do a small study ‘under the wire’
• Demonstrate the value first hand
• Find champion in management
1. Know the benefits
2. Know the objections
3. Prepare arguments
4. Read the literature
5. Pitch and convince